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CONCEPT OF AIR POLLUTION IN PETROLEUM INDUSTRY
Sources of Air Pollution in Oil Field
Classification of Pollutants
Types of Pollutants
Harmful Effects of Air Pollution
Precautionary Measures to Check Air Pollution
MADAN LAL KHATRI
K16PG55(3rd year student)
Petroleum and Natural Gas Dept: Muet SZAB
Campus Khairpur mir’s
1.0)Introduction to Air pollution:
Any undesirable change in the
1)Air, 2)soil and 3)water
which have an adversely effects on the human and
environment is known as pollution.
1.2) Air Pollution
Air pollution can be defined as the presence of toxic chemicals or
compounds (including those of biological origin) in the air, at levels that
pose a health risk.
1.3) Air Pollution
The presence of one or more contaminants such as dust fumes, gas,
mist, odor, smoke or vapor in such quantities that are injurious to human,
plant or animal life or to property.
1.4)Requisites for Air Pollution:
There are 3 basic requisites to enter any air pollution problem :
1) There must be an emission.
2) After emission it must be confined to restricted volume of air.
3)The polluted air must interfere with the physical, mental and social.
well being of people.
1.5) SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION IN OIL FIELD:
The various sources of air contamination which are encountered in oil
fields are :
1. The exhaust of derrick engines and generators, pump
engines, compressors etc.
2. Pungent fumes, odours and dust from cementing units and
from mud banks.
3. Evaporation of crude oil from oil pits in the form of vapors
during production testing .
4. Discharge of natural gas directly to the
atmosphere during production testing.
5. Burning of the oil from effluent pit.
6. Flaring of natural gas to the atmosphere.
7. Burning of gas and effluent water from the flare pit in the air
directly from various oil terminals.
8. Presence of smoke , Fog, Mist & wind in which S.P.M. remains
suspended near the earth surface.
9. Oxidation of various pollutants .
10. Depletion of the natural resources & decrease in forest
areas disturbing the eco system.
11. The weather & orography of oil fields.
12. Discharge of associated low pressure natural gas to the
13. Increase in surrounding temp. due to flare.
14. Glare effect of flare which adversely effect the nearby
1.6) On shore Air Pollution
The main sources of continuous or non –continuous air emissions resulting from
onshore activities include:
1) Combustion sources from power & heat generation.
2)Use of compressors, pumps & engines (boilers, turbines etc.)
3)Flaring & Venting of HCs.
1.6.1) The principal pollutants from these air emission sources :
1. Nitrogen Oxides
2. Sulfur Oxides
3. Carbon monoxide & Particulate
4. Additional Pollutants-- Hydrogen Sulfide-Volatile Organic Compounds.
- Benzene(C6H6)- Toluene(C6H8), Xylenes (C8H10) etc.
1.6.2) What are those alternative options?
Alternative options may include:
1. Gas utilization for on- site energy needs
2. Export of the gas to a neighboring facility or to the market
3. Gas injection for reservoir pressure maintenance.
4. Enhanced recovery using gas lift. if none of these alternatives
is feasible, continuous improvement in flaring technology
should be implemented.
1.6.3) Fugitive Emissions:
Fugitive emissions at onshore facility may be associated
with vents, leaking pipes & tubings, valves, connections,
pump seals, compressor seals, pressure relief valves, tanks or
open pits and HC loading & unloading operations.
To control fugitive emissions:
1. good design and maintenance of facility is must.
2. The selection of valves, fittings, seals etc should be maintained
for the same.
3. Leak detection facility should be there.
4. Vapor control units should be installed for HC loading and
5. Use of open vents in tank roofs should be avoided by installing
pressure relief valves.
1.7)Off shore Air Pollution
The main sources of air emissions resulting from offshore
1. Combustion sources from power and heat generation
2. Use of Compressors, pumps, boilers, turbines etc.
3. Flaring & venting of HCs.
4. Fugitive emissions.
1.7) Harmful Effects of Air Pollution:
Polluted air can cause:
1. sickness or death that lead to human & economic losses.
2. Reduce visibility
3. Cause unpleasant odors ( like from sulfur compounds).
4. Can damage agricultural crops, plants, livestock ( Fluorine
and arsenic settle on or react with animal fodder).
Consuming such fodder result into loss of strength, weight and
1.2) Precautionary Measures to check Air Pollution
1. By Using Absorbers
2. Application of Vapour Recovery System
3. Standardization of the height of the flare stacks.
4. By introduction of diluters
5. Air regulation control during the combustion of natural gas
6. Pre burning treatment to the various effluents before discharging to
7. Replacement of the damages of greenery near installations, work centers
8. Control of flare light by virtue of which majority of birds & insects
have been migrated.
9. Good design of equipments.