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Air pollution

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pollution creates in petroluem industry their causes and control, prevention.

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Air pollution

  2. 2. Contents  Introduction  Sources of Air Pollution in Oil Field  Classification of Pollutants  Types of Pollutants  Harmful Effects of Air Pollution  Precautionary Measures to Check Air Pollution 2
  3. 3. Presented by:: MADAN LAL KHATRI K16PG55(3rd year student) Petroleum and Natural Gas Dept: Muet SZAB Campus Khairpur mir’s 3
  4. 4. 1.0)Introduction to Air pollution:  1.1) Pollution DEFINITION Any undesirable change in the 1)Air, 2)soil and 3)water which have an adversely effects on the human and environment is known as pollution.  1.2) Air Pollution DEFINITION Air pollution can be defined as the presence of toxic chemicals or compounds (including those of biological origin) in the air, at levels that pose a health risk. 4
  5. 5. 1.0) Contn…  1.3) Air Pollution The presence of one or more contaminants such as dust fumes, gas, mist, odor, smoke or vapor in such quantities that are injurious to human, plant or animal life or to property.  1.4)Requisites for Air Pollution: There are 3 basic requisites to enter any air pollution problem : 1) There must be an emission. 2) After emission it must be confined to restricted volume of air. 3)The polluted air must interfere with the physical, mental and social. well being of people. 5
  6. 6. 1.0) Contn…  1.5) SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION IN OIL FIELD:  The various sources of air contamination which are encountered in oil fields are : 1. The exhaust of derrick engines and generators, pump engines, compressors etc. 2. Pungent fumes, odours and dust from cementing units and from mud banks. 3. Evaporation of crude oil from oil pits in the form of vapors during production testing . 6
  7. 7. 1.0) Contn… 1.5) cont….. 4. Discharge of natural gas directly to the atmosphere during production testing. 5. Burning of the oil from effluent pit. 6. Flaring of natural gas to the atmosphere. 7. Burning of gas and effluent water from the flare pit in the air directly from various oil terminals. 8. Presence of smoke , Fog, Mist & wind in which S.P.M. remains suspended near the earth surface. 7
  8. 8. 1.0) Cont… 1.5) cont…. 9. Oxidation of various pollutants . 10. Depletion of the natural resources & decrease in forest areas disturbing the eco system. 11. The weather & orography of oil fields. 12. Discharge of associated low pressure natural gas to the atmosphere. 13. Increase in surrounding temp. due to flare. 14. Glare effect of flare which adversely effect the nearby vegetation. 8
  9. 9. 1.0) Cont…  1.6) On shore Air Pollution The main sources of continuous or non –continuous air emissions resulting from onshore activities include: 1) Combustion sources from power & heat generation. 2)Use of compressors, pumps & engines (boilers, turbines etc.) 3)Flaring & Venting of HCs.  1.6.1) The principal pollutants from these air emission sources :  1. Nitrogen Oxides  2. Sulfur Oxides  3. Carbon monoxide & Particulate  4. Additional Pollutants-- Hydrogen Sulfide-Volatile Organic Compounds.  - Benzene(C6H6)- Toluene(C6H8), Xylenes (C8H10) etc. 9
  10. 10. 1.0) Cont…  1.6.2) What are those alternative options? Alternative options may include: 1. Gas utilization for on- site energy needs 2. Export of the gas to a neighboring facility or to the market 3. Gas injection for reservoir pressure maintenance. 4. Enhanced recovery using gas lift. if none of these alternatives is feasible, continuous improvement in flaring technology should be implemented. 10
  11. 11. 1.0) Cont…  1.6.3) Fugitive Emissions: Fugitive emissions at onshore facility may be associated with vents, leaking pipes & tubings, valves, connections, pump seals, compressor seals, pressure relief valves, tanks or open pits and HC loading & unloading operations. 11
  12. 12. 1.0) Cont… To control fugitive emissions: 1. good design and maintenance of facility is must. 2. The selection of valves, fittings, seals etc should be maintained for the same. 3. Leak detection facility should be there. 4. Vapor control units should be installed for HC loading and unloading operations. 5. Use of open vents in tank roofs should be avoided by installing pressure relief valves. 12
  13. 13. 1.0) Cont…  1.7)Off shore Air Pollution The main sources of air emissions resulting from offshore activities include: 1. Combustion sources from power and heat generation 2. Use of Compressors, pumps, boilers, turbines etc. 3. Flaring & venting of HCs. 4. Fugitive emissions. 13
  14. 14. 1.0) Cont…  1.7) Harmful Effects of Air Pollution: Polluted air can cause: 1. sickness or death that lead to human & economic losses. 2. Reduce visibility 3. Cause unpleasant odors ( like from sulfur compounds). 4. Can damage agricultural crops, plants, livestock ( Fluorine and arsenic settle on or react with animal fodder). Consuming such fodder result into loss of strength, weight and death. 14
  15. 15. 1.2) Precautionary Measures to check Air Pollution Problems 1. By Using Absorbers 2. Application of Vapour Recovery System 3. Standardization of the height of the flare stacks. 4. By introduction of diluters 5. Air regulation control during the combustion of natural gas 6. Pre burning treatment to the various effluents before discharging to atmosphere. 7. Replacement of the damages of greenery near installations, work centers etc. 8. Control of flare light by virtue of which majority of birds & insects have been migrated. 9. Good design of equipments. 15