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Backward Compatibility Developer's Guide in Magento 2. #MM17CZ

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Presentation made for Meet Magento Prague 2017

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Backward Compatibility Developer's Guide in Magento 2. #MM17CZ

  1. 1. © 2016 Magento, Inc. Page | 1 Backward Compatibility Developer’s guide Miniailo Igor, Magento 2 Architect
  2. 2. © 2016 Magento, Inc. Page | 2
  3. 3. © 2016 Magento, Inc. Page | 3
  4. 4. © 2016 Magento, Inc. Page | 4
  5. 5. © 2016 Magento, Inc. Page | 5
  6. 6. © 2016 Magento, Inc. Page | 6
  7. 7. © 2016 Magento, Inc. Page | 7 • Magento 2 Technical Guidelines • Versioning • Backward Compatibility Development Guide
  8. 8. © 2016 Magento, Inc. Page | 8 Why does BC matter? For merchants, the process must be cost-effective, while developers want their extensions to be forward- compatible for as long as possible.
  9. 9. © 2016 Magento, Inc. Page | 9 Does Magento have a lot of bugs? Are these bugs annoying for Magento developers?
  10. 10. © 2016 Magento, Inc. Page | 10 Keep Magento backwards compatible vs. fixing its flaws?
  11. 11. © 2016 Magento, Inc. Page | 11 We MUST do BOTH
  12. 12. © 2016 Magento, Inc. Page | 12 Backward Compatible Fix *it works (most of the time), but code quality is far from good enough
  13. 13. © 2016 Magento, Inc. Page | 13 Backward compatibility (BC) policy for Magento code
  14. 14. © 2016 Magento, Inc. Page | 14 Semantic Versioning Version numbers are in the format MAJOR.MINOR.PATCH, where: – MAJOR indicates incompatible API changes – MINOR indicates backward-compatible functionality has been added – PATCH indicates backward-compatible bug fixes
  15. 15. © 2016 Magento, Inc. Page | 15 The backward compatibility policy applies to PHP code annotated with @api
  16. 16. © 2016 Magento, Inc. Page | 16 Public and Private code
  17. 17. © 2016 Magento, Inc. Page | 17 Public vs Private code Private code is not supposed to be used by third party modules, so, in most cases, its modifications will only trigger PATCH version bumps. Changes in public code always trigger MINOR or MAJOR version bumps.
  18. 18. © 2016 Magento, Inc. Page | 18 What examples of Public code Magento has? • PHP Interface (marked with @api) • PHP Class (marked with @api) • Javascript Interface (marked with @api) • Javascript Class (marked with @api) • Virtual Type (marked with @api) • URL paths • Console commands and their arguments • Less Variables & Mixins • Message queue topics and their data types • UI component declarations • Layout handles declared by modules • Events triggered by component (both static dynamic) • Schema of configuration types introduced by module • Structure of System Configuration fields used by module
  19. 19. © 2016 Magento, Inc. Page | 19 API vs SPI (Extension Points) A PHP Interface in Magento can be used several ways by the core product and extension developers. • As an API. An interface is called by PHP code. • As a Service Provider Interface (SPI). An interface can be implemented, allowing code to provide functionality to the platform. • As both. APIs and SPIs are not mutually exclusive. Therefore, we do not distinguish them separately. SPIs are annotated the same as APIs.
  20. 20. © 2016 Magento, Inc. Page | 20 Who decides whether interface/class belong to API or SPI? YOU
  21. 21. © 2016 Magento, Inc. Page | 21 Dependency Rules API If a module uses (calls) an API, it should be dependent on the MAJOR version. API dependency example { ... "require": { "magento/module-customer": "~100.0", // (>=100.0 <101.0.0) }, ... }
  22. 22. © 2016 Magento, Inc. Page | 22 Dependency Rules SPI If a module implements an API/SPI, it should be dependent on the MAJOR+MINOR version. SPI dependency example { ... "require": { "magento/module-customer": "~100.0.0", // (>=100.0.0 <100.1.0) }, ... }
  23. 23. © 2016 Magento, Inc. Page | 23 http://devdocs.magento.com/guides/v2.1/release-notes/backward- incompatible-changes-2.1.html
  24. 24. © 2016 Magento, Inc. Page | 24 What keeps us from making mistakes? To minimize this risk we have developed a tool Semantic Version Checker Tool that analyzes two code bases and determines what part of the version need updating (MAJOR, MINOR, PATCH). As part of the delivery process, we must run this tool and use the results for input to the Version Setter tool.
  25. 25. © 2016 Magento, Inc. Page | 25 Prohibited Code Changes
  26. 26. © 2016 Magento, Inc. Page | 26 • Interface/class removal • Public & protected method removal • Introduction of a method to a class or interface PHP - Prohibited Code Changes
  27. 27. © 2016 Magento, Inc. Page | 27 PHP - Prohibited Code Changes • Static function removal • Parameter addition in public methods • Parameter addition in protected methods
  28. 28. © 2016 Magento, Inc. Page | 28 PHP - Prohibited Code Changes • Method argument type modification • Modification of types of thrown exceptions (unless a new exception is a subtype of the old one) • Constructor modification
  29. 29. © 2016 Magento, Inc. Page | 29 class ExistingClass { /** * @var NewDependencyInterface $newDependency */ private $newDependency; public function __construct( OldDependencyIntreface $oldDependency, $oldRequiredConstructorParameter, $oldOptinalConstructorParameter = null, NewDependencyInterface $newDependency = null ) { ... $this>newDependency = $newDependency ?: MagentoFrameworkAppObjectManager::getInstance() ->get(NewDependencyInterface::class); ... } public function existingFunction() { // Existing functionality ... // Use $this->newDependency wherever the new dependency is needed ... } }
  30. 30. © 2016 Magento, Inc. Page | 30 The main rule is that backwards compatibility is more important than niceness and effort of the implementation.
  31. 31. © 2016 Magento, Inc. Page | 31 Do all backward compatible fixes look ugly because we are not allowed to make refactoring?
  32. 32. © 2016 Magento, Inc. Page | 32 Coupling Between Objects Reaches Its Limit with a New Dependency
  33. 33. © 2016 Magento, Inc. Page | 33 We MUST do continuous Refactoring! Backward Compatibility should not be an excuse for not doing refactoring!
  34. 34. © 2016 Magento, Inc. Page | 34 This is how Backward Compatible fix should look like
  35. 35. © 2016 Magento, Inc. Page | 35 Q & A @iminyaylo

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