Organizational justice

17 Oct 2020

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Organizational justice

  1. ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE By / MahmoudShaqria ‫شقريه‬ ‫محمد‬ ‫محمود‬
  2. Outlines • Introduction • Definition of Justice • Definition of organizational justice • Evolution of organizational justice • Types of organizational justice • Antecedents ‫سوابق‬ of perception of organizational justice • Outcomes of organizational justice • How to be a fair manager • How to implement organizational justice
  3. Introduction Justice or fairness refers to the idea that an action or decision is morally right, which may be defined according to ethics, religion, fairness, equity, or law. Justice and its execution ‫تنفيذها‬ is one of the basic and instinctive needs ‫الغريزية‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ج‬ ‫االحتي‬ of human beings. That’s why justice plays an effective and major role in studying the organizations and individuals either inside or outside of it.
  4. Justice • Justice or fairness refers to the idea that an action or decision is morally right, which may be defined according to ethics, religion, fairness, equity, or law.
  5. Organizational Justice • Organizational justice refers to employees' perception from justice and fair behaviors. • It studies that how to behave with employees so that they feel they have been treated fairly.
  6. Organizational Justice • It refers to how an employee judges the behavior of the organization and their resulting attitude and behavior that comes from this. (Greenberg ,1987 )
  7. Organizational Justice • Organizational justice mainly concentrates on the workplace’s fairness which influences numerous organizational and individual work-related factors like turnover intentions, absenteeism, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job performance, leader- member exchange, trust, leadership and job satisfaction.
  8. Evolution ‫تطور‬of Organizational Justice • The idea of organizational justice stems from Equity theory (Adams, 1963, 1965)of motivation, which posits that judgments of equity and inequity are derived from comparisons between one‘s self and others based on inputs and outcomes.
  9. • Inputs refer to what a person perceives to contribute ‫امة‬ ‫للمس‬ (e.g., knowledge and effort). • Outcomes are what an individual perceives to get out of an exchange relationship (e.g., pay and recognition). • Comparison points against which these inputs and outcomes are judged may be internal (one‘s self at an earlier time) or external (other individuals).
  10. Types of Organizational Justice • Distributive Justice • Procedural Justice ‫إجرائيه‬ • Interactional Justice ‫تفاعليه‬ • Temporal Justice ‫زمنيه‬
  11. Distributive justice • Distributive justice is the workers’ perception in the fairness of outcomes such as monetary rewards ‫فذتت‬ ‫المك‬ ‫النقديذة‬ obtained by the workers from the organization (e.g. pay raises, promotions, and selection for further studies/training) etc. • Distributive justice is related specifically to the results of decisions on distribution.
  12. Distributive justice Appropriateness of outcomes Equity: rewarding employees based on their contributions. Equality: providing each employee roughly the same compensation. Need: providing a benefit based on one’s personal requirements.
  13. Procedural Justice • Procedural justice is the perception of justice in the decision-making process. • This kind of justice is based on the perception that the reasons for the decisions taken by the management are justified ‫مبررة‬. • Procedural justice is the perception of equity regarding rules and regulations applied in the process of rewarding or punishing.
  14. Procedural Justice • Appropriateness of the allocation process. • Consistency: All employees are treated the same. • Lack of Bias: No person or group is singled out for discrimination or ill treatment. • Accuracy: Decisions are based on accurate information. • Representation of All Concerned: Appropriate stakeholders have input into a decision. • Correction: There is an appeals process or other mechanism for fixing mistakes. • Ethics: Norms of professional conduct are not violated.
  15. Interactional Justice • Interactional justice is considered as key aspect in workplace settings because of its relationship with unfair and fair Treatment • “the interpersonal treatment employees receive from decision makers and the adequacy with which the formal decision-making procedures are explained”
  16. Interactional Justice • Appropriateness of the treatment one receives from authority figures. • Interpersonal Justice: Treating an employee with dignity, courtesy, and respect. • Informational Justice: Sharing relevant information with employees.
  17. Temporal Justice • Temporal justice in an organization is concerned with “the fair distribution of time”. • Organizations must distribute work time evenly across employees irrespective of them being single or married, part time students or working full time
  18. Temporal Justice • Appropriateness of time distribution • Marital Time: Time spent with spouse and children. • Personal Time: Time spent with friends, gym, hobbies, sleep and effect of working time on personal time. • Office Time/Late Sittings: Extra time spent for work in office after office hours
  19. ANTECEDENTS OF PERCEPTION OF ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE • Employee Participation • Communication • Justice Climate
  20. EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION • It is the extent to which employees feel that they are involved in decision-making or other organizational procedures. • The opportunity or ability to participate in decision making improves an individual’s perceptions of procedural justice, even when the decision is unfavorable to the individual
  21. EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION • Higher levels of justice are perceived when employees feel that they have input in processes than when employees do not perceive that they have the opportunity to participate
  22. COMMUNICATION • Communication has been shown to be related to interpersonal and informational justice perceptions • It is important that the information provided be accurate, timely, and helpful in order for the impact on justice perceptions to be positive.
  23. COMMUNICATION The quality of communication by an organization or manager can improve justice perceptions by improving employee perceptions of manager trustworthiness and also by reducing feelings of uncertainty
  24. JUSTICE CLIMATE Perceptions of organizational justice can be influenced by others, such as co-workers and team members. Team level perceptions of justice form what is called a ‘justice climate’ which can impact individuals’ own views of justice Employees working within a team may share their perceptions with one another which can lead to a shared interpretation of the fairness of events
  25. JUSTICE CLIMATE • Individuals can “learn” justice evaluations from team members and these can lead to homogeneity of justice perceptions within teams, creating a strong justice climate. Thus, group-level perceptions of justice can be conceptualized as an antecedent to individuals’ justice perceptions.
  26. Outcomes of organizational justice • Trust • Performance • Job satisfaction and organizational commitment • Organizational citizenship behavior • Absenteeism and withdrawal • Emotional exhaustion
  27. Trust The relationship between trust and organizational justice perceptions is based on mutuality. Trust in the organization is built from the employee’s belief that current organizational decisions are fair, future organizational decisions will be fair. The continuance of employee trust in the organization and the organization continuing to meet the employee’s expectations of fairness creates the reciprocal relationship between trust and organizational justice. A positive relationship between an employee and supervisor can lead to trust in the organization.
  28. Performance Equity theory of organizational justice suggest that when people perceive injustice they seek to restore justice. One way that employees restore justice is by altering their level of job performance. Procedural justice affects performance as a result of its impact on employee attitudes. Distributive justice affects performance when efficiency and productivity are involved. Improving justice perceptions improves productivity and performance.
  29. Job satisfaction and organizational commitment Job satisfaction was found to be positively associated with overall perceptions of organizational justice such that greater perceived injustice results in lower levels of job satisfaction and greater perceptions of justice result in higher levels of job satisfaction. Additionally, organizational commitment is related to perceptions of procedural justice such that greater perceived injustice results in diminished commitment while greater perceived justice results in increases commitment to the organization.
  30. Organizational citizenship behavior Organizational citizenship behaviors are actions that employees take to support the organization that go above and beyond the scope of their job description. OCBs are related to both procedural justice and distributive justice perceptions. As organizational actions and decisions are perceived as more just, employees are more likely to engage in OCBs.
  31. Absenteeism and withdrawal Absenteeism, or non-attendance, is another outcome of perceived injustice. Failure to receive a promotion is an example of a situation in which feelings of injustice may result in an employee being absent from work without reason. When people see both their commitment to the organization and the organization’s commitment to them as high, absenteeism is diminished. Additionally, withdrawal, or leaving the organization, is a more extreme outcome stemming from the same equity theory principles. Distributive justice perceptions are most strongly related to withdrawal.
  32. Emotional exhaustion Emotional exhaustion, which related to employee health and burnout, is related to overall organizational justice perceptions. As perceptions of justice increase employee health increases and burnout decreases. Distributive, procedural, and interactional justice perceptions are able to capture state specific levels of emotional exhaustion
  33. How to Be a Fair Manager The golden rule. Treat everyone you encounter as you would like to be treated. No favorites. A manager who is fair does not play favorites. You don't give anyone all the good jobs, or all the bad jobs, just because of how you feel about them. You treat them as the unique individuals they are. Don't take advantage. When you're being fair, you don't take advantage of others based on your position as the manager. You don't treat someone unfairly just because you can and can get away with it.
  34. Model the rules and behaviors: • When you follow the rules and apply them equally to everyone, you are being fair. • Make sure you apply them to yourself as well. Your "do" must match your "tell," or people will lose trust in you. Change the rules: • If you sense that the rules are unfair to individuals or groups, cultivate the courage to change the rules. Just be sure that the reason you are changing it really is to increase fairness, not just to justify an outcome that might be better for a favorite. Make sure the new rule is applied equally for all. How to Be a Fair Manager
  35. Be honest: • Be honest with your employees. • Tell them why things are done as they are. • Tell them why a specific procedure was put in place. • Tell them about things you can't tell them, but only if there really is a reason why you can't. • When you are honest with them you are treating them equally And be honest with yourself too. • Look at why you're doing the things you are and in the way you are.
  36. Implementation of organizational justice • In general, to maintain and develop each component of organizational justice and also reduce the rate of turnover in nurses, the following steps are suggested: (A) Distributive justice: efforts should be made that benefits, bonuses, financial incentives and promotions are fairly and equitably allocated among nurses for strengthen nurses’ perceptions of distributive justice, after identifying the perception of discrimination, appropriate measures to respond the people’s material and spiritual needs should be considered. (B) Procedural justice: guidelines and procedures and decisions should be transparent. (c)Interactional justice: the decisions taken on the organization should be available for the nurses in appropriate interaction and good manner.
  37. • Given the importance of organizational justice in the explanation and prediction of staff turnover recommended adequate training courses for managers and supervisors to make them familiar with the principles of organizational justice and its applications to reduce the amount of turnover among nurses in hospitals, to be held and managers and supervisors are encouraged to use advantages of this research in interaction with nurses.