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Interstitial Cystitis
Dr. Majd Radwan Azez
Definition
 The AUA guideline defines IC/BPS
as ‘an unpleasant sensation (pain,
pressure, discomfort ) perceived to
be re...
 The International Continence Society (ICS) defines BPS
as ‘‘the complaint of suprapubic pain related to bladder
filling,...
Epidemiology
 Epidemiology studies of BPS/IC suffer
from the lack of a universally accepted
definition
 The first popula...
Etiology
 BPS/IC has a
Multifactorial etiology .
 leaky epithelium , mast
cell activation, and
neurogenic inflammation,
...
Urothelial dysfunction (GAG)
glycosaminoglycane layer
defect/inhibition of urothelial
proliferation (APF)
Signs & symptoms
 PAIN: suprapubic or pelvic
 Bladder pain that worsens
with bladder filling and is
alleviated with void...
Diagnosis
 NIDDK criteria 1987 and modified
NIDDK 1988 :
 The most successful attempt to define
a clinical useful defini...
NIDDK criteria
The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
 Inclusion criteria:
1. Hunner’s ulce...
NIDDK criteria
The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
 Exclusion criteria :
1. < 18 years
2...
NIH criteria
National Institutes of Health
Diagnostic Criteria for Interstitial Cystitis :
Category A: At least one of the...
NIH criteria
National Institutes of Health
In addition, a patient must not have any of the following conditions, symptoms,...
Cystoscopy
Cystoscopy
1. The classic picture is elusive ulcers with
apperance of patches of red mucosa first
described by Hunner 1914...
Cystoscopy
2. Glomurulations (punctuate petechial
hemmorage)
Both can be found in patients without IC and
not all patients...
Potassium test
 An intravesical potassium chloride challenge (KCl test)
has been proposed for diagnosis using a 0.4M
pota...
Urodynamics
 In the IC database 14% of patients
had overactive detrusor
 There are no data to support or refuse
the use ...
Biomarkers of IC
 GB-51 , APF , HB-EGF have been
suggested
 APF (AntiProliferative Factor) is
emerging as the best candi...
Differential diagnosis
 Cystitis (bacterial , viral , TB ,
chemical)
 Vaginitis
 Tumors of the bladder (benign ,
malign...
Treatment
 Conservative treatments first
 Avoid surgery if possible
◦ Exception is fulguration of Hunner’s lesions, must...
Conservative therapy
 Behavioral modification : control fluid
intake , timed voiding , pelvic muscle
training
Conservative therapy
 Physical therapy :
biofeedback and soft
tissue massage ,
myofascial release .
69% success
Conservative therapy
 Dietary manipulation :
avoid acidic foods,
coffee, tea, soda, spicy
foods, artificial
sweetener, an...
Oral therapy
1. Sodim pentosan polysulfate (Elmiron)
: correct the GAG defect 100 mg X
3/ day the only FDA approved
Oral therapy
1. Amytriptiline main pharmacologic actions:
i. Central and peripheral anticholinergic activity.
ii. Blockage...
2. Hydroxyzine : mast cell inhibition
3. Cemetidine : H2 histamine receptor antagonist
4. L-Arginine : NO synthase activit...
Intravesical therapy
1. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is only FDA–approved
“RIMSO -50” is anti-inflammatory , analgesic, colla...
Cystoscopy
 Used to diagnose and treatment of
IC Biopsy controversial
 Over 50 % of patient may
experience some symptom ...
Surgery
1 . NEUROMODULATION :
 sacral nerve stimulation (SNS)
involves implanting permanent
electrode(S) to stimulate S3-...
2. Bowel surgery :
 Bladder augmentation-
cystoplasty
 Cystoplasty with
suptriagonal resection
 Cystoplasty with
suptri...
3. Total cystectomy and urethrectomy :
 the ultimate final and most invasive
option
 only considered for advanced cases
...
THANKS
Interstitial cystitis[1]
Interstitial cystitis[1]
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Interstitial cystitis[1]

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Interstitial cystitis[1]

  1. 1. Interstitial Cystitis Dr. Majd Radwan Azez
  2. 2. Definition  The AUA guideline defines IC/BPS as ‘an unpleasant sensation (pain, pressure, discomfort ) perceived to be related to the urinary bladder, associated with lower urinary tract symptoms of more than 6 weeks duration, in the absence of infection or other identifiable causes.  IC has classically been used to describe the clinical syndrome of urgency/frequency and pain in the bladder and/or pelvic
  3. 3.  The International Continence Society (ICS) defines BPS as ‘‘the complaint of suprapubic pain related to bladder filling, accompanied by other symptoms such as increased daytime and night-time frequency, in the absence of proven urinary infection or other obvious pathology.’’  Urgency is not required to define BPS/IC, because it would tend to obfuscate the borders of overactive bladder and BPS/IC
  4. 4. Epidemiology  Epidemiology studies of BPS/IC suffer from the lack of a universally accepted definition  The first population-based study included patients with IC in Helsinki : 18.1 per 100,000 women and 10.6 per 100,000 population  35–2400 per 100,000 in the United States  1.2 per 100,000 in Japan  female to male preponderance of 5:1
  5. 5. Etiology  BPS/IC has a Multifactorial etiology .  leaky epithelium , mast cell activation, and neurogenic inflammation, or some combination of these and other factors leading to a self- perpetuating process resulting in chronic bladder pain and voiding dysfunction
  6. 6. Urothelial dysfunction (GAG) glycosaminoglycane layer defect/inhibition of urothelial proliferation (APF)
  7. 7. Signs & symptoms  PAIN: suprapubic or pelvic  Bladder pain that worsens with bladder filling and is alleviated with voiding  Dysuria  Urinary frequency & urgency  Nocturia: mild to severe (1 to >12 times per night)  Spasm of the rectum and levator ani muscles  Anterior vaginal wall, suprapubic region, and pelvic floor muscle tenderness on pelvic examination  Women ◦ Dyspareunia ◦ Female sexual dysfunction  Men ◦ Pain at the tip of the penis, the groin, or the testes ◦ Ejaculation often produces pain owing to severe spasm of the pelvic floor ◦ Prostate, bladder, testes, and epididymis tenderness
  8. 8. Diagnosis  NIDDK criteria 1987 and modified NIDDK 1988 :  The most successful attempt to define a clinical useful definition of IC
  9. 9. NIDDK criteria The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases  Inclusion criteria: 1. Hunner’s ulcers 2. Glomurolations on endoscopy 3. Pain on bld filling relieved by emptying 4. Pain (suprapubic, perineal,pelvic,urethral) 5. Decreased bld compliance on cystometrogram need 2 pos to confirm
  10. 10. NIDDK criteria The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases  Exclusion criteria : 1. < 18 years 2. Bld tumors 3. TB cyst 4. Bacterial cystitis 5. Gyn carcinomas 6. Active herpes 7. Bld calculi 8. Frequency < 5 in 12 hours 9. Nocturia < 2 10. Symptoms relieved by antibiotics or urin analgesics 11. Bld cap > 400 ML 12. Duration < 12 months
  11. 11. NIH criteria National Institutes of Health Diagnostic Criteria for Interstitial Cystitis : Category A: At least one of the following cystoscopic findings: 1. Diffuse glomerulations (≥10 per quadrant) in at least 3 quadrants of the bladder 2. A classic Hunner’s ulcer Category B: At least one of the following symptoms: 1. Pain associated with the bladder 2. Urinary urgency
  12. 12. NIH criteria National Institutes of Health In addition, a patient must not have any of the following conditions, symptoms, or history: • Age <18 years • Urination frequency while awake < 8 times per day • Nocturia < twice per night • Maximal bladder capacity >350 cc while patient is awake • Absence of an intense urge to void with bladder filled to 100 cc of gas or 150 cc of water, with medium filling rate during cystoscopy • Symptoms persistent < 9 months • Symptoms relieved by microbial agents, anticholinergics, or antispasmodics • Urinary tract or prostate infection in the past three months • Involuntary bladder contractions • Active genital herpes or vaginitis • Urethral diverticulum • Uterine, cervical, vaginal, or urethral cancer within the past five years • History of cyclophosphamide, chemical, tuberculous, or radiation cystitis • History of bladder tumors
  13. 13. Cystoscopy
  14. 14. Cystoscopy 1. The classic picture is elusive ulcers with apperance of patches of red mucosa first described by Hunner 1914 (Hunner’s ulcer)
  15. 15. Cystoscopy 2. Glomurulations (punctuate petechial hemmorage) Both can be found in patients without IC and not all patients with IC have them (not reliable criteria)
  16. 16. Potassium test  An intravesical potassium chloride challenge (KCl test) has been proposed for diagnosis using a 0.4M potassium chloride solution  Pain and provocation of symptoms by potassium constitute a positive test. The test is very nonspecific, failing to diagnosis at least 25% of BPS/IC  Prospective and retrospective studies looking at the KCl test for diagnosis in patients presenting with symptoms of PBS/IC have found no benefit of the potassium test in comparison with standard techniques of diagnosis.
  17. 17. Urodynamics  In the IC database 14% of patients had overactive detrusor  There are no data to support or refuse the use of urodynamics in IC
  18. 18. Biomarkers of IC  GB-51 , APF , HB-EGF have been suggested  APF (AntiProliferative Factor) is emerging as the best candidate for a biomarker for IC but further studies and trials need to be conducted
  19. 19. Differential diagnosis  Cystitis (bacterial , viral , TB , chemical)  Vaginitis  Tumors of the bladder (benign , malignant)  Urethral divirticulum  Bld calculi  Prostatitis  Muskoskeletal pain  Neurogenic (prolapsed disk)
  20. 20. Treatment  Conservative treatments first  Avoid surgery if possible ◦ Exception is fulguration of Hunner’s lesions, must be done first  Multiple simultaneous treatments often best ◦ Pain management should be priority
  21. 21. Conservative therapy  Behavioral modification : control fluid intake , timed voiding , pelvic muscle training
  22. 22. Conservative therapy  Physical therapy : biofeedback and soft tissue massage , myofascial release . 69% success
  23. 23. Conservative therapy  Dietary manipulation : avoid acidic foods, coffee, tea, soda, spicy foods, artificial sweetener, and alcohol
  24. 24. Oral therapy 1. Sodim pentosan polysulfate (Elmiron) : correct the GAG defect 100 mg X 3/ day the only FDA approved
  25. 25. Oral therapy 1. Amytriptiline main pharmacologic actions: i. Central and peripheral anticholinergic activity. ii. Blockage of the active transport system in the presynaptic nerve ending responsible for the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine. iii. Sedation that may be central or related to antihistaminic properties It may help to stabilize the mast cells in the bladder and also increase Bladder capacity through its effect on the beta- adrenergic receptors in the bladder body. Finally, the sedative effects can help the patient sleep. started on a dose of 10 mg before bed. The dose is gradually increased by 10 mg each week to a maximum dose of 50 mg at bedtime at the start of the fifth week. If tolerated, this dose is maintained.
  26. 26. 2. Hydroxyzine : mast cell inhibition 3. Cemetidine : H2 histamine receptor antagonist 4. L-Arginine : NO synthase activity elevated 5. Antibiotics : many trials conducted / no role in treatment 6. Methotrexate : low dose 7. Cyclosporine : 2.5-5 mkg/kg 8. Nifedipine : inhibits smooth muscle contraction 9. Misoprostol : cytoprotective action 10.Motelukast : mast cell releases antagonist 11. Analgesics : long term use
  27. 27. Intravesical therapy 1. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is only FDA–approved “RIMSO -50” is anti-inflammatory , analgesic, collagen dissolution, muscle relaxant, and mast cell histamine release . 2. Hyalorunic acid : protective layer , new study shows no significant effect 3. Heparin : 2 studies good success 4. Chondroitin sulfate : 33% response rate 5. Lidocaine : safe and effective 6. Capsaicin : neurotoxin 7. BCG : 60% improvement 7. Oxybutinin , PPs , Doxorubicin , Btx-A : still needs study
  28. 28. Cystoscopy  Used to diagnose and treatment of IC Biopsy controversial  Over 50 % of patient may experience some symptom relief , this is often transitory and rarely lasts longer than 6 months .  Inflate bladder with saline to 80cmH2O or 800-1000mL, maintain pressure for a few minutes then drain bladder  Fulgration of Hunner’s ulcers
  29. 29. Surgery 1 . NEUROMODULATION :  sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) involves implanting permanent electrode(S) to stimulate S3-S4 roots .  Approved for detrusor overactivity 1997 and for urinary urgency and frequency in 1999.  Early studies suggest that about half of patients with PBS may derive benefit from neuromodulation
  30. 30. 2. Bowel surgery :  Bladder augmentation- cystoplasty  Cystoplasty with suptriagonal resection  Cystoplasty with suptriagonal cystectomy
  31. 31. 3. Total cystectomy and urethrectomy :  the ultimate final and most invasive option  only considered for advanced cases  the results are close with any segment of intestine used  some new study suggested the recurrence of IC on the neo bladder (exposure of the bowl to the IC toxic urine)
  32. 32. THANKS

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