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Presented by Majid Heidari
PhD student Media Mangement
Media Economics
Media Economics
Media economics
Media economics is a field of study that has
experienced considerable growth and
development over the past...
Media Economics
 Media economics involves the application of
economic theories, concepts,
 and principles to study the m...
Media Economics
 Media economics literature
 encompasses a variety of methodological
approaches involving both
 qualita...
Economics:
Historical Development
To understand the historical development of the
field of media economics, one must first...
Historical …
Mercantilism represents the earliest form of
economic thought, originating in the 16th century.
Mercantilists...
Historical…
This led to political intervention in the market via
tariffs and
subsidies, elevating commercial interests to
...
Historical….
Philosopher/scholar Adam Smith is credited
with providing one of the first syntheses
of economic thought with...
Historical….
At the beginning of the 20th century, institutions of
higher learning began to embrace the field, and
the mod...
Historical….
Economic theories and economic thought are
constantly changing and evolving.
By the end of the 1960s, growing...
Historical…
As the study of economics became more refined,
scholars began to investigate many different
markets and indust...
The Development
of Media Economics
The rise of the mass media paved the way for the
study of media economics. Research beg...
The Development
of Media Economics
Content providers, offering information and
entertainment, became the suppliers, wherea...
The Development
of Media Economics
Many of the early media economists addressed
microeconomic concepts. Ray (1951, 1952)
e...
The Development
of Media Economics
Steiner’s (1952) classic work on competition in
radio involves the application of micro...
The Development
of Media Economics
Early studies of the television industry examined
market
structure (Levin, 1958), compe...
The Development
of Media Economics
Concentration of ownership has been another topic
studied across media industries. Repr...
The Development
of Media Economics
Other studies have examined variables such as
media competition (Compaine, 1985a; Dimmi...
THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS
In terms of theoretical development, three areas
account for much of the knowledge regarding
media...
MICROECONOMIC
THEORIES: INDUSTRIAL
ORGANIZATIONAL MODEL
Among the most widely used frameworks for the
study of media econo...
….
The model offers a systematic means of analyzing
many abstract concepts encountered in the study
of a specific market.
….
In its simplest form, the industrial organizational
model posits that if the structure of the market is
known, it allow...
MACROECONOMIC THEORIES
There is a much more limited body of literature that
involves macroeconomic analysis in the field o...
Forces Driving
Media Industry Change
Four external forces continue to drive change
across the media industries, leading to...
TECHNOLOGY
Because media industries are heavily dependent
on technology for the creation, distribution, and
exhibition of ...
REGULATION
Regulatory actions can always affect competitive
market forces, and media industries are no
exception.
GLOBALIZATION
With many American media markets heavily
saturated, the global marketplace has become
even more important in...
GLOBALIZATION
Globalization of media content began with motion
pictures and magazines but then expanded into
other arenas,...
GLOBALIZATION
Globalization presents a challenge for media
economics researchers, as accounting practices
and regulatory s...
SOCIOCULTURAL
DEVELOPMENTS
Changes in demography and other aspects of
society also affect the media industries and,
ultima...
MEDIA PRODUCTS
Media content, in the form of television programs,
movies, sound and video recordings, and print
(e.g., boo...
MEDIA PRODUCTS
Media products such as television programming,
feature films, and sound recordings can be
repeatedly used a...
Contemporary
Issues in Media Economics
There are a number of issues scholars need to
address in their efforts to further d...
BROADER THEORETICAL
DEVELOPMENT
Media economics research has primarily drawn on
microeconomic concepts and principles, wit...
BROADER THEORETICAL
DEVELOPMENT
As a result, other economic theories, which have
possible application to the mass media in...
BROADER THEORETICAL
DEVELOPMENT
In addition to drawing on the breadth of existing
economic theories, scholars should consi...
BROADER THEORETICAL
DEVELOPMENT
To do so, researchers must be willing to move away
from simply describing specific firms’ ...
BETTER METHODS OF
ANALYSIS
Improvements in theory development and
redefining of the media market and market
structure must...
Conclusions
Media economics provides a means to understand
the activities and functions of media companies
as economic ins...
Conclusions
An understanding of media economics strengthens
our understanding of the role and function of
mass media in so...
Conclusions
As a field of scholarship, media economics
research offers important contributions to media
studies. Media eco...
Based on :
MEDIA ECONOMICS
By :
Alan B. Albarran
Albarran, A. B. (2002). Media economics:
Understanding markets, industrie...
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Media Economics

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Media Economics

  1. 1. Presented by Majid Heidari PhD student Media Mangement Media Economics
  2. 2. Media Economics
  3. 3. Media economics Media economics is a field of study that has experienced considerable growth and development over the past 40 years. Miller and Gandy (1991) identified 351 articles published between 1965 and 1988 in several key journals (the Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, and the Journal of Communication) that focused on “some economic aspect of communication” (p. 663).
  4. 4. Media Economics  Media economics involves the application of economic theories, concepts,  and principles to study the macroeconomic and microeconomic  aspects of mass media companies and industries.
  5. 5. Media Economics  Media economics literature  encompasses a variety of methodological approaches involving both  qualitative and quantitative methods and statistical analysis, as well as  studies using financial, historical, and policy- driven data.
  6. 6. Economics: Historical Development To understand the historical development of the field of media economics, one must first begin with the study of economics itself. The initial literature on economic thinking began to evolve in the time period between 1500 and 1800, with much of the early work occurring in Western Europe (Landreth & Colander, 1989).
  7. 7. Historical … Mercantilism represents the earliest form of economic thought, originating in the 16th century. Mercantilists equated a nation’s wealth with the accumulation of gold and silver. If nations lacked mines, they could acquire the precious metals via trade and commerce.
  8. 8. Historical… This led to political intervention in the market via tariffs and subsidies, elevating commercial interests to national policy.
  9. 9. Historical…. Philosopher/scholar Adam Smith is credited with providing one of the first syntheses of economic thought with a collection of writings in 1776 commonly referred to as The Wealth of Nations (Smith, 1937).
  10. 10. Historical…. At the beginning of the 20th century, institutions of higher learning began to embrace the field, and the modern label of “economics” was used to represent courses of study in both America and Europe.
  11. 11. Historical…. Economic theories and economic thought are constantly changing and evolving. By the end of the 1960s, growing inflation and changes in productivity began to push economic thought in new directions.
  12. 12. Historical… As the study of economics became more refined, scholars began to investigate many different markets and industries, applying economic concepts and principles to different fields, including media.
  13. 13. The Development of Media Economics The rise of the mass media paved the way for the study of media economics. Research began to emerge during the 1950s. The media industries provided all of the elements required for studying the economic process.
  14. 14. The Development of Media Economics Content providers, offering information and entertainment, became the suppliers, whereas consumers and advertisers formed the demand side of the market.
  15. 15. The Development of Media Economics Many of the early media economists addressed microeconomic concepts. Ray (1951, 1952) examined newspaper competition and concentration, whereas Reddaway(1963) reviewed economic characteristics of newspapers as firms.
  16. 16. The Development of Media Economics Steiner’s (1952) classic work on competition in radio involves the application of microeconomic concepts to the radio industry.
  17. 17. The Development of Media Economics Early studies of the television industry examined market structure (Levin, 1958), competition with other media (Berlson, 1961), and the impact on advertising revenues (Tijmstra 1959-1960).
  18. 18. The Development of Media Economics Concentration of ownership has been another topic studied across media industries. Representative studies of media concentration across industries include Albarran and Dimmick (1996), Bagdikian (2000), and Compaine (1985b), along with specific studies of industry concentration in newspapers (Lacy, 1984, 1985; McCombs, 1988; Picard, 1982, 1988a; Rosse, 1980), broadcast television (Bates, 1993; Litman, 1979), motion pictures (Gomery, 1993), and trade books (Greco, 1993).
  19. 19. The Development of Media Economics Other studies have examined variables such as media competition (Compaine, 1985a; Dimmick & Rothenbuhler, 1984), consumer expenditures and the principle of relative constancy (McCombs, 1972), barriers to entry (Wirth, 1986), demand (Busterna, 1987; Lacy, 1990), and utility(Albarran & Dimmick, 1993; Dimmick; 1993).
  20. 20. THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS In terms of theoretical development, three areas account for much of the knowledge regarding media economics. These areas involve microeconomic theories, macroeconomic theories, and studies related to political economy.
  21. 21. MICROECONOMIC THEORIES: INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATIONAL MODEL Among the most widely used frameworks for the study of media economics is the industrial organization model, developed by Scherer (1980), which in turn drew on the contributions of Bain (1968) and other neoclassical economists.
  22. 22. …. The model offers a systematic means of analyzing many abstract concepts encountered in the study of a specific market.
  23. 23. …. In its simplest form, the industrial organizational model posits that if the structure of the market is known, it allows explanation of the likely conduct and performance among firms. Each of the three areas (SCP) can be further defined by considering specific variables associated with each part of the model. For example, in terms of market structure, the variables used for analysis include the number of sellers/buyers in the market, product differentiation, barriers to entry, cost structures, and the degree of vertical integration (Albarran, 2002).
  24. 24. MACROECONOMIC THEORIES There is a much more limited body of literature that involves macroeconomic analysis in the field of media economics. Most macroeconomic research is related to policy and regulatory analysis, usually conducted at a national level of analysis. Policy studies typically attempt to analyze the impact of specific regulatory actions on existing markets and industries. Representative studies include Bates and Chambers (1999), Ford and Jackson (2000), and Lutzhoft and Machill (1999).
  25. 25. Forces Driving Media Industry Change Four external forces continue to drive change across the media industries, leading to evolution of the study of media economics. These four forces consist of technology, regulation, globalization, and socio cultural developments. Each is briefly reviewed in the following:
  26. 26. TECHNOLOGY Because media industries are heavily dependent on technology for the creation, distribution, and exhibition of various forms of media content, changes in technology affect economic processes between and within the media industries.
  27. 27. REGULATION Regulatory actions can always affect competitive market forces, and media industries are no exception.
  28. 28. GLOBALIZATION With many American media markets heavily saturated, the global marketplace has become even more important in generating revenues for media firms and industries.
  29. 29. GLOBALIZATION Globalization of media content began with motion pictures and magazines but then expanded into other arenas, including television programming, VHS and DVD sales and rentals, and sound recordings.
  30. 30. GLOBALIZATION Globalization presents a challenge for media economics researchers, as accounting practices and regulatory structures differ from country to country. There are few reliable sources of global financial data related to media. Nevertheless, it is critical that scholars recognize that media companies compete and operate in a global as well as domestic marketplace for audience share and advertiser revenues.
  31. 31. SOCIOCULTURAL DEVELOPMENTS Changes in demography and other aspects of society also affect the media industries and, ultimately, media economics. As noted, media content is often created with the desire to reach global audiences, so consumer tastes and preferences are critical in understanding audience needs and wants.
  32. 32. MEDIA PRODUCTS Media content, in the form of television programs, movies, sound and video recordings, and print (e.g., books, magazines, newspapers), represents some of the products supplied by media firms. Media products can be broadly classified into categories of information (news-related content) and entertainment (drama, comedy, action, music, games, etc.).
  33. 33. MEDIA PRODUCTS Media products such as television programming, feature films, and sound recordings can be repeatedly used and marketed to both audiences and advertisers, forming the “dual-product marketplace.”
  34. 34. Contemporary Issues in Media Economics There are a number of issues scholars need to address in their efforts to further develop this important area of research. This final section considers three issues of particular relevance affecting media economics at the beginning of the 21st century: theory building, defining market structures more precisely , and better methods.
  35. 35. BROADER THEORETICAL DEVELOPMENT Media economics research has primarily drawn on microeconomic concepts and principles, with a heavy reliance on the industrial organization model. Although this emphasis clarifies the relationship of various concepts in microeconomic analysis, it limits the development of the field.
  36. 36. BROADER THEORETICAL DEVELOPMENT As a result, other economic theories, which have possible application to the mass media industries, have been ignored, especially those found in macroeconomics (Chambers, 1998; Lacy & Niebauer, 1995).
  37. 37. BROADER THEORETICAL DEVELOPMENT In addition to drawing on the breadth of existing economic theories, scholars should consider new theoretical inquiries that could draw on multiple methods of investigation. The interplay of business structures, regulation, technology, and social policy implications across the media industries offers a unique playing field for scholars to generate new theories and hypotheses.
  38. 38. BROADER THEORETICAL DEVELOPMENT To do so, researchers must be willing to move away from simply describing specific firms’ structure and performance to more analytical and investigative analysis. Theory building is never easy in any field, but given the rapid pace of change in the media industries, no area could benefit more from fresh ideas and news perspectives than media economics.
  39. 39. BETTER METHODS OF ANALYSIS Improvements in theory development and redefining of the media market and market structure must be realized in conjunction with enhancements in methods. In particular, one area deserves attention: measures used to assess competition and concentration.
  40. 40. Conclusions Media economics provides a means to understand the activities and functions of media companies as economic institutions. Only by understanding individual media companies as business entities can one fully appreciate their conduct within society.
  41. 41. Conclusions An understanding of media economics strengthens our understanding of the role and function of mass media in society. At a theoretical level, media economics complements existing mass communication theory by adding important dimensions regarding the structure, conduct, and performance of media firms and industries; the interplay of economics, policy, and regulation; and audience behaviors and preferences.
  42. 42. Conclusions As a field of scholarship, media economics research offers important contributions to media studies. Media economics research faces many challenges as it attempts to analyze and evaluate the complex and changing world in which the mass media industries operate.
  43. 43. Based on : MEDIA ECONOMICS By : Alan B. Albarran Albarran, A. B. (2002). Media economics: Understanding markets, industries and concepts (2nd ed.). Ames: Iowa State University Press.

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