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3c experimenting and interpreting data

Science

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3c experimenting and interpreting data

  1. 1. THREE-DAY DIVISION TRAINING FOR GRADES I AND II TEACHERS ON LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY AND PROCESS SKILLS November 8-10,2012
  2. 2. By Renee M. Brtalik
  3. 3. Experimenting INTEGRATED PROCESS SKILLS In Teaching Elementary Science
  4. 4. OBJECTIVES: At the end of the session, the participants are expected to: •plan and conduct a simple investigation. •identify the variables involved in the science investigation presented. •employ simple equipment and tools to gather data and extend the senses. •use data to construct a reasonable explanation. •communicate investigation and explanation.
  5. 5. ACTIVITY Rising Against Time Materials: Paper towel Stopwatch Food coloring Metric ruler Plastic cup or beaker Pencil Water
  6. 6. ACTIVITY Procedure: •Using the available materials, create a design and conduct a simple investigation to determine The Effect of Submersion Time on the Height of a Colored Liquid that will rise in a Paper Towel.
  7. 7. ACTIVITY •Construct a data table and an appropriate graph for the investigation. •Interpret your results. •Present the group output for 2-3 mins.
  8. 8. Describing the Experimental Procedure: 1. Is the list of steps complete? 2. Are all the materials and equipments included? 3. Is the procedure written for only one level of independent variable? 4. Did you indicate the number of repetitions for repeated trials?
  9. 9. Identifying variables. 1. What do you call all the factors that could change in an experiment? 2. What factor did you purposely change or manipulated in the experiment? 3. What factor responded to the factor that was manipulated? How will you call that factor? 4. What factors remained the same or unchanged in the experiment?
  10. 10. System of Recording Data. 1. Does the system of recording data communicate the relationship between the independent and dependent variables? 2. Does the system’s title communicate the purpose of the experiment?
  11. 11. Science Process (Integrated) Definition Example Purpose Experiment- ing Experimenting is the activity that puts together all the process skills from identifying problems to making conclusions Experiment to study the solubility of sugar in water This skill helps students to act like a scientist. In everyday life, it helps a person solve a problem systematically and scientifically.
  12. 12. Experimentation is a cause-and-effect test between two variables. All processes may be involved. This can begin with setting a problem to be solved, identifying variables to be controlled, making operational definitions, devising the test to be carried out and following the prescribed procedure or steps.
  13. 13. Identifying and Controlling Variables Experimental Components
  14. 14. Variable -any factor that could change in an experiment Experimental Components
  15. 15. Controlling variables involves the process of deciding which variables or factors will influence the outcome of an experiment, situation or event and deliberately controlling all recognized variables in a systematic manner. Experimental Components
  16. 16. Independent Variable The factor that is purposefully changed or manipulated in an experiment. Experimental Components
  17. 17. Dependent Variable The factor or variable that may change as a result of changes purposely made in the independent variable. Experimental Components
  18. 18. Independent Variable -you change it variable Dependent Variable -it changed variable Independent vs Dependent Experimental Components
  19. 19. Constant Variables Factors in an experiment that are kept the same and not allowed to change or vary. Experimental Components
  20. 20. Controlled Set-up It is the part of an experiment that serves as a standard of comparison. A control is used to detect the effects of factors that should be kept constant, but which vary. The control may be a “no treatment” group or an “experimenter selected” control. Experimental Components
  21. 21. The number of times that a level of the independent variable is tested in an experiment or the number of objects or organisms tested at each level of the independent variable Repeated Trials Experimental Components
  22. 22. Situation : You want to see what color of bird feeders your local birds preferred. Red? Blue? Green
  23. 23. Independent Variable: color of the feeders Dependent Variable: amount of seed eaten Constant: everything else that is kept the same. for example: •the location of the feeders •the kind of seeds used •putting the feeders out at the same time
  24. 24. Hypothesis A prediction of the relationship of an independent and dependent variable to be tested in an experiment; it predicts the effect that the changes purposely made in the independent variable will have on the dependent variable. Experimental Components
  25. 25. Hypothesis Frequently, a hypothesis is stated in an if …… then….. format. Experimental Components
  26. 26. Science Processes (Integrated) Definition Example Purpose Identifying and controlling variables Recognizing the characteristics of objects of factors in events that are constant or change under different conditions Listing or describing the factors that are thought to, or would influence the rate at which the ice cube melts (eg. Temperature, air movement) The process of identifying and controlling variables is very important in scientific inquiry. The most definitive results of an investigation are obtained when the variables can be identified and carefully controlled. Defining variables operationally Specifying the variables and how they can be measured. They may be specified differently for different investigations. In studying about the effects of fertilizer on the rate of growth, rate of growth can be defined as the increase in height in mm per week. The amount of fertilizer can be defined as the weight of the fertilizer in mg given to This skill is very useful in carrying out investigations so that precise data can be obtained
  27. 27. Science Processes (Integrated) Definition Example Purpose Recording Data Collecting bits of information about objects and events that illustrate a specific situation Gathering information about observations and measurements in a systematic way. Converting numerical quantities into a diagram that shows the relationships among the quantities Taking notes, graphing or tabulating data or readings of a thermometer during an investigation Data collected in a proper manner will help us identify patterns in the results. Interpreting Data Analyzing data that have been obtained and organized by determining apparent patterns or relationships in the data Studying a graph, chart, or table of data Skill of interpreting data will help a person understand what others try to explain. In everyday life, we are constantly interpreting data when we watch the news in television or when we read weather maps.
  28. 28. Thank you!
  29. 29. THREE-DAY DIVISION TRAINING FOR GRADES I AND II TEACHERS ON LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY AND PROCESS SKILLS November 8-10,2012 MARIETTA E. JUMALON Justice Vicente Santiago Elementary School
  30. 30. Interpreting Data, Analyzing Data/ Evaluating INTEGRATED PROCESS SKILLS In Teaching Elementary Science
  31. 31. Data Tables Accepted Guidelines and Conventions in Constructing Data Table. 1. The independent variable is almost always recorded in the left column and the dependent variable in the right. . Column for Independent Variable Column for Dependent Variable Column for Derived Quantity Time Paper Towel Submerged (sec) Height Liquid Rose In Towel (mm) Average Height 1 2 3 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 11 14 14 15 16 17 19 10 14 14 15 16 17 20 11 13 14 16 16 18 19 11 14 14 15 16 17 19
  32. 32. 2. When repeated trials are conducted, they are recorded in subdivisions of the dependent variable column. Column for Independent Variable Column for Dependent Variable Column for Derived Quantity Time Paper Towel Submerged (sec) Height Liquid Rose In Towel (mm) Average Height 1 2 3 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 11 14 14 15 16 17 19 10 14 14 15 16 17 20 11 13 14 16 16 18 19 11 14 14 15 16 17 19
  33. 33. 3. If derived quantities are calculated, they are recorded in an additional column to the right.. Column for Independent Variable Column for Dependent Variable Column for Derived Quantity Time Paper Towel Submerged (sec) Height Liquid Rose In Towel (mm) Average Height 1 2 3 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 11 14 14 15 16 17 19 10 14 14 15 16 17 20 11 13 14 16 16 18 19 11 14 14 15 16 17 19
  34. 34. 4.When recording data in a table, the values of the independent variable are ordered. The data may be arranged from smallest to largest or largest to smallest 5.The title of the data table should clearly communicate the purpose of the experiment through specific references to the variables under investigation.
  35. 35. Column for Independent Variable Column for Dependent Variable Column for Derived Quantity Time Paper Towel Submerged (sec) Height Liquid Rose In Towel (mm) Average Height 1 2 3 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 11 14 14 15 16 17 19 10 14 14 15 16 17 20 11 13 14 16 16 18 19 11 14 14 15 16 17 19 Table 1. The Effect of Submersion Time on the Height a Liquid Rose In a Paper Towel
  36. 36. Graphs Graphs communicate in pictorial form the data collected in an experiment. A well constructed graph communicates experimental findings more readily than a data table.
  37. 37. Observations and measurements of variables can be classified as either discrete or continuous. Constructing Graphs
  38. 38. Discrete data are categorical or counted data. Examples: days of the week, gender, kind of animals, brand of soap, number of children, or color. Bar graphs are appropriate for these types of variables.
  39. 39. Continuous data –associated with measurements involving a standard scale with equal intervals. Examples: height of plants in centimeters, the amount of fertilizers in grams, length of time in seconds A line graph is a better way to depict the data.
  40. 40. Constructing Line Graphs 1. Label the x-axis as the independent variable and y-axis as the dependent variable.
  41. 41. 2. Determine an interval scale for each axis that is appropriate for the data to be plotted. Constructing Line Graphs
  42. 42. Constructing Line Graphs 3. Plot the data pairs as data points on a graph. 4. Summarize trends
  43. 43. Types of relationships (between variables)
  44. 44. Science Processes (Integrated) Definition Example Purpose Recording Data Collecting bits of information about objects and events that illustrate a specific situation Gathering information about observations and measurements in a systematic way. Converting numerical quantities into a diagram that shows the relationships among the quantities Taking notes, graphing or tabulating data or readings of a thermometer during an investigation Data collected in a proper manner will help us identify patterns in the results. Interpreting Data Analyzing data that have been obtained and organized by determining apparent patterns or relationships in the data Studying a graph, chart, or table of data Skill of interpreting data will help a person understand what others try to explain. In everyday life, we are constantly interpreting data when we watch the news in television or when we read weather maps.
  45. 45. Science Processes Definition Example Basic Skills that form the foundation for later and more complex skills Observing, communicating, classifying, measuring, inferring, and predicting. Integrated Skills in which an individual will need to learn to design and conduct scientific investigations. These empower individuals to answer many of their questions. Defining operationally, identifying and controlling variables, recording and interpreting data, constructing hypothesis, and experimenting
  46. 46. For each of the scenarios below answer questions A-C. A. Identify the independent variable, dependent variable, number of repeated trials, constants, and control (if present) B. Identify the hypothesis for the experiment. If the hypothesis is not explicitly stated, write one for the scenario. C. State at least two ways to improve the experiment described in the scenario.
  47. 47. 1. Ten seeds were planted in each of 5 pots found around the house that contained 500 g of “Juan’s potting soil”. The pots were given the following amounts of distilled water each day for 40 days: Pot 1, 50 ml; Pot 2, 100 ml; Pot 3, 150 ml, Pot 4, 200 ml; Pot 5, 250 ml. because Pot 3 received the recommended amount of water, it was used as a control. The height of each plant was measured at the end of the experiment.
  48. 48. 2. Gloria wanted to find out if the color of food would affect whether kindergarten children would select it for lunch. She put food coloring into 4 identical bowls of lugaw. The colors were red, green, yellow and blue. Each child chose a bowl of lugaw of the color of their choice. Gloria did this experiment using 100 pupils. She recorded the number of pupils that chose each color.
  49. 49. 3. Sandy heard that plants compete for space. She decided to test this idea. She bought a mixture of flower seeds and some potting soil. Into each of 5 plastic cups she put the same amount of soil. In the first cup she planted 2 seeds, in the second cup she planted 4 seeds, in the third cup 8 seeds, and in the fourth cup she planted 16 seeds. In the last cup she planted 32 seeds. After 25 days she determined which set of plants looked best
  50. 50. 4. Ester became interested in insulation while her parent’s new house was being built. She decided to determine which insulation transferred the least heat. She filled each of 5 jars half full with water. She sealed each jar with plastic lid. Then she wrapped each jar with a different kind of insulation. She put the jars outside in the direct sunlight. Later, she measured the temperature of the water in each jar
  51. 51. For each experiment title listed, state whether the experiment should be graphed as a bar or a line graph. A. The Effect of Coloration on the Number of Kittens sold at a Pet Store. B. The Effects of Concentration of Sugar Water on the Number of Visits of Hummingbirds to a Feeder. C. The Effectiveness of Different Brands of Paper Towels on the Absorption of Water. D. The Effect of the Horsepower of Tractor on the mass of Sled it can Pull
  52. 52. •Students use process skills to build a conceptual understanding of science content. •Students of all ages use all of the process skills. Each skill can be practiced at simple and increasingly complex levels. Take-Home Messages
  53. 53. •Process skills are not used separately but as intertwined, coherent sets of skills. •Teachers can redesign activities to help students develop stronger process skills. Take-Home Messages

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