DEVELOPMENT OF THE SELF IN THE SOCIETY……GRADE 10
TABLE OF CONTENT
As children move through early childhood to adulthood their sense of self becomes
increasingly complex, but reflects changes in their cognitive and social development.
Similar to how we can know other people and know facts about how they tend to
think, what they enjoy doing and what their temperament is like. Some people have
much stronger self - concept than others, probably because possessing a self - concept
in much detail requires reflection on ones own self and behavior.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES………………………………………………………..4
HOW THE SELF CONCEPT DEVELOPS……………………………………...5
COMPONENTS OF SELF CONCEPT…………………………………………..6-8
CHARACTERISTICS OF A POSITIVE SELF CONCEPT……………………9
FACTORS AFFECTING SELF CONCEPT…………………………………10-11
Self concept is the way people think about themselves it is unique, dynamic and
always evolving. The mental image of one self influences a persons identity, self
esteem, body image and their role in the society. As a global understanding of one self,
self concept shapes and defines who we are, the decisions we make and he
relationships we have form, self concept is perhaps the basis of all motivated
behaviors. “as children move through early childhood to adulthood their sense of self
becomes increasingly complex but reflects changes in their cognitive and social
development” (Hunter, 2003). Some people have much stronger self-concepts than
others, probably because possessing a self-concept in much detail requires reflection
on one's own self and behavior. HOW WOULD YOU ANSWER the ‘who am I
question? If you are likely most adults, you would probably respond by mentioning
some of your noteworthy personal characteristics (honesty, friendliness), some roles
you play in life (student, hospital volunteer), your religious or moral views, perhaps
your political leanings. In doing so, you would be describing that elusive concept
called the SELF. We will explore his issue in the first section of the chapter, as we
trace the growth or development of the self - concept, then consider characteristics,
evaluate the self and construct a sense of self - esteem.
Our ultimate aim in life is to bring peace, happiness and satisfaction in our life. To
bring this satisfaction and happiness in our life, we have to be quite adjustable. Self
awareness is necessary for well adjustment. Self awareness is closely concerned with
self-concept. The concept of self, its development and related terms such as ego and
character, from perhaps the most controversial area of current psychological theory
and research. Self-concept helps everybody to grow properly and adjust properly.
Positive self-concept always strengthens the ability of reasoning, problem solving and
efficiency of a child. High self-esteem leads a person towards great success. Various
researches have showed that hypnosis helps to enhance self-concept and self-esteem.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES.
LEARNERS SHOULD BE ABLE TO :
Define self - concept.
Know how to build a positive self - concept.
Understand and explain factors influencing the self - concept.
Develop and awareness of and sensitivity to issues of culture, school age and
Build self esteem by discovering uniqueness abilities and characteristics.
Know different characteristics to build a positive self - concept.
Know and understand the development or growth of the self.
Provide different components entailing the self - concept.
Differentiate between self - esteem and self - concept.
HOW THE SELF - CONCEPT DEVELOPS.
What is "Self"?
What constitutes the "self" has been pondered by philosophers, poets, artists, and
others for millennia. More recently, psychologists have sought to define and research
a range of self constructs.
Definitions of self constructs.
Self-esteem: Self-esteem refers to general feelings of self-worth or self value.
Self-efficacy: Self-efficacy is belief in one's capacity to succeed at tasks. General
self-efficacy is belief in one's general capacity to handle tasks. Specific self-efficacy
refers to beliefs about one's ability to perform specific tasks (e.g., driving, public
speaking, studying, etc.)
Self-confidence: Self-confidence refers to belief in one's personal worth and
likelihood of succeeding. Self-confidence is a combination of self-esteem and general
Self-concept: Self-concept is the nature and organization of beliefs about one's self.
Self-concept is theorized to be multi-dimensional. For example, people have different
beliefs about physical, emotional, social and many other aspects of themselves.
Historical conceptions of "Self" Character development, personal growth, and
development of self-constructs are commonly valued goals in Western society, and
are largely taken for granted as desirable. However, this is a relatively recent
phenomenon: Between 700 and 1500, the concept of the "self" referred to only the
weak, sinful, crude, "selfish" nature of humans. The evil "self" was contrasted with
the divinely perfect nature of a Christian soul. Joseph Campbell believed the concept
of an independent, self-directed "self" didn't start to develop until about 800 years ago.
So, it is a relatively new idea which has grown in importance. In medieval times,
values and meaning were dictated by the community ("do what you are told to do").
Today, modern "self" theory says each person is expected to decide what is right
(almost by magic and without much reliance on the accumulated wisdom of the
culture) and to know him/her 5 well enough to determine what courses of action "feel
right." In short, we must know ourselves, so we can set our life goals and
COMPONENTS OF THE SELF - CONCEPT.
Self concept is an individuals perception of self, including self esteem, body image
and ideal self. There are basic components of the self - concept namely : Body image,
Self esteem, Identity, School Age and Adolescence.
An individuals perception of physical self, including appearance function and ability
is known as ones body image. Normal growth developmental changes may influence
and alter body image such as physical and hormonal changes that occur during
puberty and adolescence, the onset of puberty involves the emergence of secondary
sec characteristics in the female and male individual. While these normal expected
physical changes occur during adolescence stage they affect and impact an adolescent
body image, resulting in affected self - concept. The way one perceive their body
affects their self concept and self esteem.
Identity is an individual
conscious description of who he or she is and is developed over time, constantly
evolving and influenced by awareness and it involves consciously knowing how the
self think, feels and what they believe in and behaves like at any specific time. I
personally choose to believe, that answers the question who am I ? that come from
religious or philosophies.
Self esteem is shaped by and
individuals relationship with others, experiences and accomplishment in life. A
healthy self esteem is necessary for mental well being and a positive self - concept.
This is achieved by setting sustainable goals and successfully accomplish them.
Resulting on an increase in self confidence, assertiveness and feeling valued since self
esteem impacts all aspects of life, it is important to establish a healthy realistic view
one self esteem.
AGE SCHOOL & ADOLESCENCE
The school experiences has a major impact
on the development of the individuals self - concept, identity, body image and self
esteem. Parents, teachers and peers have a direct influence on the child’s developing
feelings, views and sense of self. Adolescents tend to compare their physical
appearance, academic performance and athletic abilities and social status to those of
their peers and seek approval and acceptance from a group. The school age
component places importance on receiving acceptance and approval by ones peer
group to feel included and positive. They view parents, teachers, peers and role
models as a means to view what is expected of them. Schools can influence their
students' self-esteem through the attitudes they foster toward competition and
diversity and their recognition of achievement in academics,sports, and the arts. By
middle childhood, friendships have assumed a pivotal role in a child's life. Studies
have shown that school-age youngsters spend more time with their friends than they
spend doing homework, watching television, or playing alone.
CHARACTERISTICS OF A POSITIVE SELF CONCEPT
is an important factor in the interaction. It is caused by each individual in behavior as
much as possible adjusted to the concept of self. Human capabilities when compared
to all other creatures are better able to know who he was, observing himself in every
action and be able to evaluate every action that know and understand the behavior that
is acceptable to the environment.
Ability to accept criticism and not become defensive
Set obtainable goals
Willingness to take risks
Feeling able to cope with the problem. Subjective self-understanding of the
ability to deal with problems facing the objective.
Feeling a par with others. Understanding that human beings are not born with
the knowledge and wealth. Knowledge and wealth gained from the process of
learning and working life. Understanding the causes individuals to feel more
or less to others.
Receiving a compliment without shame. Understanding the praise, or deserves
an award against individuals on the basis of the results of what has been done
FACTORS INFLUENCING SELF - CONCEPT
Many factors have been outlined as causing impact on the self concept.
Media: Media can influence an individual's self-concept through provision of
educational sources such as, promoting enrollment on academic courses and
information on current situation happening in our society. A further reason that can
influence an individual's self-concept is displaying of images of models or celebrities
being underweight. For example, pictures of Victoria Beckham and Nicole Richie.
Appearance: Appearance can affect an individual's self-concept both constructively
and harmfully. For example, appearance constructive influence will be pictures
displayed by sports encouraging individual's to keep up a healthy lifestyle. Further to
point, appearance can have a negative influence on a person's life through advertising
photos of underweight models and this can influence young women to try to seem
Abuse: There are different types of abuse; they are physical, emotional, neglect and
sexual. These or any type of abuse can be detrimental to a person, however, abuse can
influence a person if they have been neglected and they will develop a low self esteem.
In addition, a person has been neglected may feel socially excluded and may suffer
from mental health conditions.
Relationships: Relationship can influence an individual's self concept if you do not
have a supportive family, peers. This will may lead the individual to have a negative
self concept with socialization. Furthermore, having high expectations can also have a
negative self concept of an individual, additionally if the person has been compared to
other peer groups or siblings can have a negative influence.