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  1. 1. Motor Control SDK v5.x 3-Phase Motors PMSM FOC Saurabh SONA Staff Engineer System Application & Integration Lab SRA-SAIL, Greater Noida - India
  2. 2. System Application & Integration Lab(SAIL) Greater Noida Reference Designs (STEVAL/X- NUCLEO/ STSYS) Connectivity (BLE, Sub GHz, PLC) Software GUI and APPs (Android, IOS) Generic Support and collaboration Motor Control & Smart Power Metering Smart Lighting 2 Customer Support / Partnerships Regions and collaborations Divisional Alignment Publications / Standardization Pilot Projects and Sites Startups / Universities / ESDM Part of System Research & Applications (SRA) at ST Global Level
  3. 3. Electric Motor: Classification Electric motors AC Synchronous PMSM (FOC) BLDC (6-step) Asynchronous (ACIM) Variable reluctance Switched reluctance Stepper DC (brushed) Universal • PMSM: 3-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor • ACIM: 3-phase induction motor Complex driving, Computation intensive, Requires 3-phase timer + sync’d ADC Limited computation need, Basic ADC/PWM requirements STM32/STM8 solution offer Software Development Kit (SDK) Software Examples Software Examples 3
  4. 4. Scalar drive vs Field Oriented Control 4 Both are Variable Frequency Drives (VFD) Scalar drive (6 Step Control) Vector drive (Field Oriented Control) Only the frequency and the magnitude of the voltage fed to the motor are controlled The applied voltage is computed each PWM cycle so as to make current follow a precise profile Motor current feedback not required Motor current feedback is mandatory Torque cannot be controlled directly and completely Allows full and quick control of motor torque Does not require high computational power Requires high computational power Key similarity: Both require rotor position sensing (physical sensor/sensorless)
  5. 5. BLDC 6-Step Drive 5 In BLDC drive, the electrical cycle is subdivided into six commutation steps. For each step, the bus voltage is applied to one of the three phase windings of the motor while the ground is applied to a second winding. The third winding remains open. The successive steps are executed in the same way except that the motor phase winding changes to generate a rotating stator field.
  6. 6. PMSM FOC Basics • Field Oriented Control: stator currents (Field) are controlled in amplitude and phase (Orientation) with respect to rotor flux current sensing is mandatory (3shunt/1shunt/ICS) speed / position sensing is mandatory (encoder/Hall/sensorless algo) current controllers needed (PI/D,FF) complex… high frequency sinusoidal references + stiff amplitude modulation.. reference frame transformation (Clarke / Park) allows to simplify the problem: 6 Te maximized if… Φr Φs 90el 90el t
  7. 7. Why FOC ? 7 • Best energy efficiency even during transient operation. • Responsive speed control to load variations. • Decoupled control of both electromagnetic torque and flux. • Acoustic noise reduction due to sinusoidal waveforms.
  8. 8. Types of Speed Sensors (1/2) • Sensorless with State Observer: • No additional hardware required (cost effective). • Supported by all STM32Fxx MCUs. • Cannot work in FOC at low speeds. • Startup may have backward movement as initial rotor position is unknown. • Hall Sensors: • Hall sensors need to be mounted with sufficient precision inside motor. Additional electronics required for conditioning and sensing hall sensor signals (costlier). • Supported by SMT32F05x and above. • No backward movement at startup as initial rotor position is known. • Supports low speed operation. 8
  9. 9. Types of Speed Sensors (2/2) • Optical Encoders: • Useful for high resolution speed/position control for servo applications with very low as well as zero speed operation. • Encoders are relative speed sensors hence motor may have backward movement during startup. • Encoders are the costliest type of sensors. • Sensorless with HFI (only available in v4.3 as of now): • Supports very low speed operation in sensorless mode. • Works only with Internal PMSM motors. • Requires STM32F3xx and above. 9
  10. 10. Current sensing topologies • To measure the motor phase currents some form of sensing and conditioning network is required. • The STM32 FOC SDK supports three current sensing network • Insulated current sensor (ICS) • Three shunts • Single shunt 10 Three shunts Single shunt Insulated current sesor (ICS) Cost optimized Best quality
  11. 11. Three shunts current reading methodology • The sampling of the currents must be performed when the corresponding low side switch is turned on. 11 ADC Gate Driver + - OpAmp + Offset + - OpAmp + Offset + - OpAmp + Offset
  12. 12. ICS current reading methodology • The sampling of the currents can be performed every where in the PWM period. 12 ADC Gate Driver + - Conditioning + - Conditioning
  13. 13. Single shunt current reading methodology • For each configuration of the low side switches, the current that is flowing in the shunt resistor can be one of the motor phase current. 13 ADC + - OpAmp + Offset AL BL CL iShunt Open Open Open 0 Open Close Close iA Open Open Close -iC Close Open Close iB Close Open Open -iA Close Close Open iC Open Close Open -iB Close Close Close 0 iA iShunt
  14. 14. 14 FOC diagram (speed control) vds vqs + - + - PID PID iqs ids iqs* ids* REVERSE PARK & circle limitation CALC SVPWM CURRENT READING va,b,c θr el vαβs iabc s PARK θr el iαβ s CLARKE + - ωr ωr * ROTOR SPEED/POSITION FEEDBACK 3 phase inverter PMSM Motor ~ Power converter AC Mains ~ ICS / shunts enc / Hall MTPA & FLUX WEAKENING CONTROLLER PID DC domain AC domain
  15. 15. 15 Presentation Title Luenberger’s Observer Sensorless Block diagram CALC SVPWM CURRENT READING va,b,c vαβ s iabc s iαβ s CLARKE PMSM Motor ~ Power converter ~ 3 phase inverter vDC meas ICS / shunts BACK-EMFs CALCULATION Bus voltage measurement iαβ s vα’β’s vBUS b-emf α b-emf β Rotor Angle/Speed reconstruction θr el ωr
  16. 16. SMART SHUTDOWN-BKIN, DC V - TEMP PMSM FOC – Block Diagram 16 Speed Control FOC Current Control Motor + ωr *,t vds vqs + - - PID PID iqd iq* id* REVERSE PARK + circle limitation vabc θr el vαβ iabc PARK θr el iαβ CLARKE MTPA & FLUX WEAKENING CONTROLLER Speed sensors: Sensorless, Hall, Encoder ROTOR SPEED/POSITION FEEDBACK PID Te* + - Space Vector PWM Current sensors: 3shunt/1shunt/ ICS PHASE CURRENTS FEEDBACK RAMP GENERATOR ωr* Gate drivers Power Bridge ST SLLIMM™ IPM ωr DC domain AC domain
  17. 17. Dual PMSM FOC – Block Diagram 17 Gate drivers Power bridge1 Motor1 va,b,c Speed sensors: Sensorless, Hall, Encoder BKIN Current sensors: 3shunt/1shunt/ICS Power bridge2 Motor2 Speed sensors: Sensorless, Hall, Encoder Current sensors: 3shunt/1shunt/ICS va,b,c BKIN ωr *1 ωr *2 Gate drivers
  18. 18. STM32 Motor Control SDK MC Software Development Kit 18 v5.x
  19. 19. Motor Control Development Workflow Hardware Setup Motor Characterization System Configuration Motor Control Workbench Project Configuration CubeMX & IDE Motor Drive Tuning Tune MC part Final Application Development 19
  20. 20. STM32 MC Profiler • Automatic detection of key parameters • Zero equipment required • Spin motor within less than 1min • Best accuracy when Rs ≥ 1 Ω and Ls ≥ 1 mH 20
  21. 21. Motor Profiler features 21 • Measure electrical parameters of a PMSM motor: Rs, Ls, Ke • Measure mechanical parameters: J, F • On the fly set up of current regulators and Sensorless algorithm • Run any motor in less than one minute • No additional HW and equipment required • Estimated parameters can be uploaded to the ST MC Workbench GUI, for successive settings New algorithm Electrical motor parameters Mechanical motor parameters Current regulators tuning Sensorless tuning
  22. 22. Motor Profiler Steps Parameters detection process 22 Motor stopped • Rs measurement • Ls measurement • Current regulators set-up Open loop • Ke measurement • Sensorless state observer set-up • Switch over Closed loop • Friction coefficient measurement • Moment of inertia measurement • Speed regulator set-up 10 sec 5 sec 45 sec
  23. 23. SDK5.x Motor Control Workbench New Project Options 23
  24. 24. Old STM32 MC Workbench v4.3 24 • Dedicated PC software that reduces the design effort and time in the STM32 MC FW library configuration. • This workbench PC GUI generates all parameter header files which configures the library according to user MC application needs. Motor Power Stage Drive Management Control Stage
  25. 25. New GUI for MCSDK5.x 25
  26. 26. New GUI for MCSDK5.x Generate 26 • Generates complete project including Cube MX IOC file (Can be used to Initialize other peripherals used by the application). • Supports multiple IDE Toolchains.
  27. 27. TECHNICAL PART 27
  28. 28. SDK5.0 FW Architecture Overview 28 Motor Control Cockpit - MC API - Motor Control Library - Lower Level API - MC Loop Safety Loop FOC Loop Init. / Config. Revup Gate Control Encoder Alignment On the Fly Startup Bus Voltage Sensing Current Sensing & PWM Gen. Temperature Sensing Speed & Position Feedback Max. Torque per Ampere Feed Forward Flux Weakening PID Regulator Ramp Manager Circle Limitation Speed & Torque Control Power Measurement Inrush Current Limiter Open Loop FOC GPIO Driver Components Instantiation Components Configuration State Machine Components integration Over Current P. Under Current P. Over Voltage P. Over Heating P. Park / Park-1 Clarke / PWM Components integration MC Math UI Library - UI API - API Implementation Motor 1 Functions Motor 2 Functions DAC LCD UART Communication MC Protocol HAL / LL Application The FW is divided into 3 parts: • User Interface Library • MC Cockpit • Motor Control Library
  29. 29. Encoder alignment Inrush current limiter MC Application – State macchine • State machine has been enriched with new states • Charge boot cap (it can be disabled modifing CHARGE_BOOT_CAP_ENABLING define in MCTasks.c), Offset calibration, Clear, ICL Wait • Parallel path for encoder alignment 29 IDLE IDLE START CHARGE BOOT CAP OFFSET CALIB CLEAR START ICLWAIT IDLE ALIGN ALIGN CHARGE BOOT CAP ALIGN OFFSET CALIB ALIGN CLEAR ALIGN START RUN RUN ANY STOP STOP STOP IDLE FAULT NOW FAULT OVER
  30. 30. HAL MC SDK FW lib architecture - v4.3 vs v5.1 30 MC WB (GUI) Stdlib MC WB (GUI) LL MC param: Pole pairs,… Product IPs: ADC, TIM,… CubeMX (GUI) SDK v4.3 Registers LL Bi-directional interaction (limited) Registers SDK v5.0 Yesterday Today CUBEMX is called by MCWB (in the background) or by user upon request  MC code size gain: 29% (average)  CPU workload gain: Up to 21% and/ or MC FW lib. STM32 Config. MC FW lib. STM32 Config. Motor Control FOC Appli. Config. Total code size gain 15% (average) (based on LL) since v5.1 MC WB unchanged code size < 22KB 15% code size gain from v4.3 to V5.1 !
  31. 31. 31 MC Workbench MC Profiler MC Monitor MC TOOLS MC Templates CubeMX LL/HAL IDE MC project MC SDK5.x CMSIS MC Library Today: Motor Control SDK v5.x MC Library and MC Tools STM32 CUBE Customized code
  32. 32. FW Library Version 4.3 Version 5.x Architecture 3 main parts: MCApplication/ MCLibrary and UI_Library Same concept: Motor Cockpit/ Motor Control library and User Interface Library Workspace 1 for library/ 1 for application code Only 1 workspace for library and application code API 4.3 API used as reference Simplified/ Per motor Coding style Object Oriented C code Cube Architecture C code Drivers used SPL HAL- LL Peripheral initialization Done inside FW main file through #define/ All MCU code present in the code Done automatically by CubeMx/ Only necessary code generated Main readability Main code difficult to modify (Large/ #define parts to understand and handle by customer..) Done automatically by CubeMx/ Only necessary code generated 32
  33. 33. MC FW library features list available in Motor Control SDK v5.x (X-CUBE-MCSDK) 33 STM32 series F0 F1 F3 F4 F7 (v5.3) L4 (V5.3) G0 (V5.3) • 1 Shunt        • 3 Shunt        • Hall sensors        • ICS        • Flux weakening        • MTPA        • Sensorless (PLL / Cordic)        • Feed Forward        • Single FOC        • Dual FOC  /   /  
  34. 34. SDK FW library features summary 34 HALL sensor MTPA Speed sensor: Current sensor: Bus voltage sensor Temperature sensor Flux weakening FOC Feed forward Motor profiler Ramp Encoder Sensorless PWM Speed PI Iq PI Id PI STM32F0 STM32F3 … 1 shunt 3 shunt ICS Speed and Torque control Large MCU portfolio Single/Dual Motor Sensors Features PI regulators Microcontrollers FOC: Field oriented Control, HFI: High frequency Injection, ICS: Isolated Current Sensor MTPA : Maximum Torque Per Ampere, PWM: Pulse Width Modulation, PFC: Power factor correction Actuators
  35. 35. ST Evaluation Board Offer
  36. 36. Motor control kits STM32100B-MCKIT STM3210B-MCKIT Part Number Description ST Link on-board Type P-NUCLEO-IHM001 STM32 Nucleo Pack FOC and 6-step control for Low voltage 3-ph motors Yes (embedded) Single drive P-NUCLEO-IHM002 with DC Power supply STM32100B-MCKIT Motor control starter kit for STM32F100 (128KB Flash) Value Line MCUs Yes Single drive STM3210B-MCKIT Motor control starter kit for STM32 (128KB flash) Performance and Access Line microcontrollers No Single drive Serial communication RS232 The motor control kit connections represented below can also be applied when combining STM32 control boards and evaluation power boards. • P-NUCLEO-IHM001 • P-NUCLEO-IHM002 Back 36
  37. 37. STEVAL-IHM042V1 STEVAL-IHM043V1 ST Complete Inverters Part Number Description ST Link on-board Type STEVAL-IHM034V2 Dual-motor control and PFC demonstration board featuring the STM32F103 and STGIPS20C60 No Single/Dual drive STEVAL-IHM036V1 Low-power motor control board featuring the SLLIMM™ STGIPN3H60 and MCU STM32F100C6T6B No Single drive STEVAL-IHM038V1 BLDC ceiling fan controller based on STM32 and SLLIMM-nano No Single drive STEVAL-IHM040V1 BLDC/PMSM driver demonstration board based on STM32 and the SLLIMM-nano No Single drive STEVAL-IHM042V1 Compact, low-voltage dual-motor control board based on the STM32F303 and L6230 Yes Single/Dual drive STEVAL-IHM043V1 6-Step BLDC sensorless driver board based on the STM32F051 and L6234 No Single drive STEVAL-IHM034V2 STEVAL-IHM036V1 STEVAL-IHM040V1 37 Back STEVAL-IHM038V1
  38. 38. Flexible MC Platform MC Connector Full set of control boards featuring all ST MCUs Full set of power boards featuring Power Transistors, IPM, and MC Driver ICs. + X-NUCLEO-IHM09M1 Connector Adapter NUCLEO-XX Control board STM32XX-EVAL Control board STEVAL-XX Power board 38 Back
  39. 39. The MC connector 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 FAULT PWM 1 High PWM 1 Low PWM 2 High PWM 2 Low PWM 3 High PWM 3 Low Current phase A Current phase B Current phase C NTC by pass Relay Dissipative Brake PWM 5V PFC Sync PFC PWM Encoder A / Hall A / Bemf A Encoder B / Hall B / Bemf B GND GND GND GND GND GND Bus Voltage Sensing GND GND GND GND GND Heat sink temperature Monitor Vdd Micro GND GND Encoder Index / Hall C/ BEMF C 34-pin connector dedicated to motor control applications, it is a standard ST interface between MCU evaluation boards and power boards. 39 Back
  40. 40. STM32 evaluation boards with MC connector Part Number Description ST Link on-board Type STM32072B-EVAL Evaluation board with STM32F072VB MCU Yes Single drive STM3210E-EVAL Evaluation board for STM32 F1 series - with STM32F103 MCU No Single drive STM3220G-EVAL Evaluation board for STM32 F2 series - with STM32F207IG MCU Yes Single drive STM32303E-EVAL Evaluation board for STM32F303xx microcontrollers Yes Single/Dual drive STM32446E-EVAL Evaluation board for STM32F407 line - with STM32F407IG MCU Yes Single drive STEVAL-IHM039V1 Dual motor drive control stage based on the STM32F415ZG microcontroller No Single/Dual drive STM32303E-EVAL STM32446G-EVAL STM32072B-EVAL (1) for high-voltage applications if not implemented in the evaluation board In-circuit debugger/programmer..  ST-LINK/V2  ST-LINK/V2-ISOL (2500 VRMS high isolation voltage)(1) For the complete list visit st.com 40 Back
  41. 41. Key hardware features 1/3 Reference / bundle Voltage Power Motor type / control type * ST Parts Application focus STEVAL-IPM05F 125 – 400 VDC Up to 700 W PMSM/BLDC FOC/6-step 3-shunt • 1 x STGIF5CH60TS-L • 1x TSV994 Power board: water pumps, fans, dish washers and more STEVAL-IPM07F 125 – 400 VDC Up to 800 W PMSM/BLDC FOC/6-step Single/3-shunt • 1 x STGIF7CH60TS-L • 1x TSV994 Power board: water pumps, fans and more STEVAL-IPM10F 125 – 400 VDC Up to 1 kW PMSM/BLDC FOC/6-step • 1 x STGIF10CH60TS-L • 1x TSV994 Power board: pumps, compressors, washing machines and more STEVAL-IPM10B 125 – 400 VDC Up to 1.2 kW PMSM/BLDC FOC/6-step single/3-shunt • 1 x STGIB10CH60TS-L • 1x TSV994 Power board: pumps, compressors, air conditioning and more STEVAL-IPM15B 125 – 400 VDC Up to 1.5kW PMSM/BLDC FOC/6-step single/3-shunt • 1 x STGIB15CH60TS-L • 1x TSV994 Power board: pumps, compressors, fans, dish washers and more 41 Back
  42. 42. Key hardware features 2/3 Reference / bundle Voltage Power Motor type / control type * ST parts Application focus STEVAL-IHM021V2 120/230 VAC nominal (60/50 Hz) Up to 100 W PMSM/BLDC FOC/6-step 3-shunt • 3x L6390 • 1x Viper12 • 6x STD5N52U Power board: water pumps, fans, dish washers, washing machines STEVAL-IHM023V3 90 – 285 VAC 125 – 400 VDC Up to 1 kW PMSM/BLDC FOC/6-step Single/3-shunt • 3x L6390 • 1x Viper16 • 7x STGP10H60DF Power board: pumps, compressors, washing machines and more STEVAL-IHM028V2 90 – 285 VAC 125 – 400 VDC Up to 2 kW PMSM/BLDC FOC/6-step Single/3-shunt •1x STGIPS20C60 • 1x VIPer26LD • 1x STGW35NB60SD Power board: pumps, compressors, air conditioning and more STEVAL-IHM032V1 230 VAC nominal 86 to 260 VAC Up to 150 W PMSM/BLDC FOC/6-step Single/3-shunt • 2x L6392D • 1x L6391D • 1x Viper12 • 6 x STGD3HF60HD Power board: pumps, compressors, fans, dish washers and more STEVAL-IHM035V2 120/230 VAC nominal Up to 100 W PMSM/BLDC FOC/6-step single-shunt • 1x STGIPN3H60 • 1x VIPer16L Power board: pumps, compressors, fans, dish washers and more STEVAL-IHM045V1 30 – 270 VAC 40 – 400 VDC Up to 100 W PMSM FOC Single/3-shunt • 1x STGIPN3H60A • 1x VIPer06L • 1x TSV994 Power board: pumps, compressors, fans, dish washers and more 42 Back
  43. 43. Key hardware features 3/3 Reference / bundle Voltage Power / current Motor type / control type * ST Parts Application focus X-NUCLEO-IHM07M1 Up to 48V Up to 2.5A PMSM/BLDC FOC/6-step Single/3-shunt  1x L6230  1x BAT30KFILM  1xTSV994IPT Sewing machines, pumps, drones, X-NUCLEO-IHM08M1 10 – 48Vdc Up to 15A PMSM/BLDC FOC/6-step Single/3-shunt  6xSTL220N6F7  3xL6398  1xTSV994IPT Drones, e-bikes, drills, pumps, etc. X-NUCLEO-IHM09M1 - - Motor control connector adapter  Not silicon devices Allow connection of STM32 NUCLEO boards with any ST motor control power boards 43 End
  44. 44. Releasing your creativity 44 - Thank you -