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Food Color Measurement in Practice

Manish Kapadia
Chief Manager - CTP

Jay Instruments & Systems Pvt. Ltd.

India

Colour...
Food Color Measurement in Practice
•

"All animals eat, but humans feed," says

Fergus M. Clydesdale, Ph.D., professor
and...
Food Color Measurement in Practice
• Why Me asure Color?
• Color as an indirect me asure of product
quality or processing ...
Food industry examples

Colour and Textile Products
Mochi

Bread

Cookies

Fish

Eggs

Vegetables

Candy

Rice
crackers

Fish
paste

Bean
paste

Soy
sauce

Fruits

Rice

Spri...
Bread

Cookies

Fish

Eggs

Vegetables

Fish
paste

Uneven/curve
Bean
d surface
paste

Solid
Soy

sauce

Soft
Fruits

Rice...
Color measurem ent of proc essed foods
Variations in
processing
conditions

Mixing

Production
location

Processing
temper...
Color measurem ent for agricultural,
anim al, and fisheries products
Relationship betw een
culturing conditions and
color
...
Various measurement methods
Reflectance

Opaque samples
such as miso,
bread, snacks,
flavorings, beans,
noodles, etc.

Tra...
Color measurement of solid (dry) samples
Bread,
vegetable
s, fruit

Portable
instruments

Directly

Colour and Textile Pro...
Color measurem ent of solid (wet) sam ples
BUTTER
Amul

Yellow ness Index

The Taste of India

YI (AS TM E313)

L

a

b

B...
Color measurement of solid (wet ) samples
Meat,
fish,
cheese

Portable instruments

Glass LightProjection Tube

Glass cove...
Colour and Textile Products
Meas urement ex ample: Farmed fis h
Color control
of farmed sea
bream

Reflec tance

CRCR-400

To ensure uniform quality f...
Natural sea bream

Farmed sea bream
Since they are in
shallow water,
sunlight reaches them.

SemiSemi-dried/ dried
feed + ...
The coloration of farmed fish can be adjusted by
adjusting the feed and the sunlight conditions.

At first, a net is stret...
The color of the sea bream is adjusted to a uniform level at the proper timing for shipment

d
F ee

Feed containing red
c...
30 to 50 sea bream are taken as samples
from the large quantity of fish in the fish
pen, and the color ing is inspected.

...
Measurement example: Eggs
Reflec tance

CRCR-400

Colour and Textile Products
Example of measuring egg yolks

The color of the yolks can be adjusted by
changing the feed fed to the hens.

Colour and T...
Egg yolk color evaluation methods
Visual evaluation using an egg
yolk color chart (15 cards)
Search for
the color
card wit...
Color measurem ent of powders/granules
Flour,
Flavorings,
Beans

Portable
instruments

Desktop
instruments

Petri Dish
Dir...
Application example

• Measuring a grain sample
Hulled

From
Hokkai
do

From From
China Canada

8mm
measuring
area

50mm

...
Application example
•

Measuring a grain
sample

Grains

From
Hokkaido

From
China

From
Canada

Larger measuring
areas ar...
10 consecutive measurements of same position
(∆E*ab from first measurement)
Measurement area
Ø8mm
8mm

Ø30mm
30mm

Petri d...
Application ex ample: M eas uring a grain
•10 measurements; samplesample of and back into container
poured out

between me...
Portable Chrom a M eter CR-410 is ideal
for measuring the color of roasted c offee
Simple

Quick

Stable
values
•Aroma, ta...
Measuring coffee powder with portable Chroma Meter CR-410

No need to wash cell
1) Pour powder into
cell.

2) Put cell in ...
Problems with desktop instruments
•Differences due to variations in filling
because
of coarseness of ground coffee powder
...
Differences due to variations in filling because
of coarseness of ground coffee powder
CRCR- 410
Recommended
For Top view
...
Differences due to staining of c ell by oil
from ground c offee powder
Comparison of measurement
repeatability using glass...
Washing and drying cells takes
time.

CRCR-410
Recommended
For Top view
measurements

Measure from above
Measure
Measure
M...
CROnAnother advantage of CR -410 vs. desktop instruments On-site measurements

■ With desktop instruments

Take sample to ...
Loose tea measurement
example

CR-410
Colour and Textile Products
Different Types of Tea
Black Tea
normally what we drink, it has been
oxidized longer, tends to have more
caffeine and a st...
Loose tea measurement method
Measuring area:

LightAttach Glass Light- Projection
Tube to the instrument and
place directl...
Measurement example: Wheat flour
Reflectance
Measurement
diameter:
Ø30mm

Toward flour
whiteness like
that of
Canadian and...
Wheat flour is measured in paste
form, not in powdered form.
Wheat flour

×

Wheat flour (6g) + Water (8g)

Colour and Tex...
This is because measurements in paste form are more
stable than measurements in powder form

In powdered form

Diffuse ref...
Medicines,
Foods

Color measurement of tablets
Portable
instruments

Ø2.8-3mm
Target Mask

Colour and Textile Products

De...
Pasta,
Noodles

Color measurements of rod samples
Portable
instruments

Desktop
instruments

Rod
sample jig

Directly

Col...
Reflectance color meas urem ent of liquids
Ketchu
p, Juice

Portable
instruments

Directly with Glass
Light-Projection
Tub...
Transmittanc e color measurement of liquids
wine,
Tea, drinks , wine, Gardner, Iodine, Hazen
(APHA), European Pharmacopoei...
ColorColor-measuring instruments: Rarely seen but widely used

From ice cream, yogurt and cheeses in the dairy
section, to...
Conclusion
Color-measuring instruments are us ed for measuring the
color of an amazing range of objects, from cars to food...
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Food color measurement jisl

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Food Color Measurement techniques in the Food Industry

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Food color measurement jisl

  1. 1. Food Color Measurement in Practice Manish Kapadia Chief Manager - CTP Jay Instruments & Systems Pvt. Ltd. India Colour and Textile Products
  2. 2. Food Color Measurement in Practice • "All animals eat, but humans feed," says Fergus M. Clydesdale, Ph.D., professor and department head, Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst. • "Eating is a festive occasion, and color adds to the enjoyment of food." Colour and Textile Products
  3. 3. Food Color Measurement in Practice • Why Me asure Color? • Color as an indirect me asure of product quality or processing performance (eg. fres hness, over-ripeness or under-ripeness, purity, refining, mailard etc) • Uniformity of Color in Production : as Quality • Color can dramatically influence the flavor perception of food. Everyone says NO to Blue food; blue steak, red peas and green frenc h fries are diffic ult to eat…! Colour and Textile Products
  4. 4. Food industry examples Colour and Textile Products
  5. 5. Mochi Bread Cookies Fish Eggs Vegetables Candy Rice crackers Fish paste Bean paste Soy sauce Fruits Rice Sprinkles Alcohol Tea Juice Meat Flour Coffee beans Sesame seeds Bean sprouts Soba flour Jelly Milk Japanese sweets Chocola te Azuki beans Kiwi fruit Ice cream Natto Fried foods Bean jam buns Shiso Butter Spices Soybeans Side dishes Wine Cheese Jam Ice-cream cones Shellfish Flavorings Pasta Mayonnaise Sauces Snacks Noodles Gum Soup Seaweed Health foods Bonito flakes BBQ sauce Wheat germ Colour and Textile Products
  6. 6. Bread Cookies Fish Eggs Vegetables Fish paste Uneven/curve Bean d surface paste Solid Soy sauce Soft Fruits Rice Meat Flour Tablets Tea Uneven Soba color flour Ice Granules cream Juice Coffee Paste beans Japanese Chocolat Wide variety of eets Opaque Milk sw e consistencies Fried Natto and foods Shiso shapes Bean jam Liquid buns Jelly Granule Side Soysize beans dishes Powder Wine Cheese Transluce Jam nt Mayonnaise Rods Sauces Snacks SeaHealth Soup Colour and Textile Products weed foods Bonito flakes BBQ sauce Flavorings Pasta Cand Sprink Sesa seed Azu bean Butt Ice crea cone Nood Wet Whe germ
  7. 7. Color measurem ent of proc essed foods Variations in processing conditions Mixing Production location Processing temperature Harvest period Powdering Shipment Variations in quality of raw materials Receiving Management of whether the color of a processed food is within a specified range or not Variations in storage conditions Oxidation Temperature Dissolution Filling/ Packing Processing time Colour and Textile Products Cooling Shipment Expiry date
  8. 8. Color measurem ent for agricultural, anim al, and fisheries products Relationship betw een culturing conditions and color Production location Climate conditions For determining freshness, grade, etc. Feed Fertilizer Soil moisture Humidity Harvest time Period of exposure to sunlight Colour and Textile Products Storage conditions
  9. 9. Various measurement methods Reflectance Opaque samples such as miso, bread, snacks, flavorings, beans, noodles, etc. Transmission reflectance Translucent samples such as seaweed, jellies, meat, soup, etc. Colour and Textile Products Transmittance Transparent samples such as drinks, tea, soy sauce, honey, juice, oils, etc.
  10. 10. Color measurement of solid (dry) samples Bread, vegetable s, fruit Portable instruments Directly Colour and Textile Products Desktop instruments Directly
  11. 11. Color measurem ent of solid (wet) sam ples BUTTER Amul Yellow ness Index The Taste of India YI (AS TM E313) L a b Butter 38 85 2.5 24.5 White Butter Presalted 19 88 0 12 Veg. FAT 37 84 5 24 Am ulite Spread 28 88 4 18 Yellow Wrapper 79 Cotton Sam ple in Lab 8 Colour and Textile Products
  12. 12. Color measurement of solid (wet ) samples Meat, fish, cheese Portable instruments Glass LightProjection Tube Glass cover Desktop instruments Wrapped Wrapped Wrap sample in colorless transparent plastic or use a glass-tipped light projection tube or glass cover for measurements. Colour and Textile Products Wrap sample in colorless transparent plastic or place sample on top of a nonreflective glass plate for measurements.
  13. 13. Colour and Textile Products
  14. 14. Meas urement ex ample: Farmed fis h Color control of farmed sea bream Reflec tance CRCR-400 To ensure uniform quality for shipped sea bream with the aim of establishing a brand image. Colour and Textile Products
  15. 15. Natural sea bream Farmed sea bream Since they are in shallow water, sunlight reaches them. SemiSemi-dried/ dried feed + Colorant Sunlight Feed Sunlight doesn't reach deep in the ocean. Colorant (Astaxanthin) Colour and Textile Products Shrimp; Crabs
  16. 16. The coloration of farmed fish can be adjusted by adjusting the feed and the sunlight conditions. At first, a net is stretched around the fish pen and the fish are left white. Colour and Textile Products
  17. 17. The color of the sea bream is adjusted to a uniform level at the proper timing for shipment d F ee Feed containing red colorant is given to the sea bream. Reddens Colour and Textile Products
  18. 18. 30 to 50 sea bream are taken as samples from the large quantity of fish in the fish pen, and the color ing is inspected. Measurement example Abdomen L* =70 Dorsal area a* =12 The above values are used as the standard color for deter mining whether or not fish can be shipped. Colour and Textile Products Head a* =7
  19. 19. Measurement example: Eggs Reflec tance CRCR-400 Colour and Textile Products
  20. 20. Example of measuring egg yolks The color of the yolks can be adjusted by changing the feed fed to the hens. Colour and Textile Products
  21. 21. Egg yolk color evaluation methods Visual evaluation using an egg yolk color chart (15 cards) Search for the color card with color closest to that of the egg yolk. Colour and Textile Products Evaluation using CR-400 Yolk is placed in a container and measured
  22. 22. Color measurem ent of powders/granules Flour, Flavorings, Beans Portable instruments Desktop instruments Petri Dish Directly with Glass Light Projection Tube Granular-Materials Attachment Jig for measuring powders Colour and Textile Products
  23. 23. Application example • Measuring a grain sample Hulled From Hokkai do From From China Canada 8mm measuring area 50mm Greener means fresher. Colour and Textile Products
  24. 24. Application example • Measuring a grain sample Grains From Hokkaido From China From Canada Larger measuring areas are better. CR-400 CM-5 CR-410 Measuring area Measuring area Measuring area ∅ 8mm ∅ 30mm Colour and Textile Products ∅ 50mm
  25. 25. 10 consecutive measurements of same position (∆E*ab from first measurement) Measurement area Ø8mm 8mm Ø30mm 30mm Petri dish diameter: Ø50mm 50mm Colour and Textile Products Ø50mm 50mm Measurement
  26. 26. Application ex ample: M eas uring a grain •10 measurements; samplesample of and back into container poured out between measurements (Color difference ∆E*ab from first measurement) Repeatability for hulled grains at various measuring areas CR(∅ CR- 400 ( ∅8mm) CM- (∅ CM - 5 ( ∅30mm) CR(∅ CR- 410 ( ∅50mm) Color difference ∆E*ab E*ab 5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Grain type From Hokkaido Grain type From China Colour and Textile Products Grain type From Canada
  27. 27. Portable Chrom a M eter CR-410 is ideal for measuring the color of roasted c offee Simple Quick Stable values •Aroma, taste, and c olor are recognized as important factors in judging the roasting status of coffee beans. Colour and Textile Products Using only the measuring head is also possible
  28. 28. Measuring coffee powder with portable Chroma Meter CR-410 No need to wash cell 1) Pour powder into cell. 2) Put cell in stand. 3) Measure from on top of stand. Measuring button Heap coffee in cell. Stand flattens top. Colour and Textile Products
  29. 29. Problems with desktop instruments •Differences due to variations in filling because of coarseness of ground coffee powder •Differences due to staining of cell by oil from ground coffee powder Wash •Washing and drying cells takes time. Colour and Textile Products
  30. 30. Differences due to variations in filling because of coarseness of ground coffee powder CRCR- 410 Recommended For Top view measurements CRAlthough portable, the CR - 410 has a large ∅50mm measuring area to av erage out differences. variations in filling and greatly reduc e measurement differences. In addition, the x enon lamp provides high illumination to enable accurate measurements even of dark colors. Colour and Textile Products
  31. 31. Differences due to staining of c ell by oil from ground c offee powder Comparison of measurement repeatability using glass cell and coffee meas urement jig without washing between measurements Measure Measurement repeatability using desktop instrument and glass cell CRMeasurement repeatability using CR-410 and coffee jig with glass cell 2.5 2.5 2 2 1.5 1.5 1 0.5 0.5 L* variation 1 L* variation Measure 0 -0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1 -1.5 -1.5 -2 -2 -2.5 -2.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Measurement repeti ions t Colour and Textile Products 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Measurement repeti ions t 8 9 10
  32. 32. Washing and drying cells takes time. CRCR-410 Recommended For Top view measurements Measure from above Measure Measure Measure from below Necess ary Wash Bottom of cell is difficult to wash and stains are difficult to remove. Colour and Textile Products Unnecessary Wash
  33. 33. CROnAnother advantage of CR -410 vs. desktop instruments On-site measurements ■ With desktop instruments Take sample to lab...... Lab Instrument CR■ With portable CR- 410 Measurements can be taken easily on site! Lab CR-410 Colour and Textile Products
  34. 34. Loose tea measurement example CR-410 Colour and Textile Products
  35. 35. Different Types of Tea Black Tea normally what we drink, it has been oxidized longer, tends to have more caffeine and a stronger flavor Green Tea least amount of oxidation, can be found in the local grocery store Oolong Tea the in-between tea, it is brewed strong and bitter but leaves a sweet aftertaste Colour and Textile Products
  36. 36. Loose tea measurement method Measuring area: LightAttach Glass Light- Projection Tube to the instrument and place directly on sample in container to take measurements. Evaluation is perfor med using L*a*b* and h (hue) from L*C*h. Colour and Textile Products Ø50mm 50mm CR-410
  37. 37. Measurement example: Wheat flour Reflectance Measurement diameter: Ø30mm Toward flour whiteness like that of Canadian and Australian products The problem w as natural: semolina w heat grains vary in color. The manufacturer combines both grain and flour lots to average the color mixtures, but numer ical standards and tolerances are needed to assist operations in averaging the ingredients. The solution w as first standardizing an ideal semolina flour using a Konica Minolta Color imeter System, and then measuring individual flour lots for their color characteristics. By sample averaging, color variability w ithin each lot w as reduced, and then computer color matching of lots for successful color mixture potential in a final flour blend became possible. Colour and Textile Products
  38. 38. Wheat flour is measured in paste form, not in powdered form. Wheat flour × Wheat flour (6g) + Water (8g) Colour and Textile Products ○ This is the method for color measurement specified by the wheat flour industry.
  39. 39. This is because measurements in paste form are more stable than measurements in powder form In powdered form Diffuse reflectance varies according to particle arrangement or distribution, causing measurement values to vary. Colour and Textile Products In paste form When particles are dissolved in water, measurement values are stable.
  40. 40. Medicines, Foods Color measurement of tablets Portable instruments Ø2.8-3mm Target Mask Colour and Textile Products Desktop instruments Ø3mm Target Mask
  41. 41. Pasta, Noodles Color measurements of rod samples Portable instruments Desktop instruments Rod sample jig Directly Colour and Textile Products
  42. 42. Reflectance color meas urem ent of liquids Ketchu p, Juice Portable instruments Directly with Glass Light-Projection Tube attached Glass cup Liquid reflectance measuring jig Colour and Textile Products Desktop instruments Petri Dish
  43. 43. Transmittanc e color measurement of liquids wine, Tea, drinks , wine, Gardner, Iodine, Hazen (APHA), European Pharmacopoeia, and USPharmacopeia next to all classic colorimetric evaluation systems. The new Konica Minolta CM-5 is a highly versatile and extremely easy to use Bench-Top Spectrophotometer with top-port alignment for easy measurement of powders, granules as well as past y materials in Reflection and transparent or semi transparent liquids and solids in Transmission. Such samples are t ypically to be found in foods, ingredients, drinks, pharmaceutical, cosmetics as well as man y Chemical base products. The CM-5 can be used in “stand alone” mode thanks to the multi language firmware, large colour screen and control key p anel, or connected to the optional PC software SpectraMagic NX. Colour and Textile Products Desktop instruments Cell for transmittance measurement s
  44. 44. ColorColor-measuring instruments: Rarely seen but widely used From ice cream, yogurt and cheeses in the dairy section, to lunch meats, sausages and sauce s, we are working with food technologists to help test and assure that their final product color ha s the "eyeappeal“ needed for retail succe ss. Color-measuring instruments are us ed for color control of a s urpris ing v ariety of items. Think about all the colored things in your neighborhood stores . Probably a colormeas uring instrum ent was used for them too! Colour and Textile Products
  45. 45. Conclusion Color-measuring instruments are us ed for measuring the color of an amazing range of objects, from cars to foods, paints, plastics, textiles, appliances, building materials, cosmetics, paper, etc., even people's skin! Let us help you with the latest in color knowledge including color-measuring instruments, color-difference control, etc., so that you can make full use of color-measuring instruments in your day-to-day work. Manish Kapadia Jay Instruments & Systems Pvt. Ltd. India Konica Minolta Sensing Colour and Textile Products

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