Training provides employees with the knowledge and skills to
perform more effectively. This allows them to meet current job
requirement or prepares them to meet the inevitable changes
that occur in their jobs. However, training is only an opportunity
for learning. What is learned depends on many factors, such as
the design and implementation of training, the motivation and
learning style of the trainees, and the learning climate of the
Training goals and roles
Training is also part of an integrated system in which
performance is measured against criteria (best practices
benchmarks) that are tied to strategic objectives. Training is used
extensively to help employee understand how they can assist in
meeting cooperative objectives.
Training goals and roles
A business must interact with its environment and thus it is an
open system. Open systems have dynamic relationship with
their environment, but closed system do not interact with their
environment. Inputs from the environment keeps the system
active. The environmental inputs are transformed into outputs
by the system’s processes.
Training as an open system
Training is a subsystem within the larger Human Resource Unit, which is itself
a subsystem of the company.
Input Process Output
Training’s Organizational Environment
Mission Strategy Structure Policies Procedures
Finance Resources People Products Technology
A training process model
Training should be viewed as a set of integrated processes in
which organizational and employee needs are analyzed and
responded to in a rational, logical and strategic manner. When
training is conducted in this manner, the organization will
improve, the value of training will increase and further
investment in training is likely to occur.
A training process model
The training process begins with some type of triggering event.
A triggering event occurs when a person with authority to take action
recognizes that Actual Organizational Performance (AOP) is less than the
Expected Organizational Performance (EOP).
Triggering Event = AOP<EOP
In a TNA, both training and non training needs are identified. An
effective training system begins with the identification of the
organization’s training needs. These need will create a
performance gap (AOP is less than EOP). Performance gap can be
current or future oriented. Things such as profitability shortfalls,
low level of customer satisfaction or excessive scrap are all
examples of current performance gap. Another type of
performance gap is future oriented. Here, the company is seen
as likely to perform poorly in the future unless changes are made.
Once a performance gap exists, the cause must then be
Inadequate KSA results in training needs. Other reasons for
performance gaps such as motivational issues etc are non
training needs and requires a different solution. In the analysis
phase, the cause of performance gap is identified , seperating
KSA from non KSA causes. Those performance gaps caused by
KSA deficiencies are identified as “Training needs” because
training is the solution. Analysis phase attaches priorities to the
training needs that are identified. Not all needs will have same
level of importance for the company. This process of data
gathering and causal analysis to determine which performance
problems should be addressed by training is the analysis phase of
the training phases.
Training needs identified in the analysis phase in addition to
areas of constraints and support is inputs to design phase. An
important output from the design phase is the development of
training objectives that provide specific direction for what will be
trained and how. These objectives specify the employee and
organizational outcomes that should be achieved as a result of
training and become inputs to the evaluation phase. Another part
in the design process is identifying the factors needed in the
training program to facilitate learning and its transfer back to the
job, including identifying alternative methods of instruction.
Program development is the process of formulating an
instructional strategy to meet a set of training objectives. The
instructional strategy consists of the order, timing, and
combination of methods and elements used in the training
program. Inputs to this phase are provided by design phase and
outputs are specific content, instructional methods, materials,
equipment's and media, manuals, and facilities integrated into a
training plan designed to achieve the training objectives. These
outputs of the development phase serve as inputs to the
All aspects of the training program come together during the
implementation phase. However, it is a mistake to assume that
everything will happen as planned. Therefore, it is useful to
conduct a dry run and even a pilot of the program.
Evaluation objectives are the outcomes of design phase and
become inputs to the evaluation phase. Another input is
organizational constraints. Time, money and staff all affect how
training is evaluated. Two types of evaluation are useful.
Process evaluation – How well a particular process achieved its
Outcome evaluation – Evaluation conducted at the end of
training to determine the effects of training on the trainee, job
and organization. This kind of evaluation uses the training
objectives as standard.
Challenges and opportunities for training
• Aligning training with business strategy.
• Changing demographics.
• Knowledge workers.
• Training as continuous improvement.
• Legal Issues.
Teaching the act of imparting knowledge.
Learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour in response to a
particular stimulus or set of stimuli.
Training is the systematic process of providing an opportunity to learn KSAs for
current or future jobs.
Development refers to the learning of KSAs.
Education focuses on general KSAs related to a person’s career or job.
Training is only an opportunity to learn.
What is learned depends on many factors such as
• Design and implementation of training.
• The motivation of trainee.
• Learning style of trainee.
• Learning climate of the organization.
Teaching is mostly theoretically oriented where as training is practical
Teaching provides new knowledge to the people while training helps the
already knowledgeable people to learn the tools and techniques to apply the
Training is subset of teaching.
Teacher provides information, knowledge, experience where as trainer
Teaching usually refers to classroom learning. On the contrary, training refers
workshops, seminars involving various games, role-plays, simulation methods
Teaching Vs Training
Knowledge is an organized body of facts, principles, procedures and
information acquired over time.
1. Declarative knowledge is a person’s store of factual information about a
2. Procedural knowledge is a person’s understanding about how and when
to apply the facts that have been learned.
3. Strategic knowledge is used for planning, monitoring and revising goal –
Knowledge is a prerequisite for learning skills.
Skills are the capacities needed to perform a set of tasks that are developed
as a result of training and experience.
There are two levels of skill acquisition.
1. Compilation (Lower level) – He needs to think about what he is doing
while he is performing the skill.
2. Automaticity (Higher level) - He is able to perform the skill without really
thinking about what he is doing.
Attitudes are employee belief and opinions that support or inhibit behavior.
Attitudes are important to training because they affect motivation.
A competency is a set of knowledge, skills and attitudes that enable a person
to be successful at a number of similar task.
A competency is more than just KSAs: It is the ability to integrate and use the
KSAs to perform a task successfully.