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DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES IDefining relative clauses give essential information.The man lives next door. He is very friendly.The man who lives next door is very friendly.We know a lot of people. They live in London.We know a lot of people who live in London.We use who or that in a relative clause when we are talking aboutpeople. Where are the eggs?- They were in the fridge.Where are the eggs that were in the fridge? The window has now been repaired. It was broken.The window which /that was broken has now been repaired. That is more usual than which when we talk about things.
DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES II The man who lives next door is friendly. Where are the eggs that were in the fridge.WHO and THAT are subjects in the relative clause. They cannot be omitted.Sometimes who and that are objects. The man was on holiday. I wanted to see him. The man I wanted to see was on holiday. Have you found the keys? –you lost them.Have you found the keys you lost.When who or that are objects of the verb in the relative clause we can leave them out.
DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES IIIWhose ( used instead of his/ her/ their) We saw some people . Their car broke down.We saw some people whose car broke down.Whom (when it is the object of the verb in the R. clause) The man was on holiday. We wanted to see him.The man whom we wanted to see was on holiday.Whom is not often used. In spoken English we prefer who or that or you can leave them out.Where ( to talk about places) The hotel wasn’t very clean. We stayed there.The hotel where we stayed wasn’t very clean.
Exercises I• Where are the people ? They promised to visit you.Where are the people who promised to visit you? This is the station. You can get the train to Madrid there.This is the station where you can get the train to Madrid. Tell me about the neighbour. His car has been stolen three times.Tell me about the neighbour whose car has been stolen… I saw her on Sunday. We were studying in the library then.I saw her on Sunday when we were studying in the library. I’m sure I know the man. Sue is talking to him.I’m sure I know the man Sue is talking to. She wrote a poem. It described her feelings about the news.She wrote a poem which described her feelings about …
NON-DEFINIG RELATIVE CLAUSES Non-defining relative clauses give us non- essential information. We have to use who for people and which for things. You cannot use that and you cannot leave out who or which. You have to put commas at the beginning and at the end.
Exercises• The man over there is an artist. I don’t remember his name.The man, whose name I don’t remember, is an artist.• Ana’s friend came to visit her last month. She lives in Italy.Ana’s friend, who lives in Italy, came to visit her last month.• “Working girl” was a famous film in the 80s. I first saw it the USA.“Working girl”, which I first saw in the USA, was a famous film in the 80s.• Pedro is in my class. He is Rosa’s boyfriend.Pedro, who is in my class, is Rosa’s boyfriend.• Yesterday we went to Ann’s party. We enjoyed it very much Yesterday we went to Ann’s party, which we enjoyed very much.
Non- Defining Relative Clauses• In non- essential relative clauses you can use prepositions before whom( for people) and which(for things). We can have: “to whom/ with whom/ about which/ for which” etc.Examples:• This is a photograph of our friends. We went on holidays with them.This is a photograph of our friends, with whom we went on holidays• Mr Smith is very interested in our plan. I spoke to him last night.Mr Smith, to whom I spoke last night, is very interested in our plan.Mr Smith, who I spoke to, is very interested in our plan. (Spoken English)• Our wedding took place last Friday. Only members of the family were invited to it.Our wedding, to which only members of the family were invited, took place last Friday.
Relative Clauses DEFINING NON-DEFININGHis wife is the lawyer who / that The handsome prince,who rescued Snowdefended me in court White, fell in love with her.Freedom is a right which / that every Will the story of Snow White, which mostperson deserves. of us enjoyed as children, be rewritten one day?I have a friend whose mother is a doctor My best friend, whose opinions often differ from mine, doesn’t like the message of the story.I’m looking for a workplace where I can My palace, where I want to take you, isuse my artistic talent. very beautiful.Do you remember the day when / that we In two years’ time, when I finish lawmet? school, I will fight for the rights of exploited people.
NOTE:• The relative pronoun that is not used in non-defining clauses. It is replaced be Who, Which or When
Join the sentences using a relative pronoun: • I lost a book. It has a red cover. • I had a book which / that has a red cover. • We spoke to a Japanese tourist. He lives in Kyoto. • We spoke to a Japanese tourist who lives in Kyoto. • The film is about a town in Italy. My sister lives there. • The film is about a town in Italy where my sister lives. • Last week I met a friend. Her husband is a pilot. • Last week I met a friend whose husband is a pilot. • My mother gave me a ring. It had belonged to my grandmother. • My nother gave a ring which / that had belonged to my mother.
Join the two sentences using non-defining relative clauses.• Peaches are my favourite fruit. They don’t grow in cold climates.• Peaches, which don’t grow in cold climates, are my favourite fruit.• In 1997 Princess Diana was killed in an accident. She was thirty-six years old.• In 1997 Princess Diana, who was thirty –six yeard old, was killed in an accident.• Our neighbours are very noisy people. Their house is very close to ours.• Our neighbours, whose house is very close to ours, are very noisy.• My sister always has time for me. She works long hours every day.• My sister ,who works long hours every day, always has time for me.• Paris is my favourite city. I met my husband there.• Paris, where I met my husband, is my favourite city.