He jumped over the wall.
After I had come into the room I locked the door.
He said he was going out that afternoon.
I am standing by the blackboard.
I live in London.
I’ll be seeing him tomorrow
The plane leaves at 6 p.m.
When he comes back I will have finished my work
He will tell you he will come next day.
THE PRESENT SIMPLE
Affirm. Interrog. and Neg.
3rd. Person singular + s
The –s ending:
-s /s / -ies /z / -es /iz
Speaks Studies Watches
USES OF THE SIMPLE PRESENT
THE PRESENT PERIOD
ABILITIES OR CAPACITIES
OBSERVATIONS AND DECLARATIONS
THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE
Wait – waiting; carry – carrying
Write – writing; use – using
Run – running; hit – hitting
Begin – beginning; forget – forgetting
Exceptions: label – labelling; quarrel – quarrelling
-ic ick: panic – panicking; traffic – trafficking
Lie – lying; die – dying; tie - tying
USES OF THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE
Actions in progress at the time of speaking
Planned actions: future reference
Repeated actions (annoyance, surprise, irritation)
STATIVE AND DYNAMIC VERBS
Stative: states, experiences or conditions.
Feelings, thinking or believing, wants and preferences,
perceptions and the senses, being, seeming, having
Dynamic: deliberate actions or changing
Simple Past Tense
With an adverb of past time which may refer to:
A) a point of time
B) a period of time
C) the time may be implied
He was born in in 1988
They lived in Ireland during the war.
I bought this book in London
Pronunciation of past tense regular
/t/ / d/ / id /
Walked arrived posted
Stopped occurred waited
An activity or state was continuing at some definite
time in the past:
This time last year I was travelling round the world.
When the chief interest is in the activity itself.
The girls were making cakes all morning!
Two or more activities were continuing at the same
While I was sowing seeds, Harry was digging up
potatoes and George was picking plums.
Insistence in the past (annoyance, irritation)
She was always yawning in class
For a limited period of time
In order to please his wife, who was threatening to leave
him, he was taking his children out much more often in
THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
To describe actions beginning in the past and
continuing up to the present.
I’ve planted 14 trees so far this morning.
He hasn’t been home since he was a boy.
To refer to actions occurring at an unspecified
time in the past.
The thief has been arrested.
The present perfect for recent actions
I’ve just tidied up.
He’s recently arrived.
For repeated and habitual actions:
She has attended classes regularly./ She’s always
PAST PERFECT TENSE:Uses
Refers to an earlier past.
The patient had died when the doctor arrived.
When I rang Jim had already left
To refer to unfulfilled hopes and wishes
I had hoped to send him a telegram but I didn’t manage it.
Present and Past Perfect Progressive
Actions in progress throughout a period
She’s been typing letters all day
For repeated actions
He has been phoning Mary every night
For drawing conclusions
Your eyes are red. You’ve been crying.