1. Marta Juanicorena 4ºESO
Warming-up is performed before a performance or practice. Athletes, singers, actors and
others warm up before stressing their muscles. A warm up generally consists of a gradual
increase in intensity in physical activity, joint mobility exercise, and stretching, followed by the
Main goals: to practice a physical activity, to do the best, to avoid injuries.
The purpose of warm-up is to increase the blood circulation in order to raise both the general
body and the deep muscle temperatures.
Provide many benefits due to elevated temperatures associated with it.
Proper warm-up can also help reduce the severity of post-exercise muscle soreness.
The higher temperatures and increased blood flow resulting from warm-up are important for
delivery of oxygen to the muscles.
Progressive, fitted-adapted, complete, efficient.
WARM UP TYPES
1)General/non-specific warm-ups. Muscle temperature is increased in a more effective
manner than that afforded by passive warm-ups. The physiological benefits directly related to
increased muscle temperature and better circulation are derived. The main benefit from a
general warm-up may be the reduction in injury potential.
2)Specific warm-ups. These produce major performance benefits if specific activities that
simulate competition actions and intensities are included,If a specific warm-up was attempted
without adequate general preparation then the likelihood of injury is increased.
WARM UP EFFECTS
Rise the temperature, rise the heart rate, rise the breath rate, reaction time, concentration.
WORKING HEART RATE AND RANK
Is a desired range of heart rate reached during aerobic exercise which enables one's heart and
lungs to receive the most benefit from a workout. This theoretical range varies based mostly on
age; however, a person's physical condition, sex, and previous training also are used in the
2. MAIN INVOLVED SYSTEMS Respiratory, cardiovascular, locomotor and nervous system.
FACTORS TO CONSIDER
The duration, the intensity and the progression, the repetitions, the pauses.
CONSIDERATIONS FOR A GOOD WARM UP
1. Start with a continuous run
2. mobilize different body segments
4. breathe normally without forcing the inspiration or expiration
5. alternate muscle groups working
PHYSICAL TESTS: (weight ball throwing, long jump, 10x5mt,flexibility, high, weight, 50 mt
Stamina test: you have to run for some minutes without stopping, running with your own
rythm and try not to stop
Flexibility test: you have to sit down stretching both legs, putting your feet in a bank and trying
to reach the bank with your hands
Ball throwing: you have to throw a medicine ball as far as you are able to. For men is 3 kg and
for girls is 2 kg
Agility test: you have to run ten times from one cone to another in 5 m doing your
Forward jump: you have to jump forward as far as you can without separating your feet after
Speed test: you have to run 50m as fast as you can
Sit up test: you have to do all as many sit ups as you can in half a minute, with a classmate
helping you holding your feet
Agility circuit: you have to follow a circuit full of obstacles as fast as you can
High: a classmate measures how high do you are
Weight: a classmate too helps you taking your weight
Factors that help you increasing your sport activities
3. Components of fitness, they help you improve your performance in sports
Endurance: ability to withstand physical and mental fatigue during prolonged efforts
Aerobic: ability to withstand long-term efforts and low or medium intensity with sufficient
Anaerobic: capacity to perform for as long as possible intense efforts without oxygen, the
duration will be short
o Increases cardiac cavity
o Increases the thickness of the muscle fiber of the heart
o The heart resting frequency decreases
o Turns on dormant capillaries
o Expands lung capacity
o Activates metabolism
Continuous running: run continuously from 20 to 40 min
Fartlek: running continuously but varying pace in different sections
Interval training: the efforts and the breaks have to be measured accurately
Circuit training: series of exercises consecutively and rationally ordered stations or posts
Flexibility: the ability that allows us to make the movements in their maximum amplitude
Muscular elasticity: the ability of the muscle to lengthen and shorten without being deformed
4. Joint movility: the degree of movement of each joint
Gens: genetic characteristics
Sex: factors that make for example women more flexible
Age: the younger, more flexibility
Usual type of job: postures and movements that we perform in our daily activities
Time of day: the flexibility of our body changes during the day
Ambient temperature: influence a considerably facilitating or hindering the overall mobility of
Temperature of the muscle: the more muscle temperature, the easier stretch
The degree of muscle fatigue: fatigue tend to contracture muscles
Training: a person who trains his quality will have a better range than others
Active: produced by the action of our muscles
Passive: the gravity or other sternal strength helps to the action
Static: there isn’t movement
Dynamic: there is movement
- You’re going to perform better and easier
- You are going to improve your health through: balance, elimination of postures, no arthritis,
better recuperation after an activity...
Skeleton functions (protect, shape, movement, support and make new blood cells)
Locomotor system (muscles, joints, bones)
Parts of a basic joint (for example knee). Bones, Ligaments, Muscles, Tendons, Cartilage
5. in early December 1891, Canadian Dr. James Naismit, a physical education professor and
instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School  (YMCA)
(today, Springfield College) in Springfield, Massachusetts was trying to keep his gym class
active on a rainy day. He sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and
at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas
as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and
nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot (3.05 m) elevated track
o length of match- consists of 4 quarters (periods) of 10 minutes with 2 minutes gap
between each quarter.
o players - five players on a rectangular
o scoring (1,2 or 3 points)-. Points in basketball are used to keep track of
the score in a game. Points can be accumulated by making field goals (two
or three points) or free throws (one point). If a player makes a field goal from
within the three-point line, the player scores two points. If the player makes
a field goal from beyond the three-point line, the player scores three points.
The team that has recorded the most points at the end of a game is
declared that game's winner.
o field or court (measures) (use a drawing)
6. TIME VIOLATIONS
Three-Second Rule - No offensive player can be in the free-throw lane for longer than 3
seconds at a time.
Five-Second Possession Violation - When a ballhandler is being defended within six feet in
the frontcourt, and fails to get rid of the basketball within five seconds.
Ten-Seconds In The Backcourt - When the offensive team takes ten or more seconds to
move the basketball across the midcourt line into the front court .
Five-Second Inbound Violation - When passing the ball inbounds after gaining possession,
players have five seconds to get the ball to a teammate.
• Shooting Foul - When a defender makes contact with an offensive player who is in the act
of shooting the basketball.
Technical Foul - Violations and misconduct that are detrimental to the game. These are
penalized by free-throw opportunities
Reaching In - When a defender attempts to steal the basketball and the defender extends
their arm and hand and makes contact with the opposing ball handler.
Charging - Happens when an offensive player runs into a defender who has an established
Holding - When a players uses their hands to interfere with or limit an opponent's freedom
Hand Check - When a defender uses one or both hands on the opposing the ball handler.
Reaching In - When attempting to steal the basketball, the defender extends their arm and
hand and makes contact with the ball handler.
Blocking - When a player uses their body position to prevent their opponent from
advancing down the court.
7. Flagrant Foul - A foul committed in an violent and harmful manner.
Ball Handling Violations
• Double Dribble - When a player stops dribbling, holds the basketball, and then starts
dribbling again or when a player dribbles the ball with two hands at the same time.
Traveling - Taking more than one and a half steps without dribbling while the player has
possession of the ball or when you stop dribbling and move or change your pivot foot.
Back Court - When the team with possession of the ball travels over the midcourt line into
the frontcourt and then crosses back into the backcourt.