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Give qualifications of instructors: DAP teaching computer architecture at Berkeley since 1977 Co-athor of textbook used in class Best known for being one of pioneers of RISC currently author of article on future of microprocessors in SciAm Sept 1995 RY took 152 as student, TAed 152,instructor in 152 undergrad and grad work at Berkeley joined NextGen to design fact 80x86 microprocessors one of architects of UltraSPARC fastest SPARC mper shipping this Fall
BUDDHISM LIFE PHILOSOPHY HISTORY &ENLIGHTENMENT Sir Ocaña, Cas – university of the cordilleras
AN INTRODUCTION TO BUDDHISMAn Introduction to Buddhism To do no evil; To cultivate good; To purify ones mind:This is the teaching of the Buddhas. --The Dhammapada
INTRODUCTION• The Buddha was born Siddhartha Gautama, a prince of the Sakya tribe of Nepal in Lombini, at approximately 563 BC.• When he was 29 yrs. old, he left the comforts of his home to seek the meaning of the suffering he saw around him.
INTRODUCTION On the full moon of May, with the rising of the morning star, Siddhartha Gautama became the Buddha, the enlightened one.
INTRODUCTION For 45 years more he taught people the path or Dharma he had realized in that moment. Many followed him until at 80 yrs old he died. His last words were:
INTRODUCTIONImpermanent are all created things; Strive on with awareness. -Siddharta Gautama Buddha
THE ENLIGHTENMENTAn astrologer visited the young Siddhartha Gautama’s, father—King Śuddhodana—and prophesied that Siddhartha would either1. become a great king2. or renounce the material world to become a holy man,If and only if he sees what life was like outside the palace walls.
THE ENLIGHTENMENT Śuddhodana was determined to see his son become a king so he prevented him from leaving the palace grounds.
THE ENLIGHTENMENT But at age 29, despite his fathers efforts, Siddhartha ventured beyond the palace several times. In a series of encounters—known in Buddhist literature as the four sights.
4 sights Buddha encountered: an old man, a sick man, a corpse and, finally, an ascetic holy man, These experiences prompted Gautama to abandon royal life and take up a spiritual quest.
THE ENLIGHTENMENT Realization: SUFFERING! He studied with famous teachers but he failed to look for an answer to his questions. He continued his quest.
THE ENLIGHTENMENT He next attempted an extreme asceticism* (see next slide), which was a religious pursuit common among the Shramanas, but this kind of practice did not end his sufferings rather it made him suffer more.
Asceticism** The belief that we can achieve holiness by bringing pain to our bodies. Focusing on the spiritual as the physical/matter is the root of evil.
THE ENLIGHTENMENT He was so hungry so he accepted food from a young girl, and he decided to devote himself to anapanasati meditation. Middle Way ( madhyamā-pratipd): a path of moderation between the extremes of self-indulgence and self-mortification.
THE ENLIGHTENMENT At the age of 35, he famously sat in meditation under a Bodhi tree— in the town of Bodh Gava, India, and vowed not to rise before achieving enlightenment.
THE ENLIGHTENMENT After many days, he finally liberated himself from the cycle of suffering and rebirth, and arose as a fully enlightened being.
THE ENLIGHTENMENT “It is obviously difficult, therefore, to write a biography of the Buddha that will meet modern criteria, because we have very little information that can be considered historically sound... [but] we can be reasonably confident Siddhatta Gotama did indeed exist and that his disciples preserved the memory of his life and teachings as well as they could “ (Armstrong, 2004) Armstrong, Karen (September 28, 2004). Buddha. Penguin Press. p. xii.
BASIC BUDDHIST CONCEPTS 4 NOBLE TRUTHS 1. Life is suffering; 2. Suffering is due to attachment; 3. Attachment can be overcome;4. There is a path for accomplishing this.
4 NOBLE TRUTHS1.LIFE IS SUFFERING (Dukkha)Imperfect, stressful, or filled with anguish. a. Anitya -- the fact that all things are impermanent, including living things like ourselves.
4 NOBLE TRUTHS b. Anatman -- literally, "no soul". Anatman means that all things are interconnected and interdependent, so that no thing -- including ourselves -- has a separate existence.
4 NOBLE TRUTHS2. Suffering is due to attachment (Trishna) - desire, clinging, greed, craving, or lust. Because we and the world are imperfect, impermanent, and not separate, we are forever "clinging" to things, and etc.
4 NOBLE TRUTHS Dvesha, which means avoidance or hatred. Hatred is its own kind of clinging. Avidya, ignorance or the refusal to see. Not fully understanding the impermanence of things is what leads us to cling in the first place.
4 NOBLE TRUTHS3. The overcoming of attachment: nirvana.It literally means "blowing out," it refers to the letting go of clinging, hatred, and ignorance, and the full acceptance of imperfection, impermanence, and interconnectedness
4 NOBLE TRUTHS4. And then there is the path, called dharma. Buddha called it the middle way, which is understood as meaning the middle way.No competion only MODERATION.
The Eightfold Path1. Right view is the true understanding of the four noble truths.
The Eightfold Path2. Right aspiration is the true desire to free oneself from attachment, ignorance, and hatefulness.(The 1ST AND 2ND are referred to as prajña, or wisdom.)
The Eightfold Path3. Right speech involves abstaining from lying, gossiping, or hurtful talk.
The Eightfold Path4. Right action involves abstaining from hurtful behaviors, such as killing, stealing, and careless sex.
The Eightfold Path5. Right livelihood means making your living in such a way as to avoid dishonesty and hurting others, including animals.These three are referred to as shila, or morality.
The Eightfold Path6. Right effort is a matter of exerting oneself in regards to the content of ones mind: Bad qualities should be abandoned and prevented from arising again; Good qualities should be enacted and nurtured.
The Eightfold Path7. Right mindfulness is the focusing of ones attention on ones body, feelings, thoughts, and consciousness in such a way as to overcome craving, hatred, and ignorance.
The Eightfold Path8. Right concentration is meditating in such a way as to progressively realize a true understanding of imperfection, impermanence, and non-separateness.The last three are known as samadhi, or meditation.
5 SKANDHAS The Skandhas Skandhas or aggregates are the parts of the self. (amassed, summative)
Sometimes they are called the aggregates of attachment, which bring about suffering. Just like a car is nothing more than the sum of its parts, so we are nothing more than the sum of our parts.
There is no atman, meaning soul, self, or ego, holding the pieces together. Nevertheless, just like the car can run despite being nothing but a collection of pieces, so we can live as a person.
5 SKANDHAS1. The First Skandha: Form (Rupa) Rupa is form or matter; something material that can be sensed. In early Buddhist literature, rupa includes the Four Great Elements (solidity, fluidity, heat, and motion) and their.
These derivatives are the first five faculties listed above (eye, ear, nose, tongue, body) and the first five derivatives corresponding objects (visible form, sound, odor, taste, tangible things).
5 SKANDHAS 2. The Second Skandha: Sensation (Vedana) Vedana is physical or mental sensation that we experience through contact of the six faculties with the external world. In other words, it is the sensation experienced through the contact of eye with visible form, ear with sound, nose with odor, tongue with taste, body with tangible things, mind (manas) with ideas or thoughts.
Pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral feelings, coming out of contact between sense organs and objects, plus out of the contact between mind (manas) and mental objects (ideas, images...).
5 SKANDHAS3. The Third Skandha: Perception (Samjna, or in Pali, Sanna) Samjna is the faculty that recognizes. Most of what we call thinking fits into the aggregate of samjna.
The word "samjna" means "knowledge that puts together." It is the capacity to conceptualize and recognize things by associating them with other things. For example, we recognize shoes as shoes because we associate them with our previous experience with shoes.
5 SKANDHAS4. The Fourth Skandha: Mental Formation (Samskara, or in Pali, Sankhara)All volitional actions, good and bad, are included in the aggregate of mental formations. The aggregate of mental formations is associated with karma, because volitional acts create karma. Samskara also contains latent karma that conditions our attitudes and predilections. Biases and prejudices belong to this skandha, as do interests and attractions.
5 SKANDHAS5. The Fifth Skandha: Consciousness (Vijnana, or in Pali, Vinnana)Vijnana is a reaction that has one of the six faculties as its basis and one of the six corresponding phenomena as its object. For example, aural consciousness -- hearing -- has the ear as its basis and a sound as its object. Mental consciousness has the mind (manas) as its basis and an idea or thought as its object.
The four vices: 1. The destruction of life 2. Stealing 3. Sexual misconduct 4. Lying
The four things which lead to evil: 1. Desire, meaning greed, lust, clinging 2. Anger and hatred 3. Ignorance 4. Fear and anxiety
The six ways one dissipates ones wealth: 1. Drinking and drugs 2. Carousing late at night 3. Wasting away your time at shows 4. Gambling 5. Keeping bad company 6. Laziness
FriendshipA Good Friend:1. is always ready to help you2. is steady and loyal3. provides good advice4. is sympathetic
FRIENDSHIPThere are four types that are not really your friends, but will make your life miserable in the long run: 1. The leech who appropriates your possessions 2. The bull-shitter who manipulates you 3. The boot-licker who flatters you 4. The party-animal who encourages you to do the same
BUDDHIST MORALITYThe Pancha Shila,, or five moral precepts:The Pancha Shila or five moral precepts:1. Avoid killing, or harming any living thing.1. Avoid killing, or harming any living thing.2. Avoid stealing -- taking what is not yours2. Avoid stealing -- taking what is not yours to take. to take.3. Avoid sexual irresponsibility, which for3. Avoid sexual irresponsibility, which for monks and nuns means celibacy. monks and nuns means celibacy.4. Avoid lying, or any hurtful speech.4. Avoid lying, or any hurtful speech.5. Avoid alcohol and drugs which diminish5. Avoid alcohol and drugs which diminish clarity of consciousness. clarity of consciousness.
Karma and Rebirth The wheel of life, or "samsara", is an ancient symbol that has the same meaning in Buddhism and Hinduism. It is symbolises the cycle of birth, life, and death. When one revolution of the wheel is completed, life begins again with rebirth.
What is karma? Karma is a Sanskrit word that literally means "action". The word is used to refer to volitional acts as well as the fruits or consequences that arise from these acts. The idea of karma had existed in ancient Indian philosophy before the time of Siddhartha Gautama, and it became an important element of Buddhist philosophy.
What is karma? the law of karma describes the connection between actions and the resulting forces, as follows: wholesome actions lead to wholesome states while unwholesome actions lead to unwholesome states, individually as well as collectively.
The ethical dimension. if one generates bad karma by hurting or killing sentient beings, one will have to endure the negative consequences of these deeds in this or another lifetime. Similarly, if one generates good karma by observing the precepts, positive consequences will follow inevitably.
The karma of past, present, and future events are connected by the law of cause and effect. There is no higher instance, no judgement, no divine intervention, and no gods that steer mans destiny, but only the law of karma itself, which works on a universal scale.
Rebirth. Buddhists hold that the retributive process of karma can span more than one lifetime. Rebirth has always been an important tenet in Buddhism; and it is often referred to as walking the wheel of life (samsara). It is the process of being born over and over again in different times and different situations, possibly for many thousand times.
Only the extinguishment of all karma leads to Nirvana
BUDDHIST MORALITY 5 MONASTIC PRECEPTS: 5 MONASTIC PRECEPTS:6. One simple meal a day, before6. One simple meal a day, before noon. noon.7. Avoid frivolous entertainments.7. Avoid frivolous entertainments.8. Avoid self-adornment.8. Avoid self-adornment.9. Use a simple bed and seat.9. Use a simple bed and seat.10. Avoid the use of money.10. Avoid the use of money.
BUDDHIST MORALITY The Paramita The ParamitaThe Perfections or Virtues -- nobleThe Perfections or Virtues -- noble qualities that we should all strive to qualities that we should all strive to achieve. Here are two versions: achieve. Here are two versions: 1. Generosity (P: dana) 1. Generosity (P: dana) 2. Moral discipline (P: sila) 2. Moral discipline (P: sila) 3. Patience and tolerance (P: khanti) 3. Patience and tolerance (P: khanti) 4. Wisdom or (full-) consciousness 4. Wisdom or (full-) consciousness (P: pañña) (P: pañña) 5. Energy (P: viriya) 5. Energy (P: viriya) 6. Renunciation (P: nekkhamma) 6. Renunciation (P: nekkhamma) 7. Truthfulness (P: sacca) 7. Truthfulness (P: sacca) 8. Determination (P: adhitthana) 8. Determination (P: adhitthana) 9. Loving kindness (P: metta) 9. Loving kindness (P: metta) 10. Equanimity (P: upekkha) 10. Equanimity (P: upekkha)
BUDDHIST MORALITY The Brahma Vihara The four "sublime states" to which we all should aspire. They are the great signs of the Bodhisattva, who vows to remain in samsara -- this world of pain and sorrow -- until all creation can be brought into the state of Nirvana together. 1. Maitri is caring, loving kindness displayed to all you meet. 2. Karuna is compassion or mercy, the kindness shown to those who suffer. 3. Mudita is sympathetic joy, being happy for others, without a trace of envy. 4. Upeksa is equanimity or peacefulness, the ability to accept the ups and downs of life with equal dispassion.
Sigalovada Sutta The Sigalovada Sutta This Sutra is a record of the words of the Buddha to Sigalo, a young middle class man, who was on his way to worship the six directions, east, west, north, south, up, and down. His father had died and asked him to worship in this very ancient fashion in remembrance of him. The Buddha, wishing this ritual to have more meaning for the young man, advised him in detail about how to live a good life as a layman. He phrased himself, as he apparently so often did, using lists, and begins by warning him against many of the evils of the laymans life.
Buddhist Symbols Lotus Flower Padma - Symbol of Purity. Can be of any colour except blue.
Buddhist Symbols Dharmachakra The wheel of the law. The eight spokes represent the eightfold path.
Buddhist Symbols Stupa The stupa is a symbolic grave monument where relics or the ashes of a holy monk are kept. It also symbolises the universe
Buddhist Symbols Triratana The three jewels - the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha.
Buddhist Symbols Chattra A parasol - protection against all evil; high rank.
Buddhist Symbols Dhvaja Banner - the victory of the Buddhas teachings.
Buddhist Symbols Deer The deer -usually in pairs- symbolises the first sermon of the Buddha which was held in the deer park of Benares.
Buddhist Symbols Naga The snake king. Vestige of pre- Buddhist fertility rituals and protector of the Buddha and the Dhamma.
MUDRAS Mudras Images of the Buddha were produced from the fifth century onwards. The sacred nature of the representation is reflected in the artistic goal of creating an aura of equanimity, perfection, and holiness.
MUDRAS The most important of these characteristics are perhaps the mudras, or hand gestures, of the Buddha. These well-defined gestures have a fixed meaning throughout all styles and periods of Buddha images.
MUDRAS Bhumisparsa Mudra (Humility) Touching the earth as Gautama did, to invoke the earth as witness to the truth of his words.
MUDRAS Varada Mudra (Blessings) Fulfilment of all wishes; the gesture of charity.
mudras Dhyana Mudra (Balance) The gesture of absolute balance, of meditation. The hands are relaxed in the lap, and the tips of the thumbs and fingers touch each other. When depicted with a begging bowl this is a sign of the head of an order.
mudras Abhaya Mudra (Security) Gesture of reassurance, blessing, and protection. "Do not fear."
MUDRAS Dharmachakra Mudra (Teaching) The gesture of teaching. The hands are held level with the heart, the thumbs and index fingers form circles. COOPERATIVE LEARNING
MUDRAS Vitarka Mudra (arguments) Intellectual argument, discussion. The circle formed by the thumb and index finger is the sign of the Wheel of Law.
mudras Tarjani Mudra (Threat) Threat, warning. The extended index finger is pointed at the opponent.
MUDRAS Namaskara Mudra (Respect) Gesture of greeting, prayer, and adoration. Buddhas no longer make this gesture because they do not have to show devotion to anything.
MUDRAS Jnana Mudra (Self-Learning) Teaching. The hand is held at chest level and the thumb and index finger again form the Wheel of Law.
MUDRAS Karana Mudra (exorcism) Gesture with which demons are expelled.
MUDRASKsepana Mudra (immortality)Two hands together in the gesture of sprinkling the nectar of immortality.
Uttarabodhi Mudra (Enlightenment)Two hands placed together above the head with the index fingers together and the other fingers intertwined. The gesture of supreme enlightenment.
References: Snelling, John (1991). The Buddhist Handbook. Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions. Rahula, Walpola (1959). What the Buddha Taught. NY: Grove Press. Gard, Richard (1962). Buddhism. NY: George Braziller. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy and Religion (1994). Boston: Shambhala. The Encyclopaedia Britannica CD (1998). Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica. Buswell, Robert E. (ed.) (2003). Encyclopedia of Buddhism. MacMillan Reference Books. ISBN 978-0028657189. Coogan, Michael D. (ed.) (2003). The Illustrated Guide to World Religions. Oxford University Press. ISBN 1-84483-125-6.
References Gombrich, Richard F. (1988; 6th reprint, 2002). Theravāda Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo (London: Routledge). Harvey, Peter (1990). An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices. Cambridge University Press. Gunaratana, Bhante Henepola (2002). Mindfulness in Plain English. Wisdom Publications. Gyatso, Geshe Kelsang. Introduction to Buddhism: An Explanation of the Buddhist Way of Life, Tharpa Publications (2nd. ed., 2001, US ed. 2008)
References Juergensmeyer, Mark (2006). The Oxford Handbook of Global Religions. Oxford Handbooks in Religion and Theology. Oxford University Press. Keown, Damien and Charles S Prebish (eds.) (2004). Encyclopedia of Buddhism (London: Routledge). Kohn, Michael H. (trans.) (1991). The Shambhala Dictionary of Buddhism and Zen. Shambhala. Buddhism Interpreted by Buddhists, Ronald Press, New York, 1956; reprinted by Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi; distributed by Wisdom Books
References Nattier, Jan (2003). A Few Good Men: The Bodhisattva Path according to The Inquiry of Ugra (Ugrapariprccha). University of Hawaii Press. Rahula, Walpola (1974). What the Buddha Taught. Grove Press. Ranjini. Jewels of the Doctrine. Sri Satguru Publications. Smith, Huston; Phillip Novak (2003). Buddhism: A Concise Introduction. HarperSanFrancisco. Thanissaro Bhikkhu (2001). Refuge: An Introduction to the Buddha, Dhamma, & Sangha (3rd ed., rev.).
References Thich Nhat Hanh (1974), The Heart of the Buddhas Teaching, Broadway Books Thurman, Robert A. F. (translator) (1976). Holy Teaching of Vimalakirti: Mahayana Scripture. Pennsylvania State University Press. Yin Shun, Yeung H. Wing (translator) (1998). The Way to Buddhahood: Instructions from a Modern Chinese Master. Wisdom Publications.