Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Le téléchargement de votre SlideShare est en cours. ×

Chapter 8 - Public Speaking

Chargement dans…3

Consultez-les par la suite

1 sur 31 Publicité

Plus De Contenu Connexe

Diaporamas pour vous (20)

Les utilisateurs ont également aimé (20)


Similaire à Chapter 8 - Public Speaking (20)

Plus par marykateorzolek (20)


Plus récents (20)

Chapter 8 - Public Speaking

  2. 2. 1. Cause-Effect Pattern 2. Chronological Pattern 3. Problem-Solution Pattern 4. Spatial Pattern 5. Topical Pattern There are five organizational patterns used in effective public speaking.
  3. 3. CAUSE-EFFECT PATTERN • One way of organizing a speech on a particular topic is to look at the subject in terms of cause and effect. • For example, a speech about providing foreign aid to victims of a natural disaster in another country would discuss the disaster itself (the cause) and the impact the disaster had on the nation's people (the effect). • In this particular example, a further effect would be found in discussing the details of how foreign aid can help the victims.
  4. 4. CHRONOLOGICAL (TIME SEQUENCE) PATTERN • When information in a speech follows a chronological sequence, then the information should likewise be organized chronologically. • For example, a speech on the development of a new technology should begin with its origin, then continue along the same time-line as events occurred. • This organizational pattern is typically used in any speech addressing a subject from an historical perspective.
  5. 5. PROBLEM-SOLUTION PATTERN • The problem-solution organizational pattern is similar to the cause-and-effect pattern, but is typically used when the speaker is trying to persuade the audience to take a particular viewpoint. • In essence, the speaker introduces a problem, and then outlines how this problem can be solved. • For example, a speech on leaving a smaller carbon footprint could begin by detailing the problems associated with climate change. • These points could then be followed by information on how these problems have been or are being addressed, with a summation indicating a plan of action the audience can take.
  6. 6. SPATIAL (GEOGRAPHIC) PATTERN • If your speech concerns a specific geographical area or areas, the spatial organizational pattern can be used. • Spatial patterns are suited for speeches about a country or city, or even a building or organization, provided said organization occupies a specific geographical location, such as a hospital or university.
  7. 7. TOPICAL (LOGICAL) PATTERN • If you are giving a speech or presentation that contains several ideas that are inter-related in such a way that one flows naturally to the next, the logical pattern of organization can be used. • The logical organizational pattern, as its name implies, organizes the information in a logical manner according to topic. • This organizational pattern can also be used in a speech that discusses several sub-topics under the banner of a primary topic.
  8. 8. MONROE’S MOTIVATED SEQUENCE • •Motivated Sequence Order is a technique used to organize the entire speech. This largely differs from the first five approaches which are used to arrange the main points or the subpoints under a main point. The Motivated Sequence Order is really effective when you're trying to persuade people to your point of view. It can also be used for informative presentations. It uses five steps:
  9. 9. ATTENTION • Attention – Like the Introduction part of the speech, this step is designed to snag the audience's attention by using a means that relates positively to the rest of the speech.
  10. 10. NEED • Need – This step relates the problem to the audience. This step can be supported with statistics, quotations, or other facts.
  11. 11. SATISFACTION • Satisfaction – In the satisfaction phase, you present the specific, detailed plan that addresses the need as you anticipate and respond to any questions the audience has about the solution.
  12. 12. VISUALIZATION • Visualization – Here you help the audience see themselves in the future. With positive visualization, the speaker describes the advantages of adopting the plan that was presented.
  13. 13. ACTION • Action – This final step is designed to move the audience to do something—apply the information, vote for a particular candidate, sign-up for a program, buy a book, or take some other action. • The motivated sequence pattern is more complex than the others listed here. However, it's highly effective when used for persuasive speeches.
  14. 14. LEARNING FROM SATURDAY NIGHT LIVE – START YOUR SPEECH • The opening of Saturday Night Live is much anticipated and always engaging. Consider the formula they use: • 1. First, a “cold” open. There’s no warm up. No toes in the water. They just jump in with the opening skit (usually one of the most memorable of the night). • 2. Then, following the catchy “Live from New York, it’s Saturday night!”, the host introduces herself and the musical guest, and sets the agenda for the show.
  15. 15. APPLYING THIS FORMULA • First, TEASE your audience from the second you open your mouth. And open their eyes to something new, different, and even entertaining. Pique their interest. Immerse your audience into the action from the opening second with a verbal splash of cold water. With a powerful 30- to 60-second opening, your audience will be engaged to stay tuned for more. • Then, you can then formally introduce yourself, and give your audience an overview of your speech. It’s important they know up front why your speech is important to them.
  17. 17. TRANSITIONS • 1. The next point I’d like to make is… • 2. Moving right along… • 3. That brings us to… • 4. In conclusion… • 5. My first point is… • 6. In fact… • 7. Not only … • 8. As you can see from these examples… • 9. First….second…. third… • 10. Finally… • 11. Now that we have established… • 12. Keeping these points in mind… • 13. Now that we understand… • 14. Let’s begin with… • 15. My next example is… • 16. Likewise… • 17. In the same way… • 18. In a like manner.. • 19. In addition to… • 20. Contrast that with… • 21. At the same time… • 22. Now let’s consider… • 23. However… • 24. Nevertheless… • 25. Furthermore…
  19. 19. SPEECH CONCLUSIONS • Some really “fantastic” speeches are ineffective because their endings didn’t do anything for the audience. • “Instead of firing off a perfunctory ‘thank you,’ consider launching fireworks of final passionate thoughts from the podium.” -- Peter Jeff • Contrary to the prevailing practice of too many politicians and business and community leaders, the most influential speakers don’t end their speeches with a mechanical and mundane “Thank you.” That’s too easy. And too lazy. • Only seven of the 217 speeches listed in William Safire’s anthology Lend Me Your Ears: Great Speeches in History conclude with “thank you.”
  20. 20. A BANG IS IT! • Consider these examples of resounding speech conclusions from Patrick Henry and Winston Churchill. You can learn from these to spark your creative energy and capture the spirit of ending with a bang. • On the brink of the American Revolution, the colonists were debating the war. Patrick Henry concluded a stirring speech on March 23, 1775 with this: • “Is life so dear or peace so sweet as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery. Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take but as for me give me liberty or give me death.”
  21. 21. CONTINUED… • In the face of a German threat of an invasion upon England in World War II, Winston Churchill on June 18, 1940 called upon all of the British to brace themselves. He concluded his speech with the words that have become the title of the speech: • “Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duty and so bear ourselves that if the British Commonwealth and Empire lasts for thousands of years, men will say: ‘This was their finest hour.’”
  22. 22. LIKE AN OPERA STAR – END ON A HIGH NOTE • Leading speakers end their speeches like the opera star—on a high note, vocally and intellectually. • Just as the comedian should leave ‘em laughing, the speaker should leave ‘em thinking. • Last words linger! • Last words crystallize your thoughts, electrify your message, and mobilize your audience. • What does it mean to “mobilize” your audience?
  23. 23. #1 BOOKEND CLOSE • For a bookend speech closing, refer back to your opening story or quote and say, “We have arrived, now, where we began.” • Then restate the message you want your audience to remember. This will achieve symmetry in the classic 3-part speech outline: Tell ‘em what you are going to tell ‘em; tell ‘em, then tell ‘em what you just told ‘em.’
  24. 24. #2 CHALLENGE CLOSE • Challenge your audience to apply what you have told them in the speech. • If you were concluding a speech on the importance of taking action, you could say: • “Let’s turn from spectators into participants. Let’s recall the inspiring words of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt who said: • ‘Far better it is to dare mighty things, to win glorious triumphs even though checkered by failure, than to remain with those poor spirits who neither enjoy much nor suffer much because they live in the gray twilight that knows not victory nor defeat.’ • We have too much to do to sit on the sidelines. We need you to step out of the gray twilight into the bright sunshine so that we can all see the dawn of a new day.” • Okay, so he is a little fancy – but the main thing to remember is you want your audience to take action!
  25. 25. #3 ECHO CLOSE • Focus on one word in a quotation and emphasize that word to echo your final point. • For example, consider the five echoes of the word “do” in this ending to a speech on the importance of getting involved in the education process: • “More than 450 years before the birth of Christ, Confucius said: ‘What I hear, I forget; what I see, I remember; what I do, I understand.’ • Let’s do it together. We’ve heard what we have to do. We’ve seen what we need to do. Now is the time to do it, and, together, we can do it.”
  26. 26. #4 REPETITIVE CLOSE • Find a phrase and structure it in a repetitive format that strikes the cadence of a drummer, building to a crescendo ending of a motivational speech: “Architects cannot renovate it. Businesses cannot incorporate it. Churches cannot inculcate it. Developers cannot innovate it. Engineers cannot calculate it. Governments cannot legislate it. Lawyers cannot litigate it. Manufacturers cannot fabricate it. Politicians cannot appropriate it. Scientist cannot formulate it. Technicians cannot generate it. Only you can orchestrate it.”
  27. 27. #5 TITLE CLOSE • Give your speech a provocative title that encapsulates your message memorably. Then, use the title of your speech as your closing words to stir your audience to think more fully about what they just heard, reinforcing the title of the speech that you referenced earlier. • Hint: Try writing the ending of your speech first to better construct the title.
  28. 28. #6 SING SONG CLOSE • Ask the audience to repeat a phrase that you used several times in your speech. • Let say your phrase is: “Together, we can win.” You repeat that phrase over and over again. Then just before your close, you say: “I know that all of you are talented, all of you are driven. I know that none of us can do this alone, but (pause) Together (pause) we can (pause until the audience responds.)
  29. 29. #7 CALLBACK CLOSE • Refer back to a story you told where some activity was not fully completed. Then pick up the story and close it around your theme. • For example: • “Remember those bubbles that four year old held so gently in his hands? Well now those same gentle hands are now poised skillfully around the hearts of hundreds of people. Today he is a heart surgeon.”
  30. 30. #8 MOVIE CLOSE • Make a reference to a well-known movie or book. • Summer of ’42 example: • “Life is made up of small comings and goings. And for everything we take with us, there is something that we leave behind. In the summer of ’42, we raided the Coast Guard Station 4 times. We saw 5 movies. And we had 9 days of rain. Benji broke his watch. Oskie gave up the harmonica. And in a very special way, I lost Hermie, forever.” [from movie] • So too this year, in a very special way, we have lost our old company in a very special way. Now we are moving on to a stronger, more mature company.”
  31. 31. #9 QUOTATION CLOSE [BE CAREFUL WITH THIS ONE] • Use a famous quotation to harness the audience’s attention, much like turning on a spotlight. • For example, if you were concluding a speech on the importance of maintaining self confidence in the face of adversity, you could say: • “We have to be like the bird –the bird that author Victor Hugo one observed – the bird that pauses in its flight awhile, on boughs too light, – on a branch that is likely to break– feels that branch break, yet sings, knowing she hath wings.”