SlideShare utilise les cookies pour améliorer les fonctionnalités et les performances, et également pour vous montrer des publicités pertinentes. Si vous continuez à naviguer sur ce site, vous acceptez l’utilisation de cookies. Consultez nos Conditions d’utilisation et notre Politique de confidentialité.
SlideShare utilise les cookies pour améliorer les fonctionnalités et les performances, et également pour vous montrer des publicités pertinentes. Si vous continuez à naviguer sur ce site, vous acceptez l’utilisation de cookies. Consultez notre Politique de confidentialité et nos Conditions d’utilisation pour en savoir plus.
Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Vous avez débloqué des téléchargements illimités sur SlideShare!
Abul Hasnath Limon Id(142-15-3532)
Anika Ohab Id(142-15-3568)
Shahinur Rahman Id(142-15-3606)
Umme Habiba Id(142-15-3677)
Advantage & Disadvantage
The computers built in the 1959s and 1963s are considered
the 2nd generation computers. These computers make use
of the transistors and they had many of the same
components as the modern- day computer.
For instance, 2nd generation computers typically had a
printer, some sort of tape or disk storage, operating
systems, stored programs, as well as some sort of memory.
These computers were also generally more reliable and
were solid in design.
Some computers of this generation were:
Use of transistors
Reliable in comparison to first generation computers
Smaller size as compared to first generation
Generated less heat as compared to first generation
The main features of second generation are:
Consumed less electricity as compared to
first generation computers
Faster than first generation computers
Still very costly
Supported machine and assembly languages
They have two key properties:
1.they can amplify an
electrical signal and
2. they can switch on and
off, letting current through or
blocking it as necessary.
Transistors are tiny electrical devices that can be
found in everything from radios to robots.
In late 1940s, AT&T Bell Laboratories scientists (J. Bardeen, H. W.
Brattain and W. Shockley) invent the Transistor, replacing vacuum
tubes. They get Nobel Prize for their invention.
• Replaced vacuum tubes
• Less heat dissipation
• Solid State device
• Made from Silicon (Sand)
• allowed computers to become
smaller, faster and less
Had the ability to store its
usage instructions in its
memory, which had
advanced from magnetic
drum to magnetic core
This advancement marked the beginning of more
streamlined, user-friendly technological advances and
the advanced memory storage capacity we use today.
In Second Generation Computer more
registers were added to the CPU to facilitate
data and address manipulation compare to
IAS (First Generation Computer). For an
example, Index registers.
Index registers make it possible to have
indexed instructions, which increment or
decrement a designated index I before (or
after) they execute their main operation.
Introduced input-output processors (IOP),
which are special-purpose processing units
designed exclusively to control IO operations.
Hence IO data transfers can take place
independently of the CPU, permitting the CPU to
execute user programs while IO operations are
In addition to the development of transistors,
another major change that came about with the
development of second-generation computers
was a modification in language.
Machine language was replaced with assembly
language, sometimes referred to as symbolic
Typical assembly languages used included
Common Business-Oriented Language
(CBOL) and Formula Translator (FORTRAN).
System programs called compilers were developed to
translate these high-level language programs into
corresponding assembly language program
Separate I/O processors were developed and in 1962 the
first removable disk pack was marketed
IBM became major computer manufacturer and most
computer systems are used by government, business and
of a series of
jobs in a
program on a
A batch monitor is a rudimentary (basic) version of an
operating system. Later computer introduce
multiprogramming and time-sharing systems.
Second-generation computers were the first to feature
tools such as printers, disk storage and operating
systems, which was often used for financial operations.
These advancements allowed computer users to keep
better control of their records and triggered the increase
of computer use in day-to-day business operations.
(1) Fastest computing devices of their time;
(2) Easy to program because of the use assembly language;
(3) Could be transferred from one place to other very easily
because they were small and light;
(4) Require very less power in carrying out their operations;
(5) More reliable, did not require maintenance at regular
intervals of time.
(1)The input and output media were not improved to
a considerable extent
(2) Required to be placed in air-conditioned places
(3) The cost of these computers was very high and
they were beyond the reach of home users
(4) Special-purpose computers and could execute
only specific applications