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# Bfs & dfs application

BFS & DFS and their application

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### Bfs & dfs application

1. 1. WELCOME
2. 2. Topic BFS, DFS And Their Application
3. 3. Contents Introduction Graph Traversal How it works Algorithm Simulation of DFS & BFS Analysis of BFS & DFS Applications
4. 4. Presented by Anika Ohab ID:142-15-3568 Abul Hasnath ID:142-15-3532 Umme Habiba ID: 142-15-3677 Shahinur Rahman ID: 142-15-3606
5. 5. What is a graph? 1.Directed/Undire cted 2.Weighted/Unwei ghted 3.Cyclic/Acyclic A set of vertices and edges
6. 6.  Breadth First Search (BFS) Start several paths at a time, and advance in each one step at a time The breadth-first search uses a FIFO queue.  Depth First Search (DFS) Once a possible path is found, continue the search until the end of the path The Depth-first search uses a LIFO Stack. Graph Traversal
7. 7. How It Works? 1.Pick a source vertex S to start. 2.Discover the vertices that are adjacent to S. Depth-first: visit all neighbors of a neighbor before visiting your other neighbors Breadth First: Pick each child of S in turn and discover their vertices adjacent to that child. Done when all children have been discovered and examined.
8. 8. Algorithm BFS(G, s) for each vertex u V [G] - {s} do color[u] ← WHITE d[u] ← ∞ π[u] ← NIL color[s] ← GRAY d[s] ← 0 π[s] ← NIL Q ← Ø ENQUEUE(Q, s) while Q ≠ Ø do u ← DEQUEUE(Q) for each v Adj[u] do if color[v] = WHITE then color[v] ← GRAY d[v] ← d[u] + 1 π[v] ← u ENQUEUE(Q, v) color[u] ← BLACK DFS(G) for each vertex u V [G] do color[u] ← WHITE π[u] ← NIL time ← 0 for each vertex u V [G] do if color[u] = WHITE then DFS-VISIT(u) DFS-VISIT(u) color[u] ← GRAY ▹White vertex u has just been discovered. time ← time +1 d[u] time for each v Adj[u] ▹Explore edge(u, v). do if color[v] = WHITE then π[v] ← u DFS-VISIT(v) color[u] BLACK ▹ Blacken u; it is finished. f [u] ▹ time ← time +1
9. 9. Simulation of BFS
10. 10. 3 1 6 10 9 7 12 3 Unvisite d 6 7 This is starting node
11. 11. 3 1 6 10 9 7 12 3 Unvisite d 6 7 Unvisite d 10
12. 12. 3 1 6 10 9 7 12 6 7 10 Unvisite d 9
13. 13. 3 1 6 10 9 7 12 7 10 9 Unvisite d 12
14. 14. 3 1 6 10 9 7 12 10 9 12 visite d
15. 15. 3 1 6 10 9 7 12 9 12 visite d
16. 16. 3 1 6 10 9 7 12 12
17. 17. Analysis of BFS  For a Graph G=(V, E) and n = |V| and m=|E|  When Adjacency List is used Complexity is O(m + n)  When Adjacency Matrix is used Scanning each row for checking the connectivity of a Vertex is in order O(n). So, Complexity is O(n2 )
18. 18. Simulation of DFS
19. 19. A H B F E D C G Walk-Through Visited Array A B C D E F G H Task: Conduct a depth-first search of the graph starting with node D
20. 20. A H B F E D C G Walk-Through Visited Array A B C D √ E F G H Visit D D The order nodes are visited: D
21. 21. A H B F E D C G Walk-Through Visited Array A B C D √ E F G H Consider nodes adjacent to D, decide to visit C first (Rule: visit adjacent nodes in alphabetical order) D The order nodes are visited: D
22. 22. A H B F E D C G Walk-Through Visited Array A B C √ D √ E F G H Visit C C D The order nodes are visited: D, C
23. 23. A H B F E D C G Walk-Through Visited Array A B C √ D √ E F G H No nodes adjacent to C; cannot continue  backtrack, i.e., pop stack and restore previous state C D The order nodes are visited: D, C
24. 24. A H B F E D C G Walk-Through Visited Array A B C √ D √ E F G H Back to D – C has been visited, decide to visit E next D The order nodes are visited: D, C
25. 25. A H B F E D C G Walk-Through Visited Array A B C √ D √ E √ F G H Back to D – C has been visited, decide to visit E next E D The order nodes are visited: D, C, E
26. 26. A H B F E D C G Walk-Through Visited Array A B C √ D √ E √ F G H Only G is adjacent to E E D The order nodes are visited: D, C, E
27. 27. A H B F E D C G Walk-Through Visited Array A B C √ D √ E √ F G √ H Visit G G E D The order nodes are visited: D, C, E, G
28. 28. A H B F E D C G Walk-Through Visited Array A B C √ D √ E √ F G √ H Nodes D and H are adjacent to G. D has already been visited. Decide to visit H. G E D The order nodes are visited: D, C, E, G
29. 29. A H B F E D C G Walk-Through Visited Array A B C √ D √ E √ F G √ H √ Visit H H G E D The order nodes are visited: D, C, E, G, H
30. 30. A H B F E D C G Walk-Through Visited Array A B C √ D √ E √ F G √ H √ Nodes A and B are adjacent to F. Decide to visit A next. H G E D The order nodes are visited: D, C, E, G, H
31. 31. A H B F E D C G Walk-Through Visited Array A √ B C √ D √ E √ F G √ H √ Visit A A H G E D The order nodes are visited: D, C, E, G, H, A
32. 32. A H B F E D C G Walk-Through Visited Array A √ B C √ D √ E √ F G √ H √ Only Node B is adjacent to A. Decide to visit B next. A H G E D The order nodes are visited: D, C, E, G, H, A
33. 33. A H B F E D C G Walk-Through Visited Array A √ B √ C √ D √ E √ F G √ H √ Visit B B A H G E D The order nodes are visited: D, C, E, G, H, A, B
34. 34. A H B F E D C G Walk-Through Visited Array A √ B √ C √ D √ E √ F G √ H √ No unvisited nodes adjacent to B. Backtrack (pop the stack). A H G E D The order nodes are visited: D, C, E, G, H, A, B
35. 35. A H B F E D C G Walk-Through Visited Array A √ B √ C √ D √ E √ F G √ H √ No unvisited nodes adjacent to A. Backtrack (pop the stack). H G E D The order nodes are visited: D, C, E, G, H, A, B
36. 36. A H B F E D C G Walk-Through Visited Array A √ B √ C √ D √ E √ F G √ H √ No unvisited nodes adjacent to H. Backtrack (pop the stack). G E D The order nodes are visited: D, C, E, G, H, A, B
37. 37. A H B F E D C G Walk-Through Visited Array A √ B √ C √ D √ E √ F G √ H √ No unvisited nodes adjacent to G. Backtrack (pop the stack). E D The order nodes are visited: D, C, E, G, H, A, B
38. 38. A H B F E D C G Walk-Through Visited Array A √ B √ C √ D √ E √ F G √ H √ No unvisited nodes adjacent to E. Backtrack (pop the stack). D The order nodes are visited: D, C, E, G, H, A, B
39. 39. A H B F E D C G Walk-Through Visited Array A √ B √ C √ D √ E √ F G √ H √ F is unvisited and is adjacent to D. Decide to visit F next. D The order nodes are visited: D, C, E, G, H, A, B
40. 40. A H B F E D C G Walk-Through Visited Array A √ B √ C √ D √ E √ F √ G √ H √ Visit F F D The order nodes are visited: D, C, E, G, H, A, B, F
41. 41. A H B F E D C G Walk-Through Visited Array A √ B √ C √ D √ E √ F √ G √ H √ No unvisited nodes adjacent to F. Backtrack. D The order nodes are visited: D, C, E, G, H, A, B, F
42. 42. A H B F E D C G Walk-Through Visited Array A √ B √ C √ D √ E √ F √ G √ H √ No unvisited nodes adjacent to D. Backtrack. The order nodes are visited: D, C, E, G, H, A, B, F
43. 43. A H B F E D C G Walk-Through Visited Array A √ B √ C √ D √ E √ F √ G √ H √ Stack is empty. Depth-first traversal is done. The order nodes are visited: D, C, E, G, H, A, B, F
44. 44. For a Graph G=(V, E) and n = |V| and m=|E| When Adjacency List is used Complexity is O(m + n) When Adjacency Matrix is used Scanning each row for checking the connectivity of a Vertex is in order O(n). So, Complexity is O(n2 ) DFS uses space O(|V|) in the worst case to store the stack of vertices on the current search path as well as the set of already-visited vertices. Analysis of DFS
45. 45. BFS: *Testing a graph for bipartiteness *To find the shortest path from a vertex s to a vertex v in an unweighted graph *To find the length of such a path *To find out if a graph contains cycles *To construct a BSF tree/forest from a graph *Copying garbage collection Applications
46. 46. DFS: * Finding connected components. *Topological sorting. *Finding the bridges of a graph. *cycle Detecting *Finding strongly connected components. *Finding biconnectivity in graphs. Applications
47. 47. How Can Use BFS Bipartite graphs can’t contain odd cycles. Problem: Determine if a graph G is bipartite.
48. 48. Testing Bipartiteness How can we test if G is bipartite? 1.Do a BFS starting from some node s. 2.Color even levels “blue” and odd levels “red.” 3.Check each edge to see if any edge has both endpoints the same color.
49. 49. COMPUTING SPANNING FORESTS In graphs that are not connected, there can be no spanning tree, and one must consider spanning forests instead.
50. 50. Finding Cycles Using DFS • Similar to using BFS. • For undirected graphs, classify the edges into 3 categories during program execution: 1.unvisited edge 2.discovery edge and 3.back (cross) edge. • If there exists a back edge, the undirected graph contains a cycle.
51. 51. Simulation of Cycles
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Dec. 18, 2019

BFS & DFS and their application

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