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The presentations describes the 1991 Liberalization Privatization Globalization(LPG) model of Indian economy. Following are the topics discussed in the ppt:
Reasons for implementing LPG
Successful privatizations in India
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
United nations conference on trade and development
Liberalization Privatization Globalization (LPG)
The economy of India had undergone
significant policy shifts in the beginning of
the 1990s. This new model of economic
reforms is commonly known as the LPG or
Liberalization, Privatization and
Reasons for implementing LPG
Large and growing fiscal imbalances.(Gross fiscal
deficit rose to 12.1% of GDP in 1991)
Growing inefficiency in the use of resources.
Low foreign exchange reserves.($1.2 billion in
High inflation rate.(13.87% in year 1990-91)
The low annual growth rate of Indian economy
stagnated around 3.5% from 1950s to 1980s,
while per capita income averaged 1.3%.
Liberalization refers to relaxation of government
restrictions in areas of economic policies. Thus,
when government liberalizes trade it means it has
removed the tariff, subsidies and other restrictions
on the flow of goods and service between countries.
The fruits of liberalisation reached their peak in
2007, when India recorded its highest GDP growth
rate of 9%. With this, India became the second
fastest growing major economy in the world, next
only to China. The growth rate has slowed
significantly in the first half of 2012. An OECD
report states that the average growth rate 7.5% will
double in a decade, and more reforms would speed
up the pace.
It refers to the transfer of assets or service
functions from public to private ownership or
control and the opening of the closed areas to
private sector entry. Privatisation can be
achieved in many waysfranchising, leasing, contracting, etc. Capital
markets should be sufficiently developed to be
able to absorb the disinvested public sector
• Privatisation may help in reviving sick units
which have become a liability on the govt.
• It helps the profit making public sector units to
modernize and diversify their business.
• It helps in making public sector units more
competitive. Without government financial
backing, capital market and international
market forces public sector to be efficient.
• It reduces political influence on decisionmaking of managers.
• Privatisation encourages monopoly, power in
the hands of big business houses and thus
greater disparities in income and wealth.
• Privatisation may result in lop-sided
development of industries in the country.
• The limited resources of the private
individuals cannot meet some of the vital tasks
which alter the very character of the economy.
• The private sector may not uphold the
principles of social justice and public welfare.
Disinvestment can also be defined as the action
of an organisation selling or liquidating an asset
The government appointed a committee under the
chairmanship of C. Rang Rajan to study and
recommend new measures to make privatization
more effective. The committee submitted its
report in 1993 which suggested the sectors where
privatization was needed and also suggested
government to set up an autonomous body to
The five member Disinvestment Commission was
set up on August 7, 1996. Major tasks of the
• To prepare long term disinvestment programme
• To determine extent of disinvestment in each PSU
• To decide on instrument, pricing and time.
• To supervise sales process
As on 31 October 2013, the 50 Central Public
Sector Enterprises (CPSEs) listed on the stock
exchanges contributed about 15% of the total
Successful Privatizations in India
• Lagan jute machinery company limited (LJMC)
Gross turnover: pre-privatization= Rs. 6 million (april-june 2000),
post-privatization= Rs. 24 million (july-september 2000)
• Modern food industries limited (MFIL)
Share value went up from Rs. 2138 on 30th Dec.(prior to sale) to Rs. 3247 on
25th Feb.(post sale).
• Paradeep Phosphates Limited (PPL)
Net profit: pre sale= Rs. -57.95 Cr., post sale= Rs. 23.96 Cr.
• Bharat aluminium company limited (BALCO)
• Hotel Corporation of India limited (HCI)
• Hindustan Zinc limited (HZL)
Economic globalization is the increasing economic
interdependence of national economies across the
world through a rapid increase in crossborder movement of goods, service, technology and
capital. It is a process which draws countries out of
their insulation and makes them join rest of the
world in its march towards a new world economic
Current globalization trends can be largely
accounted for by developed economies integrating
with less developed economies by means
of foreign direct investment, the reduction of trade
barriers as well as other economic reforms and, in
many cases, immigration.
Foreign Direct Investment
Foreign direct investment (FDI) is a direct
investment into production or business in a
country by an individual or company in another
country, either by buying a company in the
target country or by expanding operations of an
existing business in that country.
FDI in India
• The Department of Industrial Policy and
Promotion (DIPP), Ministry of Commerce &
Industry, Government of India makes policy
pronouncements on FDI which are notified by the
RBI as amendments to the Foreign Exchange
• A 2012 UNCTAD survey projected India as the
second most important FDI destination after
• India ranked third in the list of most attractive FDI
destinations as per Ernst &Young's 2012 survey.
FDI in India
FDI caps in various sectors:
• Defense 26%
• Insurance 49% (earlier 26%)
• Telecom 100% (earlier 74%)
• Single brand retailing 100%
• Multi brand retailing 51%
• Civil aviation 49%
FDI in India
Ventures after liberalization of FDI caps:
• Tata sons with AirAsia and Singapore Airlines
• Jet Airways with Etihad Airways
• Tata sons and Augusta Westland (Indian Rotorcraft)
Multi National Corporation
Multinational corporation (MNC) is a enterprise
that manages production or delivers services in
more than one country can also be referred to as
an international corporation.
MNCs in India
In India MNCs are attracted towards:
• India’s large market potential. India presents a
remarkable business opportunity by virtue of
its sheer size and growth.
• India’s vast population and increasing its
• India is also emerging as the manufacturing
and sourcing location of choice for various
• Globalisation of under developed countries
improves the efficiency of resource, reduce the
capital output ratio and increase labour
productivity, increase the inflow of
capital, update technology that gives a boost to
the average growth rate of the economy.
• Restructures the production and trade pattern in
a capital scarce, labour abundant economy in
favour of labour-intensive goods and techniques.
• With the entry of foreign competition and the
removal of import tariff barriers, domestic
industry will be subject to price and quality
improving effects in the domestic economy.
• Efficiency of banking and financial sectors will
improve, as there will be competition from
foreign capital and foreign banks.
• Globalisation is helping the developed economies more
than the developing economies.
• Multinational companies and Chinese goods will flood
the market at cheaper rates and there will be no takers
for local products.
• Entry of MNC supermarket and hypermarket chains
would cause severe displacement of small and
unorganised shopkeepers and traders.
• None of the multinationals that has set up
manufacturing plants in India has signed any
technology transfer agreement with any Indian
Effects of Globalisation
• India’s share in the world export which had
fallen 0.53% in 1991, has reversed trends and
has improved to 1.60% in 2013.
• Our foreign currency reserves which had
fallen to barely $1 billion in June, 1991 rose
substantially to about $277.72 billion in
Effects of Globalisation
• Exporters are responding well to sweeping
reforms in exchange rate and trade policies. The
average growth of export has been more than
20% per annum since 2002-03.
• Exports now finance nearly 65% of
imports, compared to only 60% in the later half
of the eighties.
• The current account deficit was over 3% of GDP
in 1990-91. In 2004-05 and 2005-06, we again
had current account deficit of (-)0.4 and (-)1.1
Main organizations facilitating
Some of the international organisations which
facilitate the process of globalisation:
• International Monetary Fund (IMF)
• World Bank
• World Trade Organisation (WTO)
• Essentials of Business Environment – K.