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Drugs are chemicals that alter, block, or mimic chemical reactions in the brain. Drug are abused when they are used for unintended purposes or in an excessive amount.
All drugs (substances), whether legal or illegal, have an impact on health when used in the wrong way. Different sub-stances have different effects on the body.
June 26 is the International Day against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking. Established by the United Nations General Assembly in 1987, this day serves as a reminder of the goals agreed to by Member States of creating an international society free of drug abuse.
Cannabis can make users feel pleasurably relaxed and some- times euphoric. Users may also experience a more vivid sense of sight, smell, taste and hearing.
International Day Against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking, 26th June, 2015
• June 26 is the International Day against
Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking.
Established by the United Nations
General Assembly in 1987, this day
serves as a reminder of the goals agreed
to by Member States of creating an
international society free of drug abuse.
• The United Nations Office on Drugs and
Crime (UNODC) selects themes for the
International Day and launches
campaigns to raise awareness about the
global drug problem.
• Health is the ongoing theme of the world
• We invite everyone to mark 26 June!
• It is a unique occasion to take a stand
against a problem that affects us all.
• We count on your support to make this
pro-health campaign a success.
Themes: From 2000 till now.
• 2010 -2014: Health was an ongoing the theme of the
world drug campaign.
• 2007-2009 - "Do drugs control your life? Your life. Your
community. No place for drugs."
• 2006 - "Value yourself...make healthy choices"
• 2005- "Drugs is not child's play"
• 2004 - "Drugs: treatment works"
• 2003 - "Let's talk about drugs"
• 2002 - "Substance abuse and HIV/AIDS"
• 2001 - "Sports against drugs"
• 2000 - "Facing reality: denial, corruption and violence
What are drugs?
• Technically speaking, they are chemical sub-
stances that affect the normal functioning of
the body and/or brain.
• Drugs are chemicals that alter, block, or mimic
chemical reactions in the brain. This causes an
alteration of the body's normal processes,
causing physical (Faster heartbeat, deeper
respiration etc.), or mental (Elevated mood,
new thought processes etc.) changes.
-Urban online Dictionary
What is Drug Abuse?
• Drug (substance) abuse is the use of any
drug (substance) for an unintended
purpose or in an excessive amount.
• All drugs (substances), whether legal or
illegal, have an impact on health when
used in the wrong way. Different sub-
stances have different effects on the
Types of Drugs
1. Legal (Licit) Drugs:
• For example, caffeine (found in coffee or Coca-
Cola), nicotine (in cigarettes) and alcohol are
all technically legal drugs, although they are
usually not referred to as such.
• Medicines, whether prescribed by a doctor or
available over the counter at pharmacies, are
legal drugs to help us recover from illnesses,
although they can also be abused.
2. Illegal (Illicit) Drugs:
• Illegal drugs are drugs that are so harmful that
countries across the world have decided to
• Countries have passed several international
laws, in the form of United Nations
conventions, that specify which drugs are
• All drugs (especially illegal) have immediate
physical effects. But drugs can also severely
hinder psychological and emotional
development, particularly among young
• In fact, drugs can take away potential that
users can never get back as drugs substitute
the development of other, natural coping
• Drugs cloud the judgement of users.
• This means that drug users often take more
risks, such as having unsafe sex.
• This can lead to them getting infected with
hepatitis or HIV and other sexually
Common Drugs of Abuse
• Virtually any substance whose ingestion can
result in a euphoric ("high") feeling can be
• Research reports from Nigeria show the
following psycho-active substances as those
commonly abused in West Africa, particularly
• Cannabis is a tobacco-like greenish or brownish
material made of the dried flowering tops and
leaves of the cannabis (hemp) plant.
• All forms of cannabis are usually smoked.
Cannabis resin and oil can also be swallowed or
brewed in tea.
• Cannabis can make users feel pleasurably relaxed
and some- times euphoric. Users may also
experience a more vivid sense of sight, smell,
taste and hearing.
Health Risks of Cannabis
• In the short term, users have an increased
appetite and pulse rate.
• Users also have problems performing physical
and intellectual tasks such as driving a car and
• With large doses, users´ perceptions of sound
and colour may be sharpened, while their
thinking becomes slow and confused.
• If the dose is very large, the effects of cannabis
are similar to those of hallucinogens and may
cause anxiety, panic and even psychotic episodes.
Health Risks of Cannabis
• Regular users of cannabis risk developing
psychological dependence to the point where they
lose interest in all other activities, such as work
and personal relationships.
• Recent studies in the United Kingdom show a link
between cannabis use and an increase in
• Cannabis smoke contains 50 per cent more tar
than high-tar cigarettes, which puts users at an
increased risk of lung can- cer and other
My brother used to be kind, funny, intelligent, thoughtful and
caring, now I don't know him any- more; this is through
I want young drug users to understand that you don’t only
ruin your own lives with drugs, but that of everyone you are
supposed to love around you. Have you ever considered this?
Or do these drugs fill you with such selfishness that all you
can think about is yourself?
My brother is not a hard drug user to my knowledge but has a
heavy addiction to cannabis. Well, if
you think this is one of the lighter drugs you are truly
Cannabis in my brother’s case has changed his per- sonality
so much so that I feel I do not know the person living in the
next bedroom. He has no ambi- tion, no respect and no care
for personal hygiene.
The only people he seems to care about are his
friends who are also addicted to drugs.
My mum is extremely kind and loving, and he
frequently abuses this by taking her
for granted at every opportunity and making her
feel worthless. When he’s out every night with his
friends she con- stantly worries about him. He has
no job and no money and I suspect he and his
friends steal from our house.
If he knew or cared what he has put my mum
through, I doubt he would feel that taking drugs
and behaving the way he does would be worth it.
I am 21 and have never taken any drugs; do I feel
like I am missing out? I don’t think so!
Anonymous story submitted to talktofrank.com. Reprinted with
c annabis changed my brother
• Heroin is an addictive drug with pain-killing
properties pro- cessed from morphine, a
naturally occurring substance from the opium
• Pure heroin is a white powder. Street heroin is
usually brownish white because it is diluted or
“cut” with impurities, meaning each dose is
• It is usually injected but can also be snorted,
smoked or inhaled.
• how does it affect users?
• Heroin can relieve users´ tension, anxiety and
• Users feel detached from emotional or
physical distress or pain.
• With large doses, users may experience
Health Risks of Heroin
• Short-term effects include constricted pupils,
nausea, vomit- ing, drowsiness, inability to
concentrate and apathy.
• Heroin is very addictive and users may quickly
develop physical and psychological dependence.
They also risk developing tolerance for the drug,
which means they need constantly higher doses
to achieve the effect they want.
• Long-term heroin use has a variety of severe
• Among other things, it can cause severe weight
loss, malnutrition and constipation.
• It can also lead to menstrual irregularity, sedation
and chronic apathy.
• Abruptly quitting heroin use leads to withdrawal
symptoms which can be severe such as cramps,
diarrhoea, tremors, panic, runny nose, chills and
• Other risks
• Users risk overdosing on heroin, which can
lead to coma and death through respiratory
Other drugs like heroin!
• Cocaine is a fine white or off-white powder
that acts as a powerful stimulant.
• It is extracted from the leaves of the coca plant.
• On the street, it can be diluted or “cut” with other
sub- stances to increase the quantity.
• Crack is cocaine that has been further processed
with ammonia or sodium bicarbonate (baking
soda) and looks like small flakes or rocks.
• Cocaine is usually sniffed/snorted or injected,
whereas crack is smoked.
• Cocaine can make users feel exhilarated
• Furthermore, users often experience a
temporary increase in alertness and energy
levels and delayed hunger and fatigue
Health Risks of Cocaine
• Short-term effects include loss of appetite,
faster breathing and increased body
temperature and heart rate. Users may behave
bizarrely, erratically and sometimes violently.
• Excessive doses of cocaine may lead to
convulsions, seizures, stroke, cerebral
haemorrhage or heart failure.
Health Risks of Cocaine
• Long-term users of cocaine risk a number
of health problems, some of them depending
on how they take the drug.
• Sniffing cocaine severely damages nose tissue;
smoking can cause respi- ratory problems; whilst
injection can lead to abscesses and infec- tious
Health Risks of Cocaine
• Other risks, regardless of how the drug is
taken, include strong psychological
dependence, malnutrition, weight loss,
disorientation, apathy and a state similar
to paranoid psychosis.
• Mixing cocaine with alcohol is a
dangerous cocktail and can greatly
increase the chances of sudden death.
• Methamphetamine is part of the group of
drugs called amphetamine-type stimulants
(ATS). It is a synthetic drug that is usually
manufactured in illegal laboratories.
• Methamphetamine comes as a powder, tablet
or as crystals that look like shards of glass.
• The NDLEA has recently discovered and
destroyed two factories of amphetamine in
Use and Effects
• It can be swallowed, sniffed/snorted, smoked or
• Methamphetamine stimulates a feeling of
physical and mental well being, as well as a surge
of euphoria and exhilaration.
• Users experience a temporary rise in energy,
often perceived to improve their performance at
manual or intellectual tasks.
• Users also experience delayed hunger and
• Short-term, users can lose their appetite and
start breathing faster.
• Their heart rate and blood pressure may
increase and their body temperature may rise
and cause sweating.
• With large doses, users can feel restless and
irritable and can expe- rience panic attacks.
• Excessive doses of methamphetamine can
lead to convulsions, seizures and death from
respiratory failure, stroke or heart failure.
• Long-term methamphetamine use can lead to
mal- nutrition, weight loss and the development
of psychological dependence.
• Once chronic users stop taking
methamphetamine, a long period of sleep, and
then depression, usually follows.
Risk of Psychosis.
• Methamphetamine use sometimes
triggers aggressive, violent and bizarre
behaviour among users.
• Ecstasy is a psychoactive stimulant, usually made
in illegal laboratories.
• In fact, the term “ecstasy” has evolved and no
longer refers to a single substance but a range of
substances similar in effect on users.
• Frequently, any tablet with a logo is now referred
to as “ecstasy” regardless of its chemical makeup.
• While the drug is usually distributed as a tablet, it
can also be a powder or capsule. Tablets can have
many different shapes and sizes.
• It is usually swallowed but can also be snorted
• Ecstasy can heighten users´ empathy levels
and induce a feel- ing of closeness to people
around them. It can also make users feel more
sociable and energetic.
Health Risks of Ectasy
• In the short term, ecstasy can make the
body ignore distress signals such as
dehydration, dizziness and exhaustion and
it can interfere with the body’s ability to
• Furthermore, ecstasy can severely
damage organs such as the liver and the
kidneys. Use can lead to convulsions and
Health Risks of Ecstasy
• Large doses of ecstasy also cause restlessness,
anxiety and severe hallucinations.
• Long-term ecstasy use can damage certain
parts of the brain, resulting in serious
depression and memory loss.
• Tablets or pills that are sold as “ecstasy” may
contain other potentially dangerous substances
which can vary widely in strength and effects
Other Prescription Drugs of Abuse.
• These are sedatives like phenobarbital,
pentobarbital (Nembutal), and secobarbital
• They help with anxiety, sleep problems, and some
• But if you take more than prescribed, you can get
• High doses can cause trouble breathing,
especially if you use them when you drink
Other Prescription Drugs of Abuse
• Valium (diazepam) and Xanax (alprazolam) are
two examples of benzodiazepines -- another
type of sedative that can help with anxiety,
panic attacks, and sleep problems.
• They work well and they're safer than
• But overused, they can also lead to physical
dependence and addiction.
• Rohypnol is the brand name for a drug called
Flunitrazepam, which is a powerful sedative that
depresses the central nervous system.
• Rohypnol is swallowed as a pill, dissolved in a drink, or
• Roofies are frequently used in combination with
alcohol and other drugs.
• They are sometimes taken to enhance a heroin high, or
to mellow or ease the experience of coming down
from a cocaine or crack high.
• Used with alcohol, roofies produce disinhibition and
Health Risks of Rohypnol
• What are its short-term effects?
• The drug creates a sleepy, relaxed, and drunk
feeling that lasts 2 to 8 hours. Other effects may
include blackouts, with a compete loss of
memory, dizziness, respiratory depression and
disorientation, nausea, difficulty with motor
movements and speaking.
• What are its long-term effects?
• Rohypnol can produce physical and psychological
Amygdala – assignment of emotional significance and
Orbitofrontal Cortex (OFT) – encodes outcome
Basolateral Amygdala (BLA) – facilitates associative
Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) – discriminative learning
Hippocampus – Contextual memory
Hypothalamic and Septal nuclei – Basic drives
Nucleus Accumbens (NAcc) – responses to pleasure
Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) – facilitates learning and
PreFontal Cortex (PFC) – OFT and ACC
Dorsal Medial Thalamus – inhibits dopamine
The neural circuitry of behaviour - summary
What is the evidence? (1)
This is imaging that compares problem Gamblers (B) with Controls (A):.
There is limited activation of the ventral striatum (reward response) in the
addicted brain. The controls display much higher levels of activity – the
differences are due to sensitisation
Tolerance - Phenomena where the effects of a drug diminish with repeated use
• Develops at different rates to different drug effects
• Once developed, it does NOT last indefinitely
• Cross-tolerance between members of same class of drug
After a prolonged period of abstinence, a user will require a much small dose to
gain the same effect. This is particularly problematic in the case of heroin users
released from long term prison sentences – most overdose deaths occur in the
week following release
What is the evidence? (2)
Agonists and Antagonists
Agonists – such as Methadone –
binds to the same receptor as the
heroin, but does not produce the
euphoria / high. Taken orally, it
does not rapidly increase opioid-
receptor activity, but does
maintain enough activity to avoid
Naltrexone is an opioid
antagonist. It prevents heroin
from binding to the receptor, but
does not activate the receptor.
Naloxone (Narcan) also works in
this way, and can be used to address
overdose by replacing the heroin.
Fighting fire with fire – Pharmaceutical solutions to pharmaceutical problems
What is the evidence? (3)
Medication Treatment for addiction to Mechanism
Methadone Heroin Opioid-receptor agonist
Naltrexone Heroin Opioid-receptor
Naloxone Heroin, alcohol Opioid-receptor
Buprenorphine Heroin Mixed opioid-receptor
Nicotine gum, patches Nicotine Provide low doses of
Has work on the biological basis for addiction contributed towards the
development of effective interventions? The utilisation of antagonists to reduce
cravings and reverse overdose are good examples of this.
What is the evidence? (4)
What are the risk factors for addiction?
• Permissive family attitudes to substance use
• Use of substances by parents, family members
• Family conflict
• Early and persistent behaviour problems
• Academic problems
• Low commitment to school
• Early peer rejection - alienation
• Association with peers who use drugs
• Attitudes favourable to drug use
• Early onset of alcohol/drug use
Netwealth Centre for Addiction
• Netwealth Centre for Addiction Management
is a treatment and rehabilitation centre for
people with alcohol and drug dependence.
• Service Types: 1.Outpatient Treatment 2.
Residential Treatment 3. Aftercare.
Unique Selling Points
• Our 10-bedded facility mimics the home
environment, not like a conventional
• There is provision of entrepreneurial
training beyond the medical, psychiatric
and psychosocial treatment.
Unique Selling Points
• We have a strong programme content
that is based on evidenced-based studies
on what works.
• A full complement of health
professionals in the addiction industry.
• Our Address:
Netwealth Consult Ltd,
Opposite Mining Quarters,
State Low Cost, Rantya,
Jos Plateau State
• Phone No: 08036770092, 07050245234
• Email: firstname.lastname@example.org