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Photojournalism midterm timeline

photojournalism midterm timeline

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Photojournalism midterm timeline

  2. 2. • Photojournalism is the art of expressing photographs to communicate events with the world. Technology overtime has impacted photojournalism tremendously. But where did it begin? This timeline will display multiple technological advances that have affected photojournalism.
  3. 3. 1839: DAGUERREOTYP E • The daguerreotype was the first photographic process invented by Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre and were primarily used for portraits. Images were printed on silver coated copper plate that resembled a mirror. The plate is then exposed to light with iodine and bromine in a box camera. Once it was exposed in the camera it was developed with mercury fumes. These images were easily damageable, therefore; they were typically held in hand held cases made with velvet and leather. Mathew Brady a photojournalist utilized daguerreotype photography capturing portraits including President Abraham Lincoln. In addition, daguerreotype photographs were engraved into newspapers.
  4. 4. 1839: DAGUERREOTYP E IMAGES o Engraved into newspaper. o photograph by: Mathew Brady
  5. 5. DAGUERREOTYPE IMAGES CONT. o Photograph by: John Plumbe o Photograph by: John Addams Whipple
  6. 6. 1851: WET COLLODION PROCESS • The collodion process was invented by Fredrick Scott Archer. This photographic process created a negative image involving many complicated steps with glass, chemical solutions and a dark room. Although, the exposure time was much shorter than the daguerreotype process it created highlights in detail within a photograph. It was the prime method for photojournalist such as Mathew Brady, Timothy O’Sullivan and Alexander Gardner during the Civil war. Not only was it a time-consuming process it involved photojournalist to travel with a lot of equipment. Due to the exposure time taking so long, it was impossible to capture action scenes during there war. As a result, there are many after war images showing dead soldiers.
  7. 7. 1851: WET COLLODION PROCESS IMAGES o Photograph by: Carleton E Watkins
  8. 8. 1851: WET COLLODION PROCESS IMAGES o Left photograph created by: Timothy O’Sullivan o Right photograph created by: Alexander Gardner
  9. 9. 1912: GRAFLEX SPEED GRAPHIC CAMERA o The Graflex Speed Graphic Camera was created by Folmer & Schwing Manufacturing Company in New York. This camera was known to be used by the famous photojournalist WeeGee. These cameras were popular among photojournalist due to their high shutter speeds, interchangeable lenses and the cameras light weight portable features. The high shutter speed allows the photojournalist to freeze quick motion. In addition, the camera allows the main subject to appear sharp in detail while blurring out the background, creating the main subject to appear more dramatic. Photograph by: Margaret Bourke-White
  10. 10. 1912: GRAFLEX SPEED GRAPHIC CAMERA o On right: Photograph by: Wee Gee o On left: Photograph by: Unknown Photograph of Margaret Bourke-White with her Speed Graphic Camera
  11. 11. 1914: 35MM LEICA o This camera was created by Oskar Burnack. However, it wasn’t until 1924 the camera was sold to the public. The portability of the 35mm Leica has grabbed many photojournalists attention overtime. The small handheld Leica allows a photojournalist to be discrete while taking images. In addition, the Leica features a silent shutter speed of 1/25 to 1/500. Whereas, previous cameras were bulky, loud, had long exposure time nor were easy to travel with. This camera was extremely popular during World War II. o Top photograph taken by: Margaret Bourke-White o Bottom photograph by: Robert Capa
  12. 12. 1935: WIRE TRANSMITTERS • On December 31st 1934 the first photo was sent through Associated Press Wirephoto service, According to TIME Magazine, “Once the print was made and ready to be sent, it would be wrapped around a cylinder on the transmitter. At the push of a button, the cylinder, which could hold up to 11 x 17-inch prints, would spin at one hundred revolutions per minute underneath an optical scanner. The optical scanner would shine a very thin beam of light onto the spinning print, which would then reflect light back into a photoelectric cell, which, in turn, would translate the reflections of light and dark tones into signals that would be carried across the wires.” • The photograph was delivered to 47 different newspaper companies in 25 different states in minutes. This is the beginning of the biggest impact on photojournalism. Typically, photojournalist rely on mail, trains, planes, runners which can take a very long time to send images to a source. By 1951, over 200,000 images were sent via Associated Press Wire photo service.
  13. 13. 1935: WIRE TRANSMITTERS IMAGES Photograph by: unknown (1st photograph)Photograph by: Murray Becker
  14. 14. 1935: KODACHROME • Kodak introduced color to photography, developed by Leopold Mannes and Leopold Godowsky Jr who were experimenting with color. The coloring process consist of three layers of emulsion that captures blue, green and red wavelength. However, this isn’t the first-time color has been introduced to photographic images. Left to right: Photograph by: Nickolas Muray & Photograph taken by: Charmers Butterfield
  15. 15. 1980: ONLINE NEWSPAPER S (MULTIMEDI A) • Multimedia also as online newspapers began around 1980s when the dial up internet began. It’s a form of photojournalism where photojournalist share their image and stories instead of having them printed in newspapers. This is a convenient way for photojournalist to upload their images to their computers to share online for their viewers to see. CompuServe dial up service impacted the first online newspaper to be published
  16. 16. 1980S: ONLINE NEWSPAPERS (MULTIMEDIA) COMPUSERVE ADVERTISEMEN TS o Left: Photograph by unknown o Right: Photograph by: unknown
  17. 17. 1975: 1ST DIGITAL CAMERA PROTYPE • the first prototype for a digital camera was created in 1975 by Steve Sasson from Eastman Kodak . However, Kodak never saw the potential and didn’t developed the technology. It weighed about 8lbs and saved images on a cassette tape. Photograph by: unknown
  18. 18. 1988: FUJI DS-1P • Fujifilm in Tokyo released the first digital camera in 1988 that saves images to a memory card. The semiconductor memory card at the time contained 2 megabytes of SRAM and held 5- 10 photographs. This was a huge convenience for photojournalist to change memory cards rather than film. Once film is used and developed, it was thrown away. Whereas, a memory card is reusable. The lightweight features of the Fuji DS-1P features 3x zoom, rechargeable batteries and an image play back function to view photographs taken.
  19. 19. 1994: BLOGS o Blogs are an online journal that was created in 1994 by a college student named Justin Hall from Links.net. However, at the time they were known as personal homepages. It wasn’t until 1997 they were referred to blogs thanks to Jorn Barger. Over the years, blogs have been becoming extremely popular. Therefore, photojournalist have been blogging to images and stories. They can also receive feedback from viewers. Whereas, at one point that wasn’t possible with newspapers. Photojournalist can continue to add content to their blogs creating a website with all their reported events or images for viewers to see. This is very convenient for photojournalist because it saves time from printing images depending on their camera they are using. They can send images to their email/editor and upload it to their blog. Today, they could even capture an image with their cellphone and upload it as well.
  20. 20. 1994: BLOGS Photograph by: Rocco RorandelliPhotograph by: Dima Gavrysh
  21. 21. SOURCES o https://streetbounty.com/history-photojournalism/ o https://www.thoughtco.com/photography-timeline-1992306 o https://www.webdesignerdepot.com/2011/03/a-brief-history-of-blogging/ o https://www.fujifilm.com/innovation/achievements/ds-1p/ o https://www.nytimes.com/1991/09/22/technology/camera.html