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1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN1
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN2
 At the end of this unit/session you should be
able to:
 Define In-service Education ...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN3
Basic Concept and Definitions
”Zeroed or Balance”
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN4
Basic Concept and Definitions…
Fig.1: Imbalance between Employee’s capabilities and Job...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN5
 Fig.1: the job expectations are greater and
employee’s capabilities are less.
 In ot...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN6Fig.2: Balance between Employee’s capabilities and Job Demand
Basic Concept and Definiti...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN7
 Whereas fig. 2 clearly depicts that when the
nurses are enriched with In-service
educ...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN8
Definition:
 In-service Education, may be defined as
educational activities planned an...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN9
 When a person enters into a new work
situation, orientation is not enough; often
she/...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN10
 And knowledge of yesterday may be of use,
if it is used in the light of today’s
adva...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN11Fig. 2.3: Basic Concepts of In-service Education
Help a person’s
performance
effectivel...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN12
 In hospital nursing services, it becomes the process
of helping the nurse to carry o...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN13
If it is so then what does staff
development include:
 Staff Development:
 Includes ...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN14
Distinguishing between staff
Development and In-service Education
 Staff Development ...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN15
 In-service education helps employees to do their
present jobs well whereas staff dev...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN16
Characteristics of In-service Education
may be summed as:
 It should be given in the ...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN17
In-service Education and Staff
Development are of utmost
importance to ensure the qual...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN18
Benefits of In-service Education &
Staff Development for the
Organization and for the ...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN19
For the Individual Employees
 Leads to improved professional practice;
 Aids in upda...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN20
For the Organization
 For the organization which actually
accounts for human developm...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN21
 Develops sense of responsibilities for being
competent and knowledgeable;
 Creates ...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN22
 Helps the nurses to adjust to change;
 Aids in developing leadership skills,
motiva...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN23
Areas of In-service Education & Staff
Development
 Till now you have grasped the bene...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN24
AREAS OF INSERVICE EDUCATION
AND STAFF DEVELOPMENT
ORIENTATION
SKILL TRAINING
LEADRSHI...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN25
Orientation
 The process whereby a new staff member is
introduced to a particular wor...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN26
 We classify the consequences of orientation
as employee based and organization
based...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN27
Employee Based
 Develops a sense of security and confidence
 Reduces apprehension
 ...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN28
ORIENTATION PROGRAMMES
ARE SOCIAIZATION TOOLS USED
AMONG NEW EMPLOYEES
 You will real...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN29
Organizational Based
 Helps to reduce employee turnover
 Increases productivity
 En...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN30
 It provides the employees with a means to
carry out a new job with fewer mistakes an...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN31
 What meaning does orientation have for a
new employee and for the employer?
 It mea...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN32
Topics to be included in the
orientation programme
 Some of the topics are compulsory...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN33
Orientation Programme
Introduction
Administraor(s)
Supervisor(s)
Co-worker(s)
specific...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN34
Orientation
Introduction
Personnel policies Organization Personnel Work Unit Specific ...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN35
Sample items for preparing a check-list for a 4
day orientation program for nursing
 ...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN36
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN37
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN38
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN39
Skill Training
 Like orientation, the area of skill training also
requires attention....
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN40
 The interesting fact about nursing service is
that, its first level positions are fi...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN41
 E.g., in the medical field there are super
specialities like ICU, cardiology, neurol...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN42
 It is however essential to identify the skills
for which training is to be imparted,...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN43
 It is also important to emphasize here that
skill training gives an opportunity to t...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN44
 In teaching a skill, one utilizes again the basic
principles of learning.
 Some of ...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN45
Leadership and Management
Development
 These are the learning experiences
necessary t...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN46
 There is an increasing trend to show that
more and more nurses are being
managed and...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN47
 How do we foster the nurses with the
knowledge and skills of modern
administrative t...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN48
Continuing Education
 Concept of continuing education is
growing up very fast in nurs...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN49
 Today, nursing is not merely confined to the
traditional roles of attending to the s...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN50
 Maintenance of accurate records and report
and imparting health education to the pat...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN51
 Its purpose is to achieve more effective
behavior in nursing practice to improve the...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN52
 It brings out the potentials of the staff and
helps in deciding which persons are ab...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN53
 The content may be developed on the basis of :
 contents on the clinical areas like...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN54
 There are THREE phases:
 Assessment
 Implementation
 Evaluation
STEPS TO INSERVIC...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN55
Assessment Phase
 In the assessment phase:
 the need for the programme is determined...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN56
 Individual needs reflect the learner’s profile;
 e.g., learner’s characteristics,
...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN57
Pinpointing the needs
 How can these needs be identified?
 There are several ways of...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN58
 The trainer working directly in the clinical
area with personnel has a golden
opport...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN59
 It is interesting to know that sometimes
reports and records can be helpful in
ident...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN60
 Thus needs can be identified by means
of:
 Observation of work performance,
 Analy...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN61
Prioritizing the needs
 There are multiple needs in the organization
and it is necess...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN62
Setting training objectives
 Once the needs have been categorized
and prioritizes est...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN63
 The objectives specify how well must
the learner perform the behavior and
under whic...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN64
Developing Criteria
 Before actual implementation of the
programme, various criteria ...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN65
Specify content/ Topic and Learning
Experiences
 You may recall that specific topics ...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN66
 Although the setting may not have visual
tapes, an overlay type of transparency or
w...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN67
 E.g., if special nursing skills are needed to be
taught in the post-operative care o...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN68
 You will find that the sequence of topics
proceeds from general to specific and from...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN69
 After stating the objectives, you are required to
plan and design sessions usually f...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN70
 These plans should be kept as a matter of
record so that the actual results of learn...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN71
 In addition, if outside speakers are invited,
this is also noted on the schedule.
 ...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN72
Teaching-learning methods and media
 Methods and media of teaching-learning
activitie...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN73
 The methods should be supplemented by
audio-visuals to enhance the learning
experien...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN74
 E.g., the selection of instructional methods for
orientation programme is concerned ...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN75
 On the contrary, however group discussion,
workshop, seminar, panel discussion and
c...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN76
 Where should you organize these programs?
 The factors like number of participants
...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN77
Developing evaluation criteria
 The way in which the programme is to be
evaluated is ...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN78
Implementation
 Climate setting is significant in the actual
presentation phase.
 E....
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN79
Evaluation
 Evaluation is a continuous process at
each and every step of the developm...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN80
 Evaluation of the programme should
follow the five steps:
 Evaluation criteria shou...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN81
 Essentially the evaluation should be made by
comparing the results with the objectiv...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN82
 These methods are to assess the reaction, behavior and
learning of the trainees.
 S...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN83
 Lastly, the success of the programme
relates directly to the efforts used in
assessi...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN84
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN85
Reference
 Smith J. Barry and Barian L. Delahaye, 1987, “How
to be an Effective Train...
1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN86
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Inservice education for nursing administrators by raj kumar mehta

In-service Education for nursing students, nursing administrators and other health personnel

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Inservice education for nursing administrators by raj kumar mehta

  1. 1. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN1
  2. 2. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN2  At the end of this unit/session you should be able to:  Define In-service Education And Staff Development;  Distinguish between In-service Education and Staff Development;  Identify the benefits of In-service Education and Staff Development;  Explain the steps in organizing these programme;  Discuss the methods of In-service Education and Staff Development; and  Describe areas of In-service Education and Staff Development. In-service Education & Staff Development
  3. 3. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN3 Basic Concept and Definitions ”Zeroed or Balance”
  4. 4. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN4 Basic Concept and Definitions… Fig.1: Imbalance between Employee’s capabilities and Job Demand
  5. 5. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN5  Fig.1: the job expectations are greater and employee’s capabilities are less.  In other words, it means that the nurses’ working capabilities are less than what is expected from them. Basic Concept and Definitions…
  6. 6. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN6Fig.2: Balance between Employee’s capabilities and Job Demand Basic Concept and Definitions…
  7. 7. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN7  Whereas fig. 2 clearly depicts that when the nurses are enriched with In-service education, their capabilities or work output is balanced by what is expected from her/him. Basic Concept and Definitions…
  8. 8. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN8 Definition:  In-service Education, may be defined as educational activities planned and organized by the employers for the employees to assist them in learning and/or furthering the knowledge, skills and attitudes required for the achievement of the specific purpose of the organization.
  9. 9. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN9  When a person enters into a new work situation, orientation is not enough; often she/he requires some additional knowledge and skill training.  Even the entrant’s previous experiences have meaning only if they are relevant to the situation. Basic Concept and Definitions…
  10. 10. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN10  And knowledge of yesterday may be of use, if it is used in the light of today’s advancement – both technically and educationally.  Hence, the concept of In-service education arises. Basic Concept and Definitions…
  11. 11. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN11Fig. 2.3: Basic Concepts of In-service Education Help a person’s performance effectively as a personal work Provided in a job setting CONCEPT OF INSERVICE EDUCATION Planned Education Activities Closely Identified With service
  12. 12. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN12  In hospital nursing services, it becomes the process of helping the nurse to carry out the functions commensurate with her /his obligations for nursing services.  It also helps to develop their skills necessary to reach the ultimate goals of health organization i.e.,  The highest quality of patient care, and  To keep abreast of changing techniques and  Use of sophisticated tools and equipment. Basic Concept ….
  13. 13. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN13 If it is so then what does staff development include:  Staff Development:  Includes both formal and informal learning activities relating to the employees’ roles that takes place either within or outside the organization.
  14. 14. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN14 Distinguishing between staff Development and In-service Education  Staff Development is a broader concept than the In-service Education.  The purpose of both is similar and  Hence the distinction between these two is often blurred;
  15. 15. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN15  In-service education helps employees to do their present jobs well whereas staff development is for the future job.  The in-service education is that part of the process of staff development which advances and maintains individuals within an organization.  However, the staff development also encompasses instructions outside the parent organization, designed to supplement In-service learning. Distinguishing between staff Development and In-service Education
  16. 16. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN16 Characteristics of In-service Education may be summed as:  It should be given in the job setting.  Every programme should be planned and ongoing.  It should be closely related and identified with service components.  It should help the employees’ learning and improve her/his knowledge, skills and attitude.
  17. 17. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN17 In-service Education and Staff Development are of utmost importance to ensure the quality of service.
  18. 18. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN18 Benefits of In-service Education & Staff Development for the Organization and for the Individual employees.
  19. 19. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN19 For the Individual Employees  Leads to improved professional practice;  Aids in updating knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization;  Keeps the nurses abreast of the latest trends and developments in techniques;  Equips the nurses with knowledge of current research and developments;  Helps the nurses to learn new and to maintain old competencies.
  20. 20. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN20 For the Organization  For the organization which actually accounts for human development of the personnel thereby benefiting the organization:  Keeps the nursing staff enthusiastic in their learning;  Develops interest and job satisfaction amongst the staff;
  21. 21. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN21  Develops sense of responsibilities for being competent and knowledgeable;  Creates an appropriate environment with opportunities for growth and communication;  Helps the nurses in making appropriate and sound decisions as well as using effective problem solving techniques; For the Organization…
  22. 22. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN22  Helps the nurses to adjust to change;  Aids in developing leadership skills, motivation and better attitudes;  Aids in encouraging and achieving self development and self confidence;  Makes the organization a better place to work. For the Organization…
  23. 23. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN23 Areas of In-service Education & Staff Development  Till now you have grasped the benefits of In- Service Education and development.  These are usually developed according to personnel needs and generally are, as shown below.
  24. 24. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN24 AREAS OF INSERVICE EDUCATION AND STAFF DEVELOPMENT ORIENTATION SKILL TRAINING LEADRSHIP AND MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT CONTINUING EDUCATION
  25. 25. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN25 Orientation  The process whereby a new staff member is introduced to a particular work setting.  This is very important for a new person or a person new to a particular position within the organization.  Everyone of us has experienced the positive impact of orientation formally or informally at the time of joining the institution.
  26. 26. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN26  We classify the consequences of orientation as employee based and organization based. Orientation…
  27. 27. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN27 Employee Based  Develops a sense of security and confidence  Reduces apprehension  Aids adjustment  Enhances interpersonal acceptance  Familiarizes new employees with the organization, its goals, its policies and its other employees.
  28. 28. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN28 ORIENTATION PROGRAMMES ARE SOCIAIZATION TOOLS USED AMONG NEW EMPLOYEES  You will realize that this is a kind of socialization to create a family atmosphere and motivate the group to meet the objectives of the organization.
  29. 29. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN29 Organizational Based  Helps to reduce employee turnover  Increases productivity  Ensures a conducive working climate
  30. 30. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN30  It provides the employees with a means to carry out a new job with fewer mistakes and a minimum of confusion.  This results in a happier staff, whose job satisfaction is increased; they provide better services and care to the patients and the clientele which is the over-all objective of a health agency. Organizational Based…
  31. 31. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN31  What meaning does orientation have for a new employee and for the employer?  It means that there is a need to try to develop a common objective and goal with which the total group can identify.  The overall objective of nursing services is to provide the best nursing care with available resources both at the institutional and community settings. Organizational Based…
  32. 32. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN32 Topics to be included in the orientation programme  Some of the topics are compulsory, for example:  history of the organization,  introduction to nursing unit,  personnel policies,  expected standards of care,  duties and  responsibilities.
  33. 33. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN33 Orientation Programme Introduction Administraor(s) Supervisor(s) Co-worker(s) specific Job Description Job Setting Ethical & Legal Responsibilities Rewards personnel Service Rules General -Salary -Leave -Promotion -Duties -Obligations Nursing Office General Office Hospital Orientation/C ommunity Setting Orientation Fig. Conceptual map on the related topics
  34. 34. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN34 Orientation Introduction Personnel policies Organization Personnel Work Unit Specific Nursing Responsibilities -remuneration -leave rules -holidays -medical benefits -duty patterns -other significant & related information Regarding Accomodation, Transport etc. -philosophy -objectives -broad policies -service rules & Regulations -work pattern And rotation -org. chart -positive role Of nurses in attainment Of objectives -emergency Handling -disciplinary Measures -security arrangements -administration -co-workers -subordinates -other Significant personnel -job description -job responsibilitis -task responsibilities -Channels of Communication And accountability -job safety Requirements -emergency Handling -legal & ethical Responsibilities -records & reports -supervision & evaluation -place -organization Plan -organization Of dept. -layout -policies -rules -regulations -procedures -safety procedures Fig. Suggested Topics Covered in Orientation programme
  35. 35. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN35 Sample items for preparing a check-list for a 4 day orientation program for nursing  Sample items for preparing a check-list for a 4 day orientation program for nursing personnel which assures the authorities that the new employee are receiving all the necessary knowledge and process inputs required for performing their jobs well.  An attempt has been made to include items covering both institutional and community settings merely as a sample to acquaint you with the procedure of making such a check-list.
  36. 36. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN36
  37. 37. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN37
  38. 38. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN38
  39. 39. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN39 Skill Training  Like orientation, the area of skill training also requires attention.  It is described as the learning process by which we acquire and improve knowledge, skills, concepts, and attitudes.  In other words, it also helps to achieve the organizational goal by increasing the potentials of the employees, especially the skills.
  40. 40. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN40  The interesting fact about nursing service is that, its first level positions are filled by nurses prepared as generalists at the diploma or degree level.  Because of the rapid advances in medical technology, these nurses are faced with the problem of handling newer equipment and assisting in complicated treatment procedures. Skill Training…
  41. 41. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN41  E.g., in the medical field there are super specialities like ICU, cardiology, neurology, gastroenterology, neonatology and so on.  The very same nurses with general preparation, are providing nursing care to the patients in all these areas, without any further preparation. Skill Training…
  42. 42. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN42  It is however essential to identify the skills for which training is to be imparted,  Further, it is not enough to train the nurses on these skills but to ensure that they have mastered them. Skill Training…
  43. 43. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN43  It is also important to emphasize here that skill training gives an opportunity to the nurses:  To improve and reinforce their level of preparation,  It also fills any gap in his/her knowledge of total patient care by keeping her/his aware of changing methods and new techniques through instruction, demonstration and supervised practice. Skill Training…
  44. 44. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN44  In teaching a skill, one utilizes again the basic principles of learning.  Some of the applicable learning principles are as follows:  The trainee must be motivated to learn  Learning must be reinforced  Materials provided must be meaningful  Materials presented must be communicated  Multiple sense learning should be applied.  The materials taught must transfer to the job situation  Feedback is a must to achieve the required and appropriate learning curve. Skill Training…
  45. 45. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN45 Leadership and Management Development  These are the learning experiences necessary to provide and upgrade the skills and knowledge required in current and future managerial positions.  You may know that today’s nursing administrator is faced with the challenge of providing for the best hospital care as well as managing the nursing personnel.
  46. 46. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN46  There is an increasing trend to show that more and more nurses are being managed and controlled by nurse administrators with appropriate authority and financial power in the world today. Leadership and Management Development…
  47. 47. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN47  How do we foster the nurses with the knowledge and skills of modern administrative tools and techniques, to assume the responsibility as efficient partners in the health care delivery team?  The answer is – through in-service education and staff Development, of course. Leadership and Management Development…
  48. 48. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN48 Continuing Education  Concept of continuing education is growing up very fast in nursing services.  The literature suggests that nursing was the forerunner in offering continuing education for staff development in foreign countries.
  49. 49. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN49  Today, nursing is not merely confined to the traditional roles of attending to the sanitation of the ward or looking after the different needs of the patients  Today, the expanded role of the nurses calls for intelligent assessment of the nursing needs, planning for interventions and implementation of these interventions to meet the assessed needs, and evaluation of these intervention. Continuing Education…
  50. 50. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN50  Maintenance of accurate records and report and imparting health education to the patients are also the nurses’ responsibilities.  The most challenging aspect of continuing education is the need to foster innovative and creative approaches to nursing care of patients. Continuing Education…
  51. 51. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN51  Its purpose is to achieve more effective behavior in nursing practice to improve the patient care.  Let us look at the other side of this coin. Continuing Education…
  52. 52. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN52  It brings out the potentials of the staff and helps in deciding which persons are able to assume more responsibility in their respective jobs according to the levels at which they function.  Another dramatic characteristic of continuing education is its academic offerings to a group or to an individual. Continuing Education…
  53. 53. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN53  The content may be developed on the basis of :  contents on the clinical areas like critical care nursing, neonatal nursing, pediatric nursing, neurological nursing, cardiovascular nursing , surgical nursing etc;  level of group of nurses like graduates, undergraduates etc;  designation like staff nurses, nursing officers, etc;  experience like a new graduate or a nurse with three years experience in a specific clinical area and so on. Continuing Education…
  54. 54. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN54  There are THREE phases:  Assessment  Implementation  Evaluation STEPS TO INSERVICE EDUCATION AND STAFF DEVELOPMENT
  55. 55. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN55 Assessment Phase  In the assessment phase:  the need for the programme is determined and  the objective of the programme is specified.  The needs are based on:  Goals;  needs of individuals and  the organization.
  56. 56. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN56  Individual needs reflect the learner’s profile;  e.g., learner’s characteristics,  learning styles and learners’ goals,  whereas organizational needs reflect the standards set for care of patients,  overall health goals,  role expectation of nurses and  resources available.  Pinpointing the needs  Prioritizing needs  Setting Training Objectives  Developing Criteria Assessment Phase…
  57. 57. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN57 Pinpointing the needs  How can these needs be identified?  There are several ways of assessing the needs.  Direct observation of work performance is the most common method of identifying the needs.
  58. 58. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN58  The trainer working directly in the clinical area with personnel has a golden opportunity to observe how the individual nurse performs his/her duties and interacts with the patients.  This will provide variable data regarding learning needs. Pinpointing the needs…
  59. 59. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN59  It is interesting to know that sometimes reports and records can be helpful in identifying learning needs.  Even surveys, and interviews are also used for identifying needs of operation and managerial level nurses. Pinpointing the needs…
  60. 60. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN60  Thus needs can be identified by means of:  Observation of work performance,  Analysis of records and reports,  Survey, and  Interview. Pinpointing the needs…
  61. 61. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN61 Prioritizing the needs  There are multiple needs in the organization and it is necessary to priorities them.  Usually the needs are ranked in importance on the basis of organizational objectives.  Other factors like economic factors, the abilities of the personnel and time are also taken into account.
  62. 62. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN62 Setting training objectives  Once the needs have been categorized and prioritizes established, objectives are set to begin meeting these needs.  The training objectives begin with the statement of terminal behavior.
  63. 63. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN63  The objectives specify how well must the learner perform the behavior and under which conditions the learner is to perform to develop the criteria for the programme. Setting training objectives…
  64. 64. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN64 Developing Criteria  Before actual implementation of the programme, various criteria are laid down.  Let’s discuss each criterion separately.  Specify content/ Topic and Learning Experiences  Teaching-learning methods and media  Developing evaluation criteria.
  65. 65. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN65 Specify content/ Topic and Learning Experiences  You may recall that specific topics and learning experiences are based on well defined and behaviorally oriented objectives.  In planning the programme, the available resources also influence how a topic will be dealt with; e.g., the number of educators available in one clinical setting.
  66. 66. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN66  Although the setting may not have visual tapes, an overlay type of transparency or white-board may be made available to supplement the basic discussion.  Sometimes, the resources available outside the organization give the director to designing the content. Specify content/ Topic and Learning Experiences…
  67. 67. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN67  E.g., if special nursing skills are needed to be taught in the post-operative care of cardiac patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery, it should be determined whether a medical research institution or a hospital can offer the desired learning experience. Specify content/ Topic and Learning Experiences…
  68. 68. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN68  You will find that the sequence of topics proceeds from general to specific and from simple to complex.  Continuity is another factor to make the programme effective.  It would be interesting to note that the design/plan of learning experiences includes the session, place, time schedule and staff assignment. Specify content/ Topic and Learning Experiences…
  69. 69. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN69  After stating the objectives, you are required to plan and design sessions usually following the five-step procedure given below:  Divide the session content into: Must know, Should know and Could know  Arrange the content in logical order  Select basic resources  Select training techniques  Estimate segment times Specify content/ Topic and Learning Experiences…
  70. 70. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN70  These plans should be kept as a matter of record so that the actual results of learning experience can be compared for evaluation.  A time schedule is prepared to depict educators, class and clinical schedule. Specify content/ Topic and Learning Experiences…
  71. 71. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN71  In addition, if outside speakers are invited, this is also noted on the schedule.  Efforts are made to assign the topic content to the subject expert.  As a matter of rule, the most knowledgeable person could be made available. Specify content/ Topic and Learning Experiences…
  72. 72. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN72 Teaching-learning methods and media  Methods and media of teaching-learning activities are simple ways to provide learning experiences.  You will have to identify the appropriate teaching methods for all the programme, job related or developmental in nature.
  73. 73. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN73  The methods should be supplemented by audio-visuals to enhance the learning experience.  The selected methods should be effective and economical.  In addition, methods should meet the objectives. Teaching-learning methods…
  74. 74. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN74  E.g., the selection of instructional methods for orientation programme is concerned essentially with teaching tasks.  You have learnt in the earlier section that orientation is the process to orient the employee to their assigned positions and to their tasks where methods like lecture and demonstration may be more useful than group discussion. Teaching-learning methods…
  75. 75. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN75  On the contrary, however group discussion, workshop, seminar, panel discussion and conference will be useful in leadership and management development programme and demonstration, re demonstration, clinical grand rounds and observation are the methods appropriate for use in the skill training programme. Teaching-learning methods…
  76. 76. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN76  Where should you organize these programs?  The factors like number of participants (training load), use of teaching learning methods and media, time of programme and nature of programme must be considered when selecting a place. Teaching-learning methods…
  77. 77. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN77 Developing evaluation criteria  The way in which the programme is to be evaluated is best considered before it begins.  We should define criteria in four areas of outcomes:  Reaction of the trainee to the programme  Learning of the content by the trainee  Behavioral change of the trainee  Effect of training programme on achievement of organizational objective.
  78. 78. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN78 Implementation  Climate setting is significant in the actual presentation phase.  E.g., how the learners are greeted may influence how receptive they will be to the programme.  Ensure the feasibility of and check if the concerned persons are working as planned.  Once the climate has been set, it is the time to implement the learning experience.  At the last, arrange final informal meetings.
  79. 79. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN79 Evaluation  Evaluation is a continuous process at each and every step of the development and implementation.  It is an integral part of the programme.  It is not the end but the means to measure the stated objectives and is also a guide for future planning of programme.
  80. 80. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN80  Evaluation of the programme should follow the five steps:  Evaluation criteria should be established  Participants should be given a pretest  After training or development is completed, a post test should be given.  Transfer of the learning to the job should take place.  Follow up studies should be undertaken to see how well learning was retained. Evaluation…
  81. 81. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN81  Essentially the evaluation should be made by comparing the results with the objectives of In-service Education and Development Programme set in the assessment phase.  A number of evaluation instruments and methods can be used to measure the results of In-service Education and Development Programme. Evaluation…
  82. 82. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN82  These methods are to assess the reaction, behavior and learning of the trainees.  Some of the methods are:  Records used to measure the turnover, absenteeism;  Observational techniques used to evaluate the skills;  Ratings used for performance, attitudes and judgment of ability;  Questionnaire used to measure decision making, problem solving, attitudes, values;  Personality tests to measure the changes in ability or knowledge. Evaluation…
  83. 83. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN83  Lastly, the success of the programme relates directly to the efforts used in assessing, developing and evaluating each step. Evaluation…
  84. 84. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN84
  85. 85. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN85 Reference  Smith J. Barry and Barian L. Delahaye, 1987, “How to be an Effective Trainer : Skills for Managers and New Trainers”, New Work : John Wiley and Sons, Inc.  Tobin Helen M. and et al 1974. “The Process of Staff Development Components for change”. Saint Louis: The C.V. Mosby Company.  Writher William B. and Keith Davis. 1981. “Personnel Management and Human Resources”. New York: McGraw Hill Book Company.  IGNOU Module : HS3T3, Nursing Administration, 1997.
  86. 86. 1/23/2015 Raj Kumar Mehta, MSN,RN86

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