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All about the DNA

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DNA is a molecule that contains the instructions an organism needs to develop, live and reproduce.

Publié dans : Sciences
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  • MEDINA, ELAIZA DC. BS PSYHOLOGY IV. Deoxyribonucleic acid is a molecule composed of two chains (made of nucleotides) which coil around each other to form a double helix which carries the human's genetic code, DNA is known as a universal blueprint of all living organisms. it has four nitrogen bases which is the Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine,and Thymine.
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  • DE LEON, JENICA M. BS PSY IV DNA itself makes up chromosomes. It is the building blocks of what and how we act an a human being. It can be used as a tracing "device" as on how a single person act the way he/she acts because DNA came from the parents of that person, and as a Psychology student, that is considered crucial information. DNA is deoxyribonucleic acid, and is contained in your body's cells. It is a double, long chain of molecules called nucleotides that tell each cell what proteins to make. There are 3 billion base pairs of DNA that makes us a person.
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  • PARENA, MARY JOY G. BSPSY-IV - DNA is really the carrier of the genetic material that determines who you are. In relation to psychology, DNA testing paternity is common nowadays and in giving the result, the role of psychologist is important. He/she is the one responsible for communicating the result because shock might happen to the client.
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  • RAMOS MARICAR BSPSY The main role of DNA in the cell is the long-term storage of information. ... The major function of DNA is to encode the sequence of amino acid residues in proteins, using the genetic code. To read the genetic code, cells make a copy of a stretch of DNA in the nucleic acid RNA. roteins form the structure of our bodies, as well playing an important role in the processes that keep us alive. Genes are made of a chemical called DNA, which is short for 'deoxyribonucleic acid'. The DNA molecule is a double helix: that is, two long, thin strands twisted around each other like a spiral staircase.
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All about the DNA

  1. 1. By Prof. Liwayway Memije-Cruz All About the DNA
  2. 2. DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid  A molecule that contains the instructions an organism needs to develop, live and reproduce. These instructions are found inside every cell, and are passed down from parents to their children.
  3. 3. DNA Sequence  DNA is made up of molecules called nucleotides. Each nucleotide contains a phosphate group, a sugar group and a nitrogen base. The four types of nitrogen bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C). The order of these bases is what determines DNA's instructions, or genetic code. Similar to the way the order of letters in the alphabet can be used to form a word, the order of nitrogen bases in a DNA sequence forms genes which tells cells how to make proteins.  The entire human genome contains about3 billion
  4. 4. DNA Structure
  5. 5. DNA: Double Helix  Nucleotides are attached together to form two long strands that spiral to create a structure called a double helix. A double helix structure is like a ladder, the phosphate and sugar molecules would be the sides, while the bases would be the rungs. The bases on one strand pair with the bases on another strand: adenine pairs with thymine, and guanine pairs with cytosine.  DNA molecules are long that they can't fit into cells without the right packaging. DNA is coiled tightly to form structures we call chromosomes.  Each chromosome contains a single DNA molecule. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, which are found inside the cell's nucleus.
  6. 6. DNA Discovery  First observed in 1869 by a German biochemist Frederich Miescher.  In 1953 James Watson, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin figured out the structure of DNA — a double helix — which they realized could carry biological information.  Watson, Crick and Wilkins were awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in in 1962 "for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material.”
  7. 7. DNA Testing  DNA contains information about our heritage, and can sometimes reveal whether we're at risk for certain diseases.  DNA is used to diagnose genetic disorders, to determine whether a person is a carrier of a genetic mutation that they could pass on to their children, and to examine whether a person is at risk for a genetic disease  can have implications for a person's health, and the tests are often provided along with genetic counseling to help individuals understand the
  8. 8. DNA Replication: is the process by which DNA makes a copy of itself during cell division. 
  9. 9. Importance of DNA 1. Deoxyribonucleic acid is the universal blueprint for life on Earth. 2. DNA determines what people look like and how their bodies function. 3. It can cause crippling defects or protect living creatures from disease. 4. It may even determine when it’s time to die.
  10. 10. DNA and Mutations  A mutation is a change in DNA, the hereditary material of life.  Mutations are essential to evolution; they are the raw material of genetic variation. Without mutation, evolution could not occur  An organism's DNA affects how it looks, how it behaves, and its physiology.  A change in an organism's DNA can cause changes in all aspects of its life.
  11. 11. DNA: The molecular basis of mutations  Protein-coding DNA can be divided into codons — sets of three bases that specify an amino acid or signal the end of the protein. Codons are identified by the bases that make them up. The cellular machinery uses these instructions to assemble a string of corresponding amino acids (one amino acid for each three bases) that form a protein. The amino acid that corresponds to "GCA" is called alanine; there are twenty different amino acids synthesized this way in humans. "Stop" codons signify the end of the newly built protein. After the protein is built based on the sequence of bases in the gene, the
  12. 12. Types of Mutations 1. Substitution - a mutation that exchanges one base for another (i.e., a change in a single "chemical letter" such as switching an A to a G). Ex: CTGGAG > CTGGGG 2. Insertions are mutations in which extra base pairs are inserted into a new place in the DNA. Ex: CTGGAG > CTGGTGGAG 3. Deletions are mutations in which a section of DNA is lost, or deleted. Ex: CTGGAG > CTAG
  13. 13. Causes of Mutations 1. DNA fails to copy accurately
  14. 14. 2. External influences can create mutations  Mutations can also be caused by exposure to specific chemicals or radiation making the DNA to break down.  When the cell repairs the DNA, it might not do a perfect job of the repair. So the cell would end up with DNA slightly different than the original DNA and hence, a mutation.
  15. 15. Genetic Engineering  the process of manually adding new DNA to an organism. The goal is to add one or more new traits that are not already found in that organism. Examples of genetically engineered (transgenic) organisms currently on the market include plants with resistance to some insects, plants that can tolerate herbicides, and crops with modified oil content.
  16. 16. DNA Fingerprinting  a laboratory technique used to establish a link between biological evidence and a suspect in a criminal investigation.  DNA fingerprinting is also used to establish paternity.
  17. 17. Worldwide Demand For DNA Testing  DNA testing and research is being used across a number of sectors and from companies that specialize in paternity testing, to those that look at genetic modification of plants, there is a significant market to be tapped.  Independent companies, new branches of established pharmaceutical companies and numerous research departments are either looking at ways that DNA can change our lives, or offering us DNA testing services.
  18. 18. DNA and Industry Some examples of how the DNA industry is growing:  DNA Sunscreen –The DNA on your skin can be damaged long before you burn, and this damage can contribute to the development of skin cancer. A company to provide a DNA rating for sunscreen.  Personalized Healthcare – Thorough analysis of our DNA can show whether we have a predisposition towards certain diseases or are likely to react badly to particular medicines. In the long-term, this information could be used to tailor the healthcare we get which, experts argue, could prevent a huge amount of wastage in the current health service.  Soft drinks may damage DNA – In May 2007, researchers at a British University released details of a study into the effects of some soft drinks on DNA. They found that one of the ingredients often present in fizzy drinks, E211 or sodium benzoate may damage DNA, causing problems similar to those caused by alcohol abuse. Damaging the important mitochondrial DNA, this chemical could cause cell damage.
  19. 19.  Given the possible effects of both natural and man-made environments and substances, it’s important that research into DNA continues, and that the companies offering DNA testing uphold the reputation of this young industry by providing the best possible results and service to their
  20. 20. Biological Warfare  Biological warfare is the employment of biological agents to produce casualties in man or animals or damage to plants.  Biological weapons include any organism (such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi) or toxin found in nature that can be used to kill or injure
  21. 21. http://www.yourgenome.org/facts/what-is-dna-replication http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/molecules/dna/ http://www.livescience.com/37247-dna.html http://science.opposingviews.com/importance-dna-human-cell- 19447.html http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/mutations http://agbiosafety.unl.edu/basic_genetics.shtml http://www.fankids.org/dna-paternity-testing-explained/ https://www.ibdna.com/the-dna-industry/ http://www.emedicinehealth.com/biological_warfare/article_em.htm References:

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