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The Genes

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The cells in our bodies contain chromosomes which contains a long molecule of DNA. Each DNA molecule contains many genes. A gene is a segment of a DNA molecule that gives the instructions for making a protein.

Publié dans : Sciences
  • DE LEON, JENICA M. BS PSY IV As a Psychology student, study of DNA is really important to us as it determines the origin of how people act and to identify the characteristics of a person because it is a biomolecule that holds the blueprint for how living organisms are built. And gene is the basic physical and functional unit of heredity.
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  • PARENA, MARY JOY G. BSPSY-IV - A gene is a small section of DNA that contains the instructions for a specific molecule. In relation of this topic to psychology, mental health illnesses can be passed to next generation. Gene is responsible for giving instructions what will be the characteristics of the offspring. Through studying this, the origin of client's mental health issue will be known easily by checking if he/she is carrying that dominant trait.
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  • MENDOZA, BEA GELINE V. BSPSY IV A gene is the basic physical and functional unit of heredity. Genes, which are made up of DNA, act as instructions to make molecules called proteins. In humans, genes vary in size from a few hundred DNA bases to more than 2 million bases. Every person has two copies of each gene, one inherited from each parent. Most genes are the same in all people, but a small number of genes (less than 1 percent of the total) are slightly different between people. Alleles are forms of the same gene with small differences in their sequence of DNA bases. These small differences contribute to each person’s unique physical features.Proteins form the structure of our bodies, as well playing an important role in the processes that keep us alive. Genes are made of a chemical called DNA, which is short for 'deoxyribonucleic acid'. The DNA molecule is a double helix: that is, two long, thin strands twisted around each other like a spiral staircase.
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  • CAYETANO APRIL B. BSPSY-4 a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function. During gene expression, the DNA is first copied into RNA. The RNA can be directly functional or be the intermediate template for a protein that performs a function. The transmission of genes to an organism's offspring is the basis of the inheritance of phenotypic traits. These genes make up different DNA sequences called genotypes. Genotypes along with environmental and developmental factors determine what the phenotypes will be. Most biological traits are under the influence of polygenes (many different genes) as well as gene–environment interactions. Some genetic traits are instantly visible, such as eye color or number of limbs, and some are not, such as blood type, risk for specific diseases, or the thousands of basic biochemical processes that constitute life.
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  • SANTIAGO, ALDRIN L. BSPSY IV - we share the information encoded within our genes with all other life forms. A gene is a small section of a large double helix DNA molecule. Genes are instructions for making proteins, and proteins mediate virtually all biological processes. Since we share our genes with all organisms, we also must share our biology with them.
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The Genes

  1. 1. By Prof. Liwayway Memije-Cruz
  2. 2. How genesin thechromosomescan influenceone’scharacteristics?
  3. 3. Thecellsin our bodiescontain chromosomes. Each chromosomecontainsalong molecule of DNA. Each DNA moleculecontainsmany genes.  A geneisasegment of aDNA moleculethat givestheinstructionsin making proteins. Genesaresectionsof chromosomesthat have coded instructionsfor making proteins.
  4. 4.  different versionsof the samegene  givethe instructionsfor making different versionsof protein
  5. 5.  Chromosomescomein pairs of homologouschromosomes. In each pair of homologous chromosomes, both chromosomeshavethesame genesat thesamelocations.  A genemay havedifferent alleleson thetwo homologous chromosomes. (e.g. Aa) or a genemay havethesame alleles(e.g. SS).
  6. 6. Genotype Protein Phenotype(characteristics) AA or Aa Enough normal enzymeto make melanin in skin and hair Normal skin and hair color aa Defectiveenzymefor melanin production Very paleskin and hair color; albino SSor Ss Enough normal hemoglobin to prevent sicklecell anemia Normal blood; no sicklecell anemia ss Sicklecell hemoglobin, which can causered blood cellsto becomesickleshaped Sickleshaped red blood cells can block blood flow in the smallest blood vessels, causing pain, etc.; sicklecell anemia
  7. 7. Many of thegeneson each chromosome givetheinstructionsfor making thelarge number of proteinsthat areneeded for normal cell structureand function. Each cell needsto haveacompleteset of chromosomeswith all of thesegenes.
  8. 8.  http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/exchange/waldron/mitosis  http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/exchange/waldron/mitosismeiosis
  9. 9.  http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/exchange/waldron/mitosis  http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/exchange/waldron/mitosismeiosis

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