Contenu connexe


6. counseling and guidance

  1. Counseling and Guidance
  2. Contents  Introduction  Objectives  Goals  Principles  Types  Phases  Indicators of successful counseling
  3. Introduction  Counseling is a process, as well as a relationship, between persons.  The aim of the counselor is usually to assist the person in realizing a change in behavior or attitude, or to seek achievement of goals.  Often there are varieties of problems for which the counselee may seek to find help.
  4. Introduction…  Counseling is derived from the word “counsel” which literally means “to give advice.”  Dictionary meaning of the word “counseling” is that it is kind of a help with personal or psychological matters usually given by a professional”.
  5. Definition of Counseling  Counseling is a process, organized in a series of steps, which aims to help people cope (deal with or adapt to) better with situations they are facing.  This involves helping the individual to understand their emotions and feelings and to help them make positive choices and decisions.
  6. Definition…  It is an interactive process conjoining the counselee who needs assistance and the counselor who is trained and educated to give this assistance - (Perez, 1965)  “skilled and principled use of relationship to facilitate self- knowledge, emotional acceptance and growth and the optimal development of personal resources” -(The British Association for Counseling)
  7. Guidance  Guidance means to guide, which means to direct or to lead, is concerned with the best development of the person for ultimate development.  In broader sense, guidance is the assistance made available by qualified and trained persons to an individual of any age to help him manage his own decisions and carry on his own his burdens.
  8. Definition of Guidance  Guidance is the help given by one person to another in making choices and adjustments and in solving problems, further it aims at aiding the recipient to grow in his/her independence, and ability “to be responsible for himself/herself” - (Jones, 1971).  Guidance is a process of dynamic interpersonal relationship designed to influence the attitude and subsequent behaviour of a person - (Good).
  9. Objectives of Counseling  To assist clients in exploring their problems & guide them to solutions.  To reduce worry, anxiety or any other negative emotions.  To guide clients in their recovery from, & adaptation to, difficult circumstances.  Developing the ability to make wise & realistic decision  Altering their own behavior to produce desirable decisions
  10. Objectives…  To have clients become aware of the consequences of the experiences & situations they have been/are going through.  To help individuals become self-sufficient, self-dependent, self-directed & to adjust themselves efficiently to the demands of a better & meaningful life.  To provided assistance to enhance their personal, emotional, and intellectual development.  To provide information according to client’s need.
  11. Goals of Counseling  Facilitating behaviour change  Enhancing coping skills  Promoting decision making  Improving relationships  Facilitating client potential
  12. Principles of counseling Hann & Macclean:  It is strongly dedicated to self- direction and self- realization of the client or the student.  Client’s need is to be put first.  It is preliminary, a preventive and remedial process  Avoid dictatorial attitudes
  13. Principles…  Maintain relationship of trust and confidence with the client.  Let the client make voluntary informed decision.  The client’s family members and significant influencing personnel must be included in counseling process.  Maintain dignity of individual as individual is primary concern in counseling.
  14. Characteristics of Effective Counselor  Self-awareness & understanding  Good psychological health  Sensitivity  Open-mindedness  Objectivity  Competence  Trustworthiness  Accessibility  Interpersonal Attractiveness  Acceptance and respect  Consistency & accuracy  Honesty  Tactfulness  Confidentiality  empathetic
  15. Functions of Counseling  Remedial: Functional Impairment  Preventive: Anticipate and Accommodate  Enhancement: Human Potential
  16. Types of Counseling Non clinical  Counseling about risk  Marriage guidance counseling  Bereavement counseling  Problem solving counseling  In school, college, hospitals, guidance centers, rehabilitations centers, industries & at home Clinical  HIV/AIDS counseling  Genetic counseling  Counseling in Psychiatry » Adjustment disorder » Mild depressive illness » Normal & pathological grief » Sequelae of childhood sexual abuse » After other traumas e.g., rape, accidents » Postnatal depression » Pregnancy loss & still birth » Drugs & alcohol problems
  17. Steps In Counseling Procedure  G ---- Greet the client  A ---- Ask clients about themselves  T ---- Give information of Strategies of coping mechanisms  H ---- Help the client to choose a method.  E ---- Explain how to use a method.  R ---- Return for follow-up.
  18. Phases of Counseling The Waehler & Lennox Five Stages of Counseling  Relationship building - the counselor and client establish the therapeutic relationship.  Assessment and diagnosis - the counselor determines the psychological status of the client.  Goal Setting - the counselor helps the client set meaningful goals that can lead to cognitive and behavioral change.
  19. Phases of Counseling  Intervention and problem solving - the counselor helps the client get started with meeting the goals.  Termination and follow-up - when the counseling process is complete, the counselor terminates the session.
  20. Phase-1: Establishing Relationship Tasks of this stage  Laying foundations for trust  Establishing the structure and form the relationship  Informed consent process  Articulating roles of counselor and client – developing a collaborative working alliance
  21. Procedure  Introduce self.  Listen attentively.  Always address the individual by his/her name.  Ensure physical comfort.  Do not interrupt the individual while he is talking.  Observe non-verbal communication.  Accurate Empathy  Creates an atmosphere of trust and safety  Provides a medium or vehicle for intense affect  Models a healthy interpersonal relationship  Provides motivation for change
  22. Phase- 2: Assessment And Diagnosis (Performing standard assessments) Standardized Techniques  Aptitude Tests  Intelligence Tests  Achievement Tests  Interest test  DSM III-R/ICD-10  Personality Tests  SOCRATES Non-standardized Techniques  The Questionnaire  Observation  Sociometry  Autobiography  Rating Scales  Anecdotal Record  Case Study  Cumulative Record  Interviews
  23. Tasks of this Stage  Identifying the nature of the presenting problem – what kind of change is sought.  Counselor role more so in helping the client articulate than in pronouncing for them.  Seeing problem in-context to the client’s larger world. Keeping an eye on strengths and resources.  Counselor builds hypotheses during this stage and throughout.
  24. Phase- 3: Setting Goals Tasks of this stage » Define desired outcomes » Give direction to the counseling process » Specify what can & cannot be accomplished in counseling » Client motivation » Evaluate effectiveness of counseling » Measure client progress
  25. Phase- 4: Intervention  Tasks of this stage » Handling the interventions. » Knowledge of its effects. » Ability to read clients reaction.
  26. Phase – 5: Termination And Follow-up Counselor Considers  Counselor always mindful of avoiding fostering dependency and is aware of own needs.  Preparation for termination begins long before.  Open door / plan for possibility of future need.  Termination considered not just at end of successful relationship, but also is considered when it seems counseling is not being helpful.
  27. Indicators of Counseling Success  Clients “own” their problems and solutions  Clients develop more useful insight into problems and issues  Clients acquire new responses to old issues  Clients learn to develop more effective relationships
  28. The Basics of Communication  Positive counselling skills  Non- verbal communication  Barriers to Effective Communication  Sending solutions  Avoiding the other’s concerns  Culture sensitivity:
  29. Problems in counselling  Resistance to counselling; either by counsellor or by faculty (Transference & counter-transference)  Counselee with different cultural background, they have own values and expectations.  Counselling individuals with strong emotions such as anxiety, anger, depression, intensity etc which will hinder counselling process.
  30. Problems in counselling  Counsellor burnout- the symptoms such as restlessness, boredom, irritability, lethargy, fatigue, negative feelings etc.  Lack of awareness of value of counselling by public.  Inadequate administrative setup.  Lack of physical facilities, non-availability of time and tools, dearth of training facilities for counsellors.
  31. Categories of Counseling Interventions  Affective  Cognitive  Behavioral  Interpersonal/Systemic
  32. Affective Models  Person-centered therapy  Gestalt Therapy  Body awareness therapies  Psychodynamic therapies  Experiential therapies
  33. Cognitive Models  Rational-emotive therapy  Information-giving  Problem-solving and decision- making  Transactional Analysis
  34. Behavioral Models  Behavior therapy  Reality therapy  Cognitive-behavioral therapy Systemic Models  Structural therapy  Strategic therapy  Intergenerational systems