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The treaties – basis for democratic cooperationbuilt on law 1952 1958 The European Steel and Coal Community The treaties of Rome: The European Economic Community The European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) 1987 The European Single Act: the Single Market 1993 2003 1999 Treaty of European Union Treaty of Nice Treaty of Amsterdam – Maastricht
The Lisbon treaty - taking Europe intothe 21st century The Treaty will make the European Union: More efficient Simpler processes, full-time president for the Council, etc. More democratic Stronger role for the European Parliament and national parliaments, "Citizens Initiative", Charter of Fundamental Rights, etc. More transparent Clarifies who does what, greater public access to documents and meetings, etc. More united on High Representative for Foreign Policy, etc. the world stage More secure New possibilities to fight climate change and terrorism, secure energy supplies, etc.
A transparent Union at your service The website of the European Union europa.eu One and a half million documents available to the public Europe Direct contact centre Answers your questions: 00 800 6 7 8 9 10 11 Europe Direct relays Over 400 EU Info Points across the EU European Union Documents Access to internal documents upon request The European Ombudsman Deals with complaints over EU administration Nikoforos Diamandouros, the EU ombudsman
EU population in the world Population in millions, 2009 1339 500 307 128 142 EU China Japan Russia United States
The area of the EU compared to the restof the world Surface area, 1 000 km² 16 889 9327 9159 4234 365 EU China Japan Russia United States
How rich is the EU compared to the restof the world? 38 700 27 800 25 100 12 508 9819 12 200 4 400 3 329 1 326 468 EU China Japan Russia United States EU China Japan Russia United States Size of economy: 2008 gross domestic product Wealth per person: 2008 gross domestic product in billion of euros per person
France 544 Spain 506 Sweden 410 Germany 357 Poland 313 Finland 305 Italy 295United Kingdom 244 Romania 230 Greece 131 Bulgaria 111 Hungary 93 Portugal 92 Austria 83 Surface area in 1 000 km²Czech Republic 77 Ireland 68 Lithuania 63 Latvia 62 How big are the EU countries? Slovakia 49 Estonia 43 Denmark 43 Netherlands 34 Belgium 30 Slovenia 20 Cyprus 9 Luxemburg 3 Malta 0.3
Germany 82.1 France 64.4United Kingdom 61.6 Italy 60.1 Spain 45.8 Poland 38.1 Romania 21.5 Netherlands 16.5 Greece 11.3 Belgium 10.8 Portugal 10.6Czech Republic 10.5 Hungary 10.0 Sweden 9.3 500 million total Austria 8.4 Bulgaria 7.6 Population in millions, 2009 Denmark 5.5 Slovakia 5.4 Finland 5.3 Ireland 4.5 Lithuania 3.3 How many people live in the EU? Latvia 2.3 Slovenia 2.0 Estonia 1.3 Cyprus 0.8 Luxemburg 0.5 Malta 0.4
Luxembourg 271 Ireland 137 Netherlands Austria Sweden 135 123 122 DenmarkUnited Kingdom Germany 118 117 116 Finland Belgium France 115 114 107 Spain 103 Italy 101 100 EU-27 Cyprus 95 94 Greece 91 Slovenia 2008 GDP per inhabitant 80Czech Republic Malta Portugal 76 76 Slovakia GDP per inhabitant: the spread of wealth Index where the average of the 27 EU-countries is 100 Estonia Hungary 72 68 63 Lithuania 61 58 Poland 56 Latvia Romania Bulgaria 46 40
How does the EU spend its money? 2012 EU budget: €147.2 billion = 1.12% of gross national income Citizens, freedom, security and justice 1% The EU as a global player: including development aid Other, administration 6% 6%Natural resources: Sustainable growth: agriculture, jobs, competitiveness, regional development environment 46% 41%
Climate change – a global challenge To stop global warming, EU leaders decided in 2007 to: reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20% by 2020 (30% if other developed countries do likewise) improve energy efficiency by 20% by 2020 raise the share of renewable energy to 20% by 2020 (wind, solar, hydro power, biomass)
Energy sources in a changing world Fuel used in EU in 2008, as share Share of fuel imported from outside the EU in 2008 of total 100% 84% Gas Oil 25% 36% 60% 54% 45% Nuclear Coal 13% 18% Renewables 0% 8% Coal Oil Gas Nuclear Renewables All types (uranium) of fuel
Jobs and growth Challenges: Demography: Europeans live longer, have fewer children Globalisation: European economy faces competition from other parts of the world Climate change: Emission of greenhouse gases must come down Solutions: European leaders have therefore agreed on a joint strategy for: More research and innovation A more dynamic business environment Investing in people A greener economy
Research - investing in the knowledge society Spending on research and development in 2006 (% of GDP) 3.4% 3.0% 2.6% 1.8% 1.3% EU EU objective China Japan United States
Solidarity in practice: the EU cohesion policy 2007-2013: €347 billion invested for infrastructure, business, environment and training of workers for less well-off regions or citizens Regional fund Social fund Cohesion fund Convergence objective: regions with GDP per capita under 75% of the EU average. 81.5% of the funds are spent on this objective. Regional competitiveness and employment objective.
The euro – a single currency for Europeans Can be used everywhere in the euro area Coins: one side with national symbols, one side common Notes: no national side EU countries using the euro EU countries not using the euro
Beating inflation European Economic and Monetary Union: stable prices Average annual inflation in the 15 EU-countries that used the euro in 2008
The EU: an exporter of peace and prosperity World trade rules Common foreign and security policy Development assistance and humanitarian aid EU runs the peacekeeping operations and the rebuilding of society in war-torn countries like Bosnia-Herzegovina.
The EU – a major trading power Share of world trade Share of world trade in goods (2007) in services (2007) EU EU 17% 28.5% Others Others 40.6% 53.2% United States 14.5% Japan United States 5.8% 18.2% China China Japan 9.5% 5.9% 6.8%
The EU is the biggest provider of development aidin the world The EU provides 60% of all development aid 93€ 53€ 44€ EU Japan United States Official development assistance per citizen, 2007
Three key players The European Parliament - voice of the people Martin Schulz, President of of the European Parliament The council of Ministers - voice of the Member States Herman Van Rompuy, President of the European Council The European Commission - promoting the common interest José Manuel Barroso, President of the European Commission
The EU institutions European Council (summit) Council of Ministers European Parliament (Council of the EU) European Commission Court of Court of Economic and Social Justice Auditors Committee Committee of the Regions European Investment Bank Agencies European Central Bank
How EU laws are made Citizens, interest groups, experts: discuss, consult Commission: makes formal proposal Parliament and Council of Ministers: decide jointly National or local authorities: implement Commission and Court of Justice: monitor implementation
The European Parliament – voice of the people Decides EU laws and budget together with Council of Ministers Democratic supervision of all the EU’s work Number of members elected in each country (January 2012) Austria 19 Finland 13 Latvia 9 Romania 33 Belgium 22 France 74 Lithuania 12 Slovakia 13 Bulgaria 18 Germany 99 Luxembourg 6 Slovenia 8 Cyprus 6 Greece 22 Malta 6 Spain 54 Czech Republic 22 Hungary 22 Netherlands 26 Sweden 20 Denmark 13 Ireland 12 Poland 51 United Kingdom 72 Estonia 6 Italy 73 Portugal 22 Total 753
The European political parties Number of seats in the European Parliament per political group (January 2012) Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe European People’s Party 84 (Christian Democrats) Greens/European Free Alliance 271 58Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats 190 European Conservatives and Reformists 53 Europe of Freedom and Democracy European United 33 Left - Nordic Green Left Total : 753 34 Non-attached members 30
Council of Ministers – voice of the member states One minister from each EU country Presidency: rotates every six months Decides EU laws and budget together with Parliament Manages the common foreign and security policy
Council of Ministers – number of votes percountry Germany, France, Italy and the United Kingdom 29 Spain and Poland 27 Romania 14 Netherlands 13 Belgium, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary and Portugal 12 Austria, Bulgaria and Sweden 10 Denmark, Ireland, Lithuania, Slovakia and Finland 7 Estonia, Cyprus, Latvia, Luxembourg and Slovenia 4 Malta 3 Total: 345 “Qualified majority” needed for many decisions: 255 votes and a majority of member states From 2014: 55% of the Member States with 65% of the population
Summit at the European Council Summit of heads of state and government of all EU countries Heldat least 4 times a year Sets the overall guidelines for EU policies President: Herman Van Rompuy
A high representative for foreign affairs and security Catherine Ashton Double hat: chairs the Foreign Affairs Council meetings + Vice-president of the European Commission Manages the common foreign and security policy Head of European External Action Service
The European Commission – promotingthe common interest 27 independent members, one from each EU country Proposes new legislation Executive organ Guardian of the treaties Represents the EU on the international stage
The Court of Justice – upholding the law 27 independent judges, one from each EU country Rules on how to interpret EU law Ensures EU countries apply EU laws in the same way
The European Court of Auditors:getting value for your money 27 independent members Checks that EU funds are used properly Can audit any person or organisation dealing with EU funds
The European Central Bank:managing the euro Ensures price stability Controls money supply and decides interest rates Works independently from governments Mario Draghi President of the Central Bank
The European Economic and Social Committee:voice of civil society 344 members Represents trade unions, employers, farmers, consumers etc Advises on new EU laws and policies Promotes the involvement of civil society in EU matters
The Committee of the Regions:voice of local government 344 members Represents cities, regions Advises on new EU laws and policies Promotes the involvement of local government in EU matters
Civil servants working for the EU Commission employs about 23 000 permanent civil servants and 11 000 temporary or contract workers Other EU institutions: about 10 000 employed Permanent civil servants Selected by open competitions Come from all EU countries Salaries decided by law EU administration costs €15 per EU citizen per year
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