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Electrophoresis presentation

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Electrophoresis presentation

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Electrophoresis presentation

  1. 1. ELECTROPHORESIS By Mohammadi M. Master of Science (Medical Physics) Department of Medical Physics, KUMS
  2. 2. Outline  Definition  Purpose (Application)  Principle  Factors affecting on EF mobility  Types  Explain three common types of electrophoresis  Electrophoresis of proteins
  3. 3. DEFINITION: It describes migration of charged particles or molecules under the influence of electric field. ELECTROPHORESIS
  4. 4. PURPOSE FOR CARRYING OUT ELECTROPHORESIS • 1. To determine the number, amount and mobility of components in a given sample or to separate them. • 2. To obtain information about the electrical double layers surrounding the particles. • 3. Determination of molecular weight of proteins and DNA sequencing.
  5. 5. PRINCIPLE Any charged ion or molecule migrates when placed in an electric field. The rate of migration depend upon its net charge, size, shape and the applied electric current. v = Eq F where F = frictional coefficient, which depends upon the mass and shape of the molecule. E = electric field (V/ cm) q = the net charge on molecule v = velocity of the molecule.
  6. 6. FACTORS AFFECTING ELECTROPHORETIC MOBILITY 1. Charge – higher the charge greater the electrophoretic mobility. 2. Size – bigger the molecule, greater are the frictional and electrostatic forces exerted on it by the medium. Consequently, larger particles have smaller electrophoretic mobility compared to smaller particles. 3. Shape – rounded contours elicit lesser frictional and electrostatic retardation compared to sharp contours. Therefore globular protein move faster than fibrous protein.
  7. 7. Buffer Solution • Electrophoresis is performed in buffer solutions to reduce pH changes due to the electric field, which is important because the charge of DNA and RNA depends on pH, but running for too long can exhaust the buffering capacity of the solution.
  8. 8. TYPES OF ELECTROPHORESIS ELECTROPHORESIS FREE ELECTROPHORESIS ZONE ELECTROPHORESIS MICRO ELECTROPHORESIS MOVING BOUNDARY PAPER ELECTROPHORESIS CELLULOSE ACETATE ELECTROPHORESIS GEL ELECTROPHORESIS
  9. 9. Supporting Medium • A supporting medium is a physical support through which the charged molecules get separated. • It has two primary functions: adsorption and molecular sieving of the taken molecules which are intended to be separated.
  10. 10. PAPER ELECTROPHORESIS It is the form of electrophoresis that is carried out on filter paper. This technique is useful for separation of small charged molecules such as amino acids and small proteins.
  11. 11. PAPER ELECTROPHORESIS Filter Paper whatman filter paper, cellulose acetate filter paper or chromatography paper Apparatus Power pack, electrophoretic cell that contains electrodes, buffer reservoirs, support for paper, transparent insulating cover Sample Application may be applied as a spot (about 0.5 cm in diameter) or as a uniform streak. Electrophoretic Run The current is switched on after the sample has been applied to the paper and the paper has been equilibrated with the buffer Detection Physical properties like fluorescence,ultraviolet absorption or radioactivity are exploited for detection. Applications (a) Serum analysis for diagnostic purpose is carried out by paper electrophoresis. (b) Muscle protein (Myosin), egg protein (albumin), milk protein (casein), snake and insect venoms have been satisfactorily analysed using paper electrophoresis. Disadvantage It is very time-taking. Around 14-16 hours are needed for the process of complete separation.
  12. 12. • modified version of paper electrophoresis • bacteriological acetate membrane filters are taken in place of regular chromatography paper Advantages of cellulose acetate strips over chromatography paper: • are chemically pure and free of lignin and hemicelluloses • Has low content of glucose • is not hydrophilic Applications: • clinical investigation such as separation of glycoproteins, lipopro- teins and haemoglobin from blood. CELLULOSE ACETATE ELECTROPHORESIS
  13. 13. It is a technique used for the separation of DNA, RNA or protein molecules according to their size and electrical charge using an electric current applied to a gel matrix.  What is a gel? Gel is a cross linked polymer whose composition and porosity is chosen based on the specific weight and porosity of the target molecules. Types of Gels:  Agarose gel.  Polyacrylamide gel. GEL ELECTROPHORESIS
  14. 14. AGAROSE GEL  A highly purified uncharged polysaccharide derived from agar.  Used to separate macromolecules such as nucleic acids, large proteins and protein complexes.  It is prepared by dissolving 0.5% agarose in boiling water and allowing it to cool to 40°C.  It is fragile because of the formation of weak hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic bonds.
  15. 15. POLYACRYLAMIDE GEL  Commonly used components: Acrylamide monomers, Ammonium persulphate, Tetramethylenediamine (TEMED), N,N’-methylenebisacrylamide.  These free radicals activate acrylamide monomers inducing them to react with other acrylamide monomers forming long chains.  Used to separate most proteins and small oligonucleotides because of the presence of small pores.
  16. 16. ELECTROPHORESIS OF PROTEINS The most commonly used technique for the separation of proteins is Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE). PROCEDURE  Protein sample is first boiled for 5 mins in a buffer solution containing SDS and β-mercaptoethanol.  Protein gets denatured and opens up into rod-shaped structure.  Sample buffer contains bromophenol blue which is used as a tracking dye, and sucrose or glycerol.  Before the sample is loaded into the main separating gel a stacking gel is poured on top of the separating gel.
  17. 17. PROCEDURE Continued…  Current is switched on.  The negatively charged protein-SDS complexes now continue to move towards the anode.  As they pass through the separating gel, the proteins separate, owing to the molecular sieving properties of the gel.  When the dye reaches the bottom of the gel, the current is turned off.  Gel is removed from between the glass plates and shaken in an appropriate stain solution.  Blue colored bands are observed under UV rays.

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