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STEP 6: POSITIONING• Positioning is all about making thetargeted behavior appear attractive orbetter than the alternative/competition• Best way: Value-centered• What is value?
• What is valuegenerally: How domost peopledefine/perceivevalue?• How do marketingprofessionalsdefine/perceivevalue?• Take 10 minutes withyour group to comeup with a definitionof value. Write it onthe blackboard.DEFINE VALUE
VALUEValue is the customer’s perception of the difference betweenbenefits of an offering and the costs. It can be measured likethis:Value=Benefits-CostsIt is also the the measure of how much an offering is capableof meeting a customer’s stated needs with features thatprovide unique benefits. It can be measured like this:Value=Needs+Benefits/Features
CRITICAL TO VALUE IS THE NOTIONTHAT FEATURES PROVIDE BENEFITTHAT MEET NEEDS• What features’ benefitscome from this offering?• Is the provider uniquelycapable of deliveringthose features’ benefits?• Do the benefits match thetarget audience’s needs?• Value is created whentarget audience needs(wants are just weakerneeds) are met by (ideally)a unique benefit.• Why unique?
• Focused on thecustomer and theirneeds• Gives customers aspecific reason to actnormally in a way that ispremised upon self-interest even if that self-interest is social good• Gives customers areason to choose anoffering over thecompetition• Customer is of primaryimportance, notfeatures, price orproductTHE BEST MARKETING ISBENEFIT DRIVEN
NEEDS ARE MET BY BENEFITS ANDFEATURES AND DIRECTED TO TARGETAUDIENCES (NOT EVERYONE!)NEED• Utility/purpose• Psychological/psychographic• Social and/orindividualFEATURE/BENEFIT• Feature works in acertain way• Feature provokesa specific feeling• Feature providesa shared goodinstead of, or inaddition to. anindividual one
BENEFITS CAN BEIMPLIED OR REALIMPLIED• Symbolic• Representative• Idealized• FigurativeREAL• Concrete• Specific• Articulated• Literal
• Feature?• Benefit?• And towhom is it abenefitdirected?• Their need?• Value?EXAMPLE 1
• Feature?• Benefit?• Target audience?• Need?• Value?• Can everyproduct, concept orservice have value?• What about when itis unknown(diffusion ofinnovation model?)EXAMPLE 12
• What are the needs/benefits? Take 15minutes…• Choose three brandsyoulike/use/respect/admire• Can you identify threecompelling benefitsbased upon needs thatcome from the brands’products/features thatshape yourperception?• Think beyond featuresor specific products tobenefits that meetneeds of you as aconsumerBENEFITS ARE KEY!
HOW IS VALUE CONVEYED?STRATEGICALLY?• Positioning• Value propositions/statements
VALUEPROPOSITIONS/STATEMENTS/POSITIONINGSteps:1. Know the customer (NEEDS)2. Know the product/service or idea(FEATURES)3. Why would the customer choose theproduct/service or idea (BENEFITS)4. Combine features and benefits withneeds in a concise, direct statement
EXAMPLE• Categories/groups• Three main groups:• All benefits• Favorable points of interest• Resonating focus• Lowe’s “Never stop improving”• Why? Answer from Lowe’s CEO
• In social marketing needsare based upon behaviorswhich in turn are basedupon societalneeds/wants andpremised upon overallsocial good• Benefits are positionedthe same way (as well asindividually focused)• In community basedsocial marketing theneeds of the communityand the benefit of thecommunity is of primaryimportance• Needs and benefits muststrengthen/buildcommunitiesWHAT DOES THIS LOOK LIKE INSOCIAL MARKETING?
• Pretty much thesame! Value isderived frombenefits• Positioningbecomes a littlemore complexsince it can bebased uponbehavior, barriers and benefitsBEYOND THE OBVIOUSBIG DIFFERENCE…
• Useful but limited toincreasingawareness• No inherent value• Example: 311 forcarry-onsBEHAVIOR FOCUSEDPOSITIONING
• Helps overcomefears or disinterestor misperceptionsabout time involvedbut limited;Again, no inherentvalue!• Example: Recyclingas easy as 1,2, 3BARRIERS FOCUSEDPOSITIONING
• Strongest• Value implied bybenefits (socialand/or individual)• Basis for valuepropositionsBENEFITS FOCUSEDPOSITIONING
• Think of thebehavioral changeneeds related toending childhoodobesity• List three benefits ofending childhoodobesity• Thinking about thosebenefits, craft a valuestatement/positioning statement forparents to changetheir behaviorsCREATE ONE!
• Think about the negativebehaviors related to gunviolence (failure to lockguns, using large ammoclips, no backgroundchecks at gun shows etc.)• What are the benefits tochanging behaviors?• Craft a value statementrelated to reducing gunviolenceCREATE ANOTHER
• Behaviorsneeded tochange textingand driving?• Benefits of thatchange?• Value statementONE MORE!
NEXT WEEK (WEEK 7)…SOCIAL MARKETING MIX• Product (Chapter 10)• Price (Chapter 11)• Place (Chapter 12)• Community AnalysisPresentations! Identify needs aspart of your analysis…
REST OF THEQUARTER• Week 8: Community base social marketing mix: Promotion(Chapters 13 & 14)• Week 9: Managing community based social marketingplans including monitoring andevaluating, budgeting, implementation plans (Chapters15, 16 & 17)• Week 10: Community based social marketing plans andpresentations• Finals week: Final exam on chapters 9-17 (50 multiplechoice questions, open book, collaborative etc)