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Palate

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Palate

Publié dans : Santé & Médecine
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Palate

  1. 1. The presence of proliferative centres for B – and T- lymphocyte production (follicles and parafollicular zones, respectively)
  2. 2. Proximity to an epithelial surface, the lymphoid tissue being essentially situated within the mucosal lamina propria
  3. 3. The lack of a fibrous capsule
  4. 4. The provision of high – endothelium venules (HEVs) for immigration of lymphocytes.
  5. 5. The presence of efferent lymphatics but virtual absence of afferents.
  6. 6.  Lies in the roof of the oral cavity  Has two parts: • Hard (bony) palate anteriorly • Soft (muscular) palate posteriorly hard soft palate
  7. 7.  Attached to the posterior border of the hard palate  Covered on its upper and lower surfaces by mucous membrane  Composed of: • Muscle fibers • An aponeurosis • Lymphoid tissue • Glands • Blood vessels • Nerves
  8. 8.  Fibrous sheath  Attached to posterior border of hard palate  Is expanded tendon of tensor velli palatini  Gives origin & insertion to palatine muscles
  9. 9. Tensor veli palatini • Origin: spine of sphenoid; auditory tube • Insertion: forms palatine aponeurosis • Action: Tenses soft palate
  10. 10. Tensor veli palitini
  11. 11. Levator veli palatini • Origin:petrous temporal bone, auditory tube, palatine aponeurosis • Insertion: palatine aponeurosis • Action: Raises soft palate
  12. 12. Musculus uvulae • Origin: posterior border of hard palate • Insertion: mucosa of uvula • Action: Elevates uvula
  13. 13. Palatoglossus • Origin: palatine aponeurosis • Insertion: side of tongue • Action: pulls root of tongue upward, narrowing oropharyngeal isthmus Palatopharyngeus • Origin: palatine aponeurosis • Insertion: posterior border of thyroid cartilage • Action: Elevates wall of the pharynx
  14. 14. Palatopharyngeus
  15. 15. Mostly by the maxillary nerve through its branches: • Greater palatine nerve • Lesser palatine nerve • Nasopalatine nerve Glossopharyngeal nerve supplies the region of the soft palate
  16. 16. All the muscles, except tensor veli palatini, are supplied by the: •Pharyngeal plexus Tensor veli palatini supplied by the: • Nerve to medial pterygoid, a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve
  17. 17. Branches of the maxillary artery • Greater palatine • Lesser palatine • Sphenopalatine Ascending palatine, branch of the facial artery Ascending pharyngeal, branch of the external carotid artery
  18. 18. Cleft palate: •Unilateral •Bilateral •Median Paralysis of the soft palate •The pharyngeal isthmus can not be closed during swallowing and speech Pharyngeal isthmus
  19. 19. The lymphoid tissue in the pharyngeal aponeurosis aggregates in some areas forming tonsils: 1-one nasopharyngeal tonsil 2- two palatine tonsils 3- two lingual tonsils
  20. 20. Location  The palatine tonsil is an ovoid mass of lymphoid tissue  Tonsillar fossa in lateral wall of oropharynx
  21. 21. Boundaries of tonsillar fossa  Anterior pillar- Palatoglossal arch  Posterior pillar- Palatopharyngeal arch  Apex- Soft palate where both arches meet  Base – Dorsal surface of posterior one – third of tongue
  22. 22. External features  2 surfaces- medial, lateral(tonsillar bed)  2 Poles- upper, lower
  23. 23.  Stratified squamous non keratinising epithelium  Dips into the crypts  The crypts are 12-15 in number  crypta magna  It represents the ventral part of second pharyngeal pouch External features-Medial surface
  24. 24.  Fibrous capsule of the tonsil  Loose areolar tissue  The tonsillar bed External features-Lateral surface
  25. 25. Superior constrictor muscle Styloglossus muscle Glossopharyngeal nerve styloid process (if enlarged) Facial artery Medial pterygoid muscle Angle of mandible Submandibular salivary gland Tonsillar bed
  26. 26. External features-Poles  Upper pole- extends into soft palate  Lower pole- attached to tongue
  27. 27. The tonsil is supplied by 5 arteries: Tonsillar branch of facial artery (main supply) Ascending palatine branch of facial artery Ascending pharyngeal artery Dorsal linguae branch of lingual artery Descending palatine branch of maxillary artery Arterial supply
  28. 28. Blood supply from medial surface
  29. 29.  The paratonsillar vein  Pharyngeal venous plexus Venous drainage
  30. 30.  Lymphatics from the tonsil pierce the superior constrictor and  Drain into the upper cervical lymph nodes especially jugulodigastric (tonsillar) lymph node Lymphatic drainage
  31. 31.  Lesser palatine branch of sphenopalatine ganglion  Glossopharyngeal nerve Nerve supply
  32. 32.  Acute tonsillitis  Chronic tonsillitis Applied anatomy
  33. 33. Applied anatomy-Tonsillectomy
  34. 34. Applied anatomy-Quinsy
  35. 35. Applied anatomy-Peritonsillar vein injury
  36. 36. Thank You

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