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Water Of Boshporus

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Water Of Boshporus

  1. 1. Water of Bosporus
  2. 2. Foreword <ul><li>Our purpose for choosing this project was to get to know the Bosporus, the famous strait that we see everyday. We wanted to get a good knowledge about the living organisms in water, mainly fishes and microscobic organisms. While doing these, we had a challenging time, but yet we think we have made a good project. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Hypothesis <ul><li>Microscopic Organisms : My hypothesis is that the population of microscobic organisms vary from place to place. To search I will observe water from 3 different spots on the Bosporus. </li></ul><ul><li>Macroscopic Organisms – Fish: My purpose of doing this project was to investigate the fishes especially in the Bosphorus, and the effects of the pollution on the amount and the variation of fish. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Where is Istanbul and the Bosporus? <ul><li>İstanbul , in northwestern Turkey , is the only city in the world that sits astride two continents—Europe and Asia. İstanbul is the largest city in Turkey and the country’s chief commercial and cultural center. With the finest natural harbor in the region, it is also an important trade hub. The city is also the capital of İstanbul Province. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a a narrow strait in the middle of İstanbul, world wide known as “Bosporus” links the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara separating Europe and Asia. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Where is Istanbul and the Bosporus?
  6. 6. Where is Istanbul and the Bosporus? <ul><li>İstanbul was founded in the 7th century BC as Byzantium. In the 4th century AD it was renamed Constantinople by Roman emperor Constantine the Great. The city served as the capital of the Byzantine Empire until it was captured by the Ottomans in the 1453 and it became the capital of the Ottoman Empire. There are different ideas about the name “İstanbul”, according to some sources, the name İstanbul is derived from the Greek term stin poli, meaning “to the city” or “in the city.” </li></ul>
  7. 7. Method & Materials <ul><li>The methods used in the progress of this project are; </li></ul><ul><li>Interviewing with fisherman </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Encyclopedias & Books </li></ul><ul><li>Lab Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>- By Lab Equipment observing water from 3 spots </li></ul>
  8. 8. Discussion Living Organisms in the Bosporus <ul><li>Microscopic Organisms </li></ul><ul><li>- Monera </li></ul><ul><li>- Protists </li></ul><ul><li>-Netamodes </li></ul><ul><li>Macroscopic Organisms </li></ul><ul><li>- Fish </li></ul>
  9. 9. Discussion Microscopic Organisms <ul><li>Monera (Bacteria): They are the first living organisms that have formed. All other living organisms evolved from bacteria. The members of Kingdom Bacteria are prokaryotic, their DNA are found in their cyptoplasm. All of them are unicellular. </li></ul>The small dot shaped organisms that you see are bacteria. Although the image was taken under the microscope, we are not able to see the organelles due to their small size.
  10. 10. Discussion Microscopic Organisms <ul><li>Coliform testing at Rumelihisarı showed positive for E. coli. </li></ul><ul><li>Coliform testing at Bebek and Kuruçeşme showed negative for E. coli. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently, sewage is put into the Bosporus near Rumelihisarı. My test showes E. coli. enters near there. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Discussion Microscopic Organisms <ul><li>Protists: They are simple organisms like bacteria but have more complex structure. Their cells have nuclei. They can be both unicellular and multi-cellular members. All of the protists live in water, because they can dry out without water. There are different kinds of protists which live in the sea and in fresh water. In this project protoctists which live in sea water are observed. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Discussion Microscopic Organisms <ul><li>Protists that were seen... </li></ul><ul><li>Diatoms: Diatoms are very small. They are members of subkingdom chromobiont. Their class is Class Bacillariophyceae . We can see their organelles because they are unicellular. </li></ul><ul><li>Red Algae: As you see in the pictures and they are multicellular. We can’t see their organelles. Red algae are non motile. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Discussion Microscopic Organisms <ul><li>Green Algae: You see three types of green algae. Two of them are special, filamentous algae and colonial algae. They are all stationary. </li></ul><ul><li>Paramecium: Paramecia are the member of phylum ciliate. If we look carefully to the photos we can see that there are some tiny hair-like structures around the paramecium cells, these called cilia and paramecia move by cilia. The picture on the right side is taken during they are feeding. I couldn’t name what they were feeding on, maybe, different small algae. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Discussion Microscopic Organisms <ul><li>Netamodes: Apart from protista and monera netamodes are another group of microscobic organisms living the water of Bosporus. They are members of Kingdom Animalia and called roundworms. They have internal body cavity called pseudocoelum. They don’t have cilia or well defined head. Having no defined head makes them different from other animals. As many animals, they have muscles nerves, pharynx, excretory canal. Their skin is different, a combination of cellular material and nuclei which don’t have membranes to separate. In the photos netamodes are moving. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Discussion Macroscopic Organisms <ul><li>Fish </li></ul><ul><li>What is fish? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Any of various mostly cold-blooded aquatic vertebrates usually having scales and breathing through gills”, or “The flesh of fish used as food” </li></ul><ul><li>Why should we eat fish? </li></ul><ul><li>Omega-3 fatty acids are important for normal growth especially for blood vessels and nerves as well as keeping our skin and other tissues youthful and supple. Research studies have shown that in populations that consume large quantities of fish, with a high consumption of Omega3s, there is a reduced risk of heart disease. </li></ul><ul><li>As of now, there is no recommended daily allowance for Omega3s, but studies show that consuming two servings a week of fish do result in health benefits. However, because of the mercury content in fish, it is also recommended that consumption be limited to two to three servings a week, especially among children, and pregnant and nursing women since they are at higher risk of suffering from mercury toxicity according to the American Heart Association. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Discussion Macroscopic Organisms <ul><li>Interview Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Preamble </li></ul><ul><li>The reason why I decided to interview fishermen is to get the real information from real life. I thought it would be better to talk to them, than searching for already-known information. I have aimed to learn about fish types in Istanbul, their change during years and seasons, and the effect of all these on fishermen; such as how much they earn with fishing and are the amounts fair? Before getting started with the reportage, I have prepared my questions, concerning these matters. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Discussion Macroscopic Organisms <ul><li>The Interview Questions; </li></ul><ul><li>Could you tell me about the general fish types in Istanbul seas, their sizes, their tastes and popularities in public? </li></ul><ul><li>How are the fish prices and how do they affect the economy? </li></ul><ul><li>How much do you make by fishing? Can you give examples of varying fish types’ prices? </li></ul><ul><li>Where in Istanbul are the fishes’ quantity more than other places? Where are the most common fishing areas? </li></ul><ul><li>Could you tell us about your ideas, about the fact that pollution affects fishing in a negative way? </li></ul><ul><li>To be specified, how is fishing in Bosporus? Does the whole transportation system over the sea create any harm on living things? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you have any idea to make fishing easier and more profitable? If so, are you planning to actualize it? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Discussion Macroscopic Organisms <ul><li>Interview Results: </li></ul><ul><li>The most found fish in Bosporus; bluefish , bonito </li></ul><ul><li>The most productive season; november, because in November all the fishes that emigrates, have to pass through the Bosporus </li></ul><ul><li>The most popular fish type; turbot , bluefish . </li></ul><ul><li>Fish prices; dependant on their tastes, fattiness, for example turbot ; 70 YTL. </li></ul><ul><li>The best places in Istanbul to fish; in Marmar a Sea , various fish types and very productive every season, in Black S ea mostly in November, the emigration season. </li></ul><ul><li>The effects on the Turkish economy; export fish to many European countries, mostly Greece. </li></ul><ul><li>A fisherman’s living conditions; can not be rich but can go on with their lives easily. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Discussion Macroscopic Organisms <ul><li>Interview Results: </li></ul><ul><li>9 out of 10 fishermen now what water pollution means, and its effects on fishing. </li></ul><ul><li>7 out of 10 fishermen now the effects of fishing on the Turkish economy. </li></ul><ul><li>One fisherman has got an idea, how to prevent water pollution; which is to put stricter rules and worse penances. </li></ul><ul><li>So most of the fishermen are aware of water pollution. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Discussion Macroscopic Organisms Some Fish from Bosporus
  21. 21. The Other Organisms... <ul><li>... That were not observed, </li></ul><ul><li>Mollusk </li></ul><ul><li>A baby shrimp </li></ul><ul><li>A small organism </li></ul>
  22. 22. Conclusion Microscopic Organisms <ul><li>To conclude, there are many members of kingdom protoctista and monera i n the sea water of Bosporus . I found many different kinds of monera and protoctista . B y using a video microscope I recorded the samples to make a movie and take photographs. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Conclusion Microscopic Organisms <ul><li>After I finished my all experiments, my hypothesis was supported . The results of the experiment proved that the population of protists and bacteria vary from place to place. The first spot I took water was in the northern Bosporus, “Rumelihisarı.” I observed lots of differents organisms mainly protists and monera. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Conclusion Microscopic Organisms <ul><li>However, in the other two spots “Bebek” and “Kuruçeşme” the quantity of organisms was very low. So, I think that there is a big food source in Rumelihisarı so the population is high. In Bebek and Kuruçeşme there are no adequate food sources for the microscopic organisms. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Conclusion Microscopic Organisms <ul><li>I think my experiment is reliable. I think it could be more relaible if I could take the exact number of microscopic organisms. However, the difference in population sizes were obvious even with estimations. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Conclusion Macroscopic Organisms <ul><li>Was th is interview sufficient enough to generalize for all Bosporus fishermen? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, because I have especially chosen different kinds of fishermen, with different backgrounds. (family background, nationalities, incomes, locations.. e ct . ) I have had help from a relative, to be able to choose the best and various fishermen. M ost have given similar answers, but there were also diffreces. </li></ul><ul><li>Was the project, as a whole, beneficial for myself? </li></ul><ul><li>Very much, yes. First of all, right now I have a better idea about a fishermen’s living conditions . I have learnt that water pollution does affect fishing and it does reduce the population of fish, but still the Bosporus is a profitable place to fish. I have also learnt how to use a fishing rod, and how hard it is to fish . </li></ul>
  27. 27. Chemical Analysis <ul><li>Nitrate: In three different spots ( Rumelihisarı, Bebek, Kuruçeşme ) that we took water, the observed nitrate rate was very low. However, this can also show that there are high levels of chloride in the water because high level of chloride cause this method to give low results. So, t here can be an experiment error. If the results we re correct we can say the population of decomposer bacteria is very small in these three places. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Chemical Analysis <ul><li>Sulfide: The sulfide was very low (less than 1 %) in all three sides. If sulfide had been present, it would also indicate the presence of bacteria or sulfur containing minerals in the soil. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Chemical Analysis <ul><li>Ca Hardness : The water in the Bosporus would be classified as very hard (it conntained more than 300 ppm of calcium carbonate). </li></ul>
  30. 30. Chemical Analysis <ul><li>Total Hardness: It measures the mineral content of the water. The Bosporus contains many minerals and it is classified as hard water (greater than 200 ppm). </li></ul>
  31. 31. Chemical Analysis <ul><li>Dissolved Oxygen: I found 6 ppm at all three sites. Dissolved oxygen needed for fish should be around 4 ppm, so there is no problem with dissolved oxygen in the Bosporus. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Prepared by : <ul><li>Micro Organisms & Presantation: Kerim Güvengil </li></ul><ul><li>Fish: </li></ul><ul><li>Yasemin İşcan </li></ul>The Koç School, Istanbul, TURKEY