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A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.ukUKOLN is supported by:Open access dataMichael DayDigital Curation CentreUKOLN, University of Bathm.firstname.lastname@example.orgImpact from Software workshop, Cardiff University, 15 May 2013
A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.ukPresentation outline• Open Science– Royal Society, Science as an open enterprise (2012)• The changing requirements of funding bodies– RCUK, EPSRC …• Emerging Research Data Management (RDM) practice• Citation of research data• New ways of measuring “impact” (altmetrics)
A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.ukScience as an open enterprise (1)• Royal Society, Science as an open enterprise (June2012)http://royalsociety.org/policy/projects/science-public-enterprise/report/– Report of a Working Group chaired by ProfessorGeoffrey Boulton– “Realising the benefits of open data requires a moreintelligent openness, one where data are effectivelycommunicated. For this, data must fulfil four fundamentalrequirements, something not always achieved by genericmetadata. They must be accessible, intelligible,assessable and usable” (p. 14)
A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.ukScience as an open enterprise (2)• Recommendation 1 (p. 71)– “Scientists should communicate the data they collect andthe models they create, to allow free and open access,and in ways that are intelligible, assessable and usablefor other specialists in the same or linked fields whereverthey are in the world. Where data justify it, scientistsshould make them available in an appropriate datarepository. Where possible, communication with a widerpublic audience should be made a priority, andparticularly so in areas where openness is in the publicinterest.”
A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.ukScience as an open enterprise (3)• Recommendation 2 (p 72)– “Universities and research institutes should play a majorrole in supporting an open data culture by: recognisingdata communication by their researchers as an importantcriterion for career progression and reward; developing adata strategy and their own capacity to curate their ownknowledge resources and support the data needs ofresearchers; having open data as a default position, andonly withholding access when it is optimal for realising areturn on public investment.”
A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.ukScience as an open enterprise (4)• Science as an open enterprise: Recommendation 3 (p73)– “Assessment of university research should reward opendata on the same scale as journal articles and otherpublications. Assessment should also include measuresthat reward collaborative ways of working”• Implications for research evaluation exercises:– Report argues that “the skill and creativity required tosuccessfully acquire data represents a high level ofscientific excellence and should be rewarded as such”
A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.ukScience as an open enterprise (5)• Science as an open enterprise (p. 73):– “Dataset metrics should:• a. Ensure the default approach is that datasets which underpin submittedscientific articles are accessible and usable, at a minimum by scientists in thesame discipline.• b. Give credit by using internationally recognised standards for data citation.• c. Provide standards for the assessment of datasets, metadata and softwarethat combines appropriate expert review with quantitative measures ofcitation and reuse.• d. Offer clear rules on the delineation of what counts as a dataset for thepurposes of review, and when datasets of extended scale and scope shouldbe given increased weight.• e. Seek ways of recognising and rewarding creative and novel ways ofcommunal working, by using appropriately validated social metrics.– “These principles should be adopted by the UK Higher Education FundingCouncils as part of their Research Excellence Framework (REF). The REF is apowerful driver for how universities evaluate and reward their researchers. Use inthe REF of metrics that record citable open data deposition would be a powerfulmotivation for data release”
A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.ukPanton Principles• Panton Principles, Principles for open data in science.Murray-Rust, Peter; Neylon, Cameron; Pollock, Rufus;Wilbanks, John; (19 Feb 2010).– “By open data in science we mean that it is freelyavailable on the public internet permitting any user todownload, copy, analyse, re-process, pass them tosoftware or use them for any other purpose withoutfinancial, legal, or technical barriers other than thoseinseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. Tothis end data related to published science should beexplicitly placed in the public domain.”– Endorsed by the Open Knowledge Foundation• http://pantonprinciples.org/
A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.ukOECD Principles and Guidelines• OECD Principles and Guidelines for Access to ResearchData from Public Funding (2007)http://www.oecd.org/science/sci-tech/38500813.pdf• Principle A: Openness– “Openness means access on equal terms for theinternational research community at the lowest possiblecost, preferably at no more than the marginal cost ofdissemination. Open access to research data from publicfunding should be easy, timely, user-friendly andpreferably Internet-based.”
A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.ukUKRIO Code of Practice for Research• UK Research Integrity Office, Code of Practice for Research:Promoting good practice and preventing misconduct(September 2009):http://www.ukrio.org/what-we-do/code-of-practice-for-research/– 3.12.5 Organisations should have in place procedures,resources (including physical space) and administrative supportto assist researchers in the accurate and efficient collection ofdata and its storage in a secure and accessible form”– 3.12.6 Researchers should consider how data will be gathered,analysed and managed, and how and in what form relevantdata will eventually be made available to others, at an earlystage of the design of the project.– 3.12.7 Researchers should collect data accurately, efficientlyand according to the agreed design of the research project, andensure that it is stored in a secure and accessible form
A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.ukRCUK Common Principles (1)• RCUK Common Principles on Data Policyhttp://www.rcuk.ac.uk/research/Pages/DataPolicy.aspx– Publicly funded research data are a public good, produced inthe public interest, which should be made openly available withas few restrictions as possible in a timely and responsiblemanner that does not harm intellectual property.– Institutional and project specific data management policies andplans should be in accordance with relevant standards andcommunity best practice. Data with acknowledged long-termvalue should be preserved and remain accessible and usablefor future research.– To enable research data to be discoverable and effectively re-used by others, sufficient metadata should be recorded andmade openly available to enable other researchers tounderstand the research and re-use potential of the data.Published results should always include information on how toaccess the supporting data.
A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.ukRCUK Common Principles (2)• RCUK Common Principles (continued):– RCUK recognises that there are legal, ethical and commercial constraints onrelease of research data. To ensure that the research process is not damaged byinappropriate release of data, research organisation policies and practices shouldensure that these are considered at all stages in the research process.– To ensure that research teams get appropriate recognition for the effort involved incollecting and analysing data, those who undertake Research Council fundedwork may be entitled to a limited period of privileged use of the data they havecollected to enable them to publish the results of their research. The length of thisperiod varies by research discipline and, where appropriate, is discussed further inthe published policies of individual Research Councils.– In order to recognise the intellectual contributions of researchers who generate,preserve and share key research datasets, all users of research data shouldacknowledge the sources of their data and abide by the terms and conditionsunder which they are accessed.– It is appropriate to use public funds to support the management and sharing ofpublicly-funded research data. To maximise the research benefit which can begained from limited budgets, the mechanisms for these activities should be bothefficient and cost-effective in the use of public funds.
A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.ukFunding body requirements (1)• Changing expectations of funding bodies:– Institutions need to inform themselves about main funderpolicies (mandates) with respect to research datamanagement– There is an explicit link now being made betweenresearch income and appropriate data managementinfrastructures being in place
A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.ukFunding body requirements (2)http://www.dcc.ac.uk/resources/policy-and-legal/overview-funders-data-policies
A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.ukEPSRC Policy Framework (1)• EPSRC Policy Framework on Research Data (2011)http://www.epsrc.ac.uk/about/standards/researchdata/Pages/policyframework.aspx• EPSRC framework expected all institutions receivinggrant funding:– To develop a roadmap aligning their policies andprocesses with EPSRC’s expectations by 1st May 2012– To be fully compliant with these expectations by 1st May2015
A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.ukEPSRC Policy Framework (2)• Examples of expectations:– Appropriate metadata (including unique IDs) to be madefreely available on the Internet within 12 months of datageneration– Data not generated in digital format should be stored in amanner to facilitate it being shared– Data should be securely preserved for a minimum of 10years after privileged access expires or the last dateaccess was requested by a third party– Adequate resources from existing funding streams– EPSRC will monitor progress and compliance, andreserves the right to impose appropriate sanctions
A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.ukFunding body requirements (3)• Implications for researchers and institutions:– Increasing number of research councils and fundingbodies have requirements for data management andsharing– Potential loss of research income if these mandates arenot met– Both institutions and researchers need to determine thecosts associated with short and longer-term managementand curation– Responsibility for data management infrastructure seemsto be shifting more to HEIs, but institutionalinfrastructures and services are still emerging
A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.ukGood practice in RDM• UK landscape quite variable– Jisc MRD Programme projects have kick-started a lot ofactivity in UK HEIs– Other HEIs getting involved, e.g. prompted by theEPSRC Policy Framework (Digital Curation CentreInstitutional Engagements)• Summary of good practice identified to date:– Sarah Jones, Graham Pryor and Angus Whyte, How toDevelop RDM Services - a guide for HEIs. DigitalCuration Centre, 2013.http://www.dcc.ac.uk/resources/how-guides/how-develop-rdm-services
A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.ukCitation of research data (1)• Providing citation infrastructures for research data is seen asvitally important for the promotion of data sharing– Facilitates discovery, retrieval and attribution (as it has forpublished research outputs)• “… the most important condition for sharing their data is toreceive proper citation credit when others use their data.For 92% of the respondents, it is important that their dataare cited when used by other researchers.” (Tenopir, et al.,2011, p. 9)• “Promotion of data citation will foster a scholarlycommunication system that allows for identification,retrieval, and attribution of research data” (Mooney andNewton, 2012)– Linking data sharing with the de facto reward system of science
A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.ukCitation of research data (2)• Need for internationally recognised standards for datacitation:– Royal Society, Science as an open enterprise (p. 73)identified the need to use citation standards, but alsoexplicitly linked this to the REF: “Use in the REF ofmetrics that record citable open data deposition would bea powerful motivation for data release.”– EPSRC Policy Framework recommended the use of a“robust digital object identifier,” suggested DataCite
A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.ukDataCite (1)• DataCite (http://www.datacite.org) is a not-for-profitorganisation that aims to promote and support thesharing of research data– Membership organisation – current UK members are theBritish Library and the Digital Curation Centre (associate)– They are developing an infrastructure that supportsmethods of data citation, discovery, and access– They are currently leveraging the DOI (Digital ObjectIdentifier) infrastructure, which is also used for researcharticles– They can provide DOIs for datasets– DataCite DOIs have to resolve to a public landing pagewith information about the dataset and a direct link to itMay-13Learning material produced by RDMRosehttp://www.sheffield.ac.uk/is/research/projects/rdmrose
A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.ukDataCite (2)• Basic form of DataCite citations:• Creator (PublicationYear): Title. Publisher. Identifier• Version and ResourceType are optional extra elements• For citation purposes, DataCite recommends that DOInames are displayed as linkable, permanent URLs• Example:– University of Poppleton (2011): Precipitationmeasurements 1905-2010 taken at Western Bankweather station. Meteorological service, The University ofPoppleton. http://dx.doi.org/10.1594/UoP.MS.298May-13Learning material produced by RDMRosehttp://www.sheffield.ac.uk/is/research/projects/rdmrose
A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.ukDataCite metadata (1)• DataCite:– DataCite Metadata Schema (currently v. 2.2, 2011)defines core metadata propertiesLooks a little bit like Dublin Core, but schemaincorporates other elements of unique identifier-basedinfrastructures (e.g. ORCID – researcher IDs)– http://schema.datacite.org (doi:10.5438/0005)
A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.ukDataCite metadata (2)• Mandatory Properties:– Identifier– Creator– Title– Publisher– PublicationYear• Administrative Metadata– LastMetadataUpdate– MetadataVersionNumber• Optional Properties:– Subject– Contributor– Date– Language– ResourceType– AlternateIdentifier– RelatedIdentifier– Size– Format– Version– Rights– Description
A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.ukCitation of research data (3)• Issues include:– At what granularity should data be made citeable?– How to credit each contributor in a dataset that is assembled from verymany contributions?– Where in a research paper should a data citation be given (e.g. a paperdescribing a dataset versus subsequent papers using it)?– What to do with frequently updated data?• For more guidance on these matters, see:– Ball, A., & Duke, M. (2011a). Data Citation and Linking. DCC BriefingPapers. Edinburgh: Digital Curation Centre. Retrieved fromhttp://www.dcc.ac.uk/resources/briefing-papers/introduction-curation/data-citation-and-linking– Ball, A., & Duke, M. (2011b). How to Cite Datasets and Link toPublications. DCC How-To Guides. Edinburgh: Digital Curation Centre.Retrieved from http://www.dcc.ac.uk/resources/how-guides/cite-datasetsMay-13Learning material produced by RDMRosehttp://www.sheffield.ac.uk/is/research/projects/rdmrose
A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.ukNew ways of measuring “impact”• Royal Society, Science as an open enterprise (p. 73)– “Seek ways of recognising and rewarding creative and novel ways ofcommunal working, by using appropriately validated social metrics”• Social metrics = alternative metrics = Altmetrics (Jason Priem):– “Altmetrics measure the number of times a research output gets cited,tweeted about, liked, shared, bookmarked, viewed, downloaded,mentioned, favourited, reviewed, or discussed. It harvests thesenumbers from a wide variety of open source web services that countsuch instances, including open access journal platforms, scholarlycitation databases, web-based research sharing services, and socialmedia.” - http://aoasg.org.au/altmetrics-and-open-access-a-measure-of-public-interest/– More rapid feedback on “impact” than the bibliometric evaluation ofresearch papers, records a wider range of usage types (e.g., Priem, etal. 2012)• Example:– Impact Story: http://impactstory.org/
A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.ukSumming up• Open Science is now on the agenda of many policymakers and scientists• The data policies of funding bodies (e.g. RCUK)increasingly stress the importance of making publicly-funded research data available for others to use– See also: US Office of Science and Technology Policy,Expanding Public Access to the Results of FederallyFunded Research (2013)• Data publication and citation is being promoted as ameans to align research data with the impact metricscollected for other kinds of research outputs• There is a significant interest in developing new ways ofmeasuring impact (e.g. Altmetrics)
A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.ukReferences• Mooney, H, Newton, MP. (2012). The Anatomy of a DataCitation: Discovery, Reuse, and Credit. Journal ofLibrarianship and Scholarly Communication 1(1):eP1035.doi:10.7710/2162-3309.1035• Priem, J, Piwowar, HA, Hemminger, BM. (2012). Altmetricsin the Wild: Using Social Media to Explore Scholarly Impact.arXiv:1203.4745v1• Tenopir C, Allard S, Douglass K, Aydinoglu AU, Wu L, et al.(2011) Data Sharing by Scientists: Practices andPerceptions. PLoS ONE 6(6): e21101.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021101
A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.ukQuestions?
A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.ukAcknowledgments• The Digital Curation Centre (DCC) is a world-leading centreof expertise in digital information curation with a focus onbuilding capacity, capability and skills for research datamanagement across the UKs higher education researchcommunity. The DCC is funded by JISC.• More information is available from:http://www.dcc.ac.uk/• UKOLN receives support from JISC and the University ofBath, where it is based.• More information is available from:http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/
A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.ukThank you!And what the dead had no speech for, when living,They can tell you, being dead: the communicationOf the dead is tongued with fire beyond the language ofthe living(T. S. Eliot, Little Gidding)