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Safety Engineering - Compilation of Reports

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Safety Engineering

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Safety Engineering - Compilation of Reports

  1. 1. SAFETY ENGINEERING A Compilation of Reports in Safety Engineering of BSCE1 Batch 2013 - 2014
  2. 2. In partial fulfillment of the requirements in Safety Engineering under Dr. Edgar I. Gayya Fulfilled by BSCE 1 Batch 2013-14
  3. 3. COURSE DESCRIPTION The course deals with the study of safety in all the fields of civil engineering which include construction, surveing, material testing, laboratory, and horizontal devlopment. Structural relationship of earth formations and stratification to foundations for engineering. COURSE OBJECTIVE At the end of this course, the student should be able to describe and identify all elements of safety engineering in all fields of civil engineering.
  4. 4. TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE 1 CREDITS 2 COURSE OBJECTIVE AND DESCRIPTION 3 I. OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH IN CONSTRUCTION SITE 6 a. Occupational Safety and Health Legislation/ D.O. 13 Reporters: Sharlene Nudalo and Mark John King Dulay 7 b. Importance of Occupational Safety and Health Reporters: Francis Annel Madrileño and Jennifer Espalmado 17 c. Safety Engineering in Excavation Reporters: Frederick Mahinay and Geneva Saba 20 d. Construction Site Premises Reporters: Divina Rose Domingo and Rodel Allan Adan 23 e. Fall Protection Reporters: Van Victor Butihen and Sheila Kim Balona 25 f. Safety in Temporary Structures Reporters: George Caña and Laile Mie Tique 28 g. Safety in Construction Machineries Reporters: Joanna Grace Enriquez 32 h. Tools and Equipments Safety Reporters: Jane Marie Velado and Kim Bladimher Hermonio 37 i. Hazardous Materials Handling, Storage, Use, and Disposal Reporters: Nathaniel Macababbad and Sara Jean Gatdula 43 j. Occupational Health Programming Reporters: Erickson Reginio 45 k. Environmental Safety Reporters: Sara Amor Caparas and Honel Umali 50 l. Demolition Reporters: Arjel Alvarez and Leah Mariz Que 54 m. Explosives Reporters: Judith Moncada and Louie Aldrich Quetulio 63 n. Roles of Construciton Safety Engineers Reporters: Rose Marie Boiser and Gerold Insigne 68 o. Personal Protective Equipments Reporters: Kristoff Hendrick Amata and Rachelle Yap 70
  5. 5. p. Job Hazard Recognition, Evaluation and Control Reporters: Niptaly Mendinueta and Joyce Dianne Rementina 84 q. Work-Related Accident Investigation and Reporting Reporters: Norissa Namoca and Paolo Apas 85 r. Routine Construction Inspection Reporters: Donna Blesszell Marjes and Jomari Daep 88 s. Tool Box Meeting Reporters: Jerome De Castro 91 t. Safety and Health Programming in Construction Sites Reporters: Karen Sanquilos and Ryan Valeza 93 u. Re-entry Plans as a Construction Safety and Health Officer Reporters: Christian Tejoso and Jessa Mae Igdalino 100 II. SAFETY ENGINEERING IN SURVEYING Reporters: Darwin Doctolero and Evelyn Dela Torre 104 III. SAFETY ENGINEERING IN HORIZONTAL DEVELOPMENT AND CONSTRUCTION Reporters: Elyda Marie Ormilla and Enrico Mariscotes 112 IV. SAFETY ENGINEERING IN MATERIALS TESTING LABORATORY Reporters: Princess Lyn De Guzman and Charlie Catu 115 V. SAFETY ENGINEERING IN UNDERGROUND CONSTRUCTION Reporters: Kennedy Queñano and Doren Aquino 122
  7. 7. OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH LEGISLATION: DEPARTMENT ORDER NO. 13 Sharlene Grace Nudalo and Mark John King Dulay DEPARTMENT ORDER NO. 13 SERIES OF 1998 GUIDELINE GOVERNING OCCUPATION HEALTH AND SAFETY IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY In the interest of ensuring the protection and welfare of workers employed in the construction industry, the protection and welfare of the general public within and around the immediate vicinity of any construction worksite as well as the promotion of harmonious employer-employee relationships in the construction industry, and after consultations with the stakeholders in the construction industry, taking into consideration industry practices and applicable government requirements, the following guidelines are hereby issued for all concerned: SECTION 1. DEFINITION OF TERMS. As used herein, the terms below shall be defined as follows: a) “ACCREDITED ORGANIZATION” means any organization duly accredited by the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) delegated or authorized to perform functions related to improvement of occupational safety and health in the form of training, testing, certification, safety and health auditing or any other similar activity. b) “CERTIFIED FIRST-AIDER” means any person trained and duly certified or qualified to administer first- aid by the Philippine National Red Cross or by any organization accredited by the same. c) “CONSTRUCTION PROJECT MANAGER/CONSULTANT” means a person or entity who is hired by the project owner, to act in the owner’s behalf concerning supervision and monitoring of all matters related to the overall execution of a construction project. The construction project manager shall be a separate entity from the general constructor or any subcontractor of the construction project. d) “CONSTRUCTION SAFETY AND HEALTH COMMITTEE” means the general safety and health committee for a construction project site that shall be the overall coordinator in implementing OSH programs. e) “CONSTRUCTION SAFETY AND HEALTH OFFICER” means any employee/worker trained and, in addi- tion to their regular duties and responsibilities, tasked by his employer to implement occupational safety and health programs in accordance with the provisions of the Occupational Safety and Health Standards (OSHS). f) “CONSTRUCTION SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM” refers to a set of detailed rules to cover the pro- cesses and practices that shall be utilized in a specific construction project site in conformity with the OSHS including the personnel responsible and the penalties for violations thereof. g) “CONSTRUCTION SAFETY SIGNAGE” refers to any, but not limited to, emergency or danger sign, warn- ing sign or safety instruction, of standard colors and sizes in accordance with the specifications for standard colors of signs for safety instructions and warnings in building premises as described in Table II of the OSHS. h) “CONSTRUCTOR” IS DEEMED SYNONYMOUS WITH THE TERM “BUILDER”. It refers to any person or organization who undertakes or offers to undertake or purports to have the capacity to undertake or submits a bid to, or does himself or by or through others, construct, alter, repair, add to, subtract from, improve, move, wreck or demolish any building, highway, road, railroad, excavation or other structure, project, development or improvement, or to do any part thereof, including the erection of scaffolding or other structures or works in connection therewith. The term constructor includes subcontractor and specialty contractor. i) “EMERGENCY HEALTH PROVIDER” means any person or organization who is certified or recognized by the Department of Health and who can provide the same or equivalent emergency health services as an emergency hospital, including emergency treatment of workers on site, emergency transport and care during transport of injured workers to the nearest hospital, with adequate personnel, supplies and facilities for the complete immediate treatment of injuries or illnesses. 7Safety Engineering in the Field of Civil Engineering
  8. 8. j) “GENERAL CONSTRUCTOR” means a constructor who has general supervision over other constructors in the execution of the project and who directly receives instructions from the owner or construction project manager (if one is appointed by the owner). k) “GENERAL SAFETY AND HEALTH INSPECTION” refers to inspection of the work environment, includ- ing the location and operation of machinery other than those covered by technical safety inspections, adequacy of work space, ventilation, lighting, conditions of work environment, handling, storage or work procedures, protection facilities and other safety and health hazards in the workplace l) “HEAVY EQUIPMENT” refers to any machine with engine or electric motor as prime mover used either for lifting, excavating, leveling, drilling, compacting, transporting and breaking works in the construction site, such as but not limited to crane, bulldozer, backhoe, grader, road compactor, prime mover and trailer, with minimum operating weight and horsepower rating of 1,000 KG and 10 HP, respectively. m) “IMMINENT DANGER” means a condition or practice that could reasonably be expected to cause death or serious physical harm before abatement under the normal enforcement procedures can be accomplished. n) “OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PERSONNEL” refers to a qualified first-aider, nurse, dentist, or physician, engaged by the employer to provide occupational health services in the establishment/undertaking. o) “PROJECT MANAGER” means the overall technical personnel of the general contractor and/or the subcontractor in charge of the actual execution of a construction project. p) “RESIDENT ENGINEER” means a duly licensed engineer who shall be tasked to be present at the construction site at all times, whenever work is being undertaken, and shall have the responsibility of assuring the technical conformance of all designs, materials, processes, work procedures rendered for the execution of the construction project, including safety and health of all persons within the construction site. q) “SAFETY AND HEALTH AUDIT” refers to a regular and critical examination of project sites, safety pro- grams, records and management performance on program standards on safety and health. r) “SAFETY AND HEALTH COMMITTEE” means a group tasked with the authority to monitor, inspect, and investigate all aspects of the construction project pertaining to health and safety of construction workers. s) “SAFETY ORGANIZATION” means any organization recognized and accredited by the DOLE to conduct occupational safety and health training and/or safety and health audit. t) “SAFETY PERSONNEL” refers to any person engaged by any constructor, trained, accredited by DOLE and tasked to provide occupational safety and health services for the workers/employees in any construction proj- ect. u) “SKILLS STANDARDS” refers to the written specification of the minimum stock knowledge and skills a worker should possess to perform the functions identified in the job description of his occupation. v) “TECHNICAL SAFETY INSPECTION” refers to inspection for the purpose of safety determination of boil- ers, pressure vessels, internal combustion engines, electrical installations, elevators, hoisting equipment and other mechanical equipment. w) “TRADE TEST” refers to an instrument used to measure workers’ skills and knowledge based on the requirements of the skills. x) “TREATMENT ROOM” refers to any enclosed area or room equipped with the necessary medical facili- ties and supplies, and located within the premises of the establishment where workers maybe brought for examina- tion and treatment of their injuries or illnesses in cases of emergency. y) “TOOL BOX MEETING OR GANG MEETING” refers to daily meeting among workers and their respec-
  9. 9. tive supervisors for the purpose of instruction, discussion and proper briefing on the planned work, the assessment of past work, the possibility or actual occurrence of accidents at the site, tips and suggestions on how to prevent possible accidents and other related matters. z) “UNGUARDED SURFACE” refers to any working surface above water or ground, temporary or perma- nent floor platform, scaffold construction or wherever workers are exposed to the possibility of falls hazardous to life or limb. SECTION 2. JURISDICTION The DOLE, through the Secretary of Labor and Employment, has the exclusive jurisdiction in the preparation of Occupational Safety and Health Standards (OSHS) for the Construction Industry including its very enforcement, as provided for by law 2.1. As embodied in Article 162, Chapter 2, Title I of Book Four of The Labor Code of the Philippines, “The Secretary of Labor and Employment shall by appropriate orders set and enforce mandatory occupational safety and health standards to eliminate or reduce occupational safety and health hazards in all work places and institute new and update existing programs to ensure safe and healthful working conditions in all places of employment.” 2.2. As embodied in Article 165, Chapter 2, Title I of Book Four of The Labor Code of the Philippines, “(a) The Department of Labor and Employment shall be solely responsible for the administration and enforcement of occupational safety and health laws, regulations and standards in all establishments and workplaces wherever they may be located” SECTION 3. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY AND ACCREDITATION The authority to enforce mandatory occupational safety and health standards in the construction industry may be delegated in part by the Secretary of Labor and Employment, under the following conditions: a) Chartered Cities and Municipalities may be allowed to conduct Technical Safety Inspections and general safety audit of construction project sites within their respective jurisdiction where they have adequate facilities and competent personnel for the purpose as determined by the DOLE and subject to national standards established by the latter, provided they submit for approval an application for such authority. b) Private Safety Organizations with adequate facilities and competent personnel for the purpose, may be accredited by DOLE to conduct technical and/or general Safety and Health Audit of construction project sites, for and in behalf of the company or establishment. c) Accredtation of safety organizations and practitioners shall be in accordance with Rule 1030 of the OSHS. SECTION 4. COVERAGE This issuance shall apply to all operations and undertakings in the construction industry and its subdivisions, name- ly, general building construction, general engineering construction and specialty trade construction, based on the classification code of the Philippine Construction Accreditation Board (PCAB) of the Construction Industry Authority of the Philippines (CIAP); to companies and entities involved in demolition works; and to those falling within the construction industry as may be determined by the Secretary of Labor and Employment. SECTION 5. CONSTRUCTION SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM Every construction project shall have a suitable Construction Safety and Health Program, which must be in accor- dance with these rules, and other orders and issuances issued by the DOLE. The Construction Project Manager, or in his absence, the Project Manager as authorized by the owner, shall be responsible for compliance with this Section. 5.1 The Construction Safety and Health Program shall state the following: a) composition of the Construction Safety and Health Committee, if one has been formed, otherwise, an undertaking to organize such committee and appoint its members before the start of construction work at the project site; 9Safety Engineering in the Field of Civil Engineering
  10. 10. b) specific safety policies which the General Constructor undertakes to observe and maintain in its con- struction site, including the frequency of and persons responsible for conducting toolbox and gang meetings; c) penalties and sanctions for violations of the Construction Safety and Health Program; d) frequency, content and persons responsible for orienting, instructing and training all workers at the site with regard to the Construction Safety and Health Program under which they operate; and e) the manner of disposing waste arising from the construction. 5.2 The Construction Safety and Health Program shall be executed and verified by the Construction Project Manager or Project Manager and shall be submitted to the Bureau of Working Conditions (BWC) which may ap- prove, disapprove or modify the same according to existing laws, rules and regulations and other issuances by the DOLE. 5.3 The cost of implementing the Construction Safety and Health Program shall be integrated into the project’s construction cost, provided, that said cost shall be a separate pay item, duly quantified and stated in the project’s tender documents and construction contract documents. SECTION 6. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT Every employer shall, at his own expense, furnish his workers with protective equipment for eyes, face, hands and feet, lifeline, safety belt/harness, protective shields and barriers whenever necessary by reason of the hazardous work process or environment, chemical or radiological or other mechanical irritants or hazards capable of causing injury or impairment in the function of any part of the body through absorption, inhalation or physical agent. Provi- sion of personal protective equipment (PPE) shall be in accordance with Rule 1080 of the OSHS. The equivalent cost for the provision of PPE (life span, depreciation, replacement, etc.) shall be an integral part of the project cost. 6.1. The employer shall provide adequate and approved type of protective equipment. Workers within the construction project site shall be required to wear the necessary PPE at all times. 6.2. Construction workers who are working from unguarded surfaces six (6) meters or more above water or ground, temporary or permanent floor platform, scaffold or where they are exposed to the possibility of falls hazard- ous to life or limb, must be provided with safety harnesses and life lines. 6.3. Specialty construction workers must be provided with special protective equipment, such as specialized goggles or respirators for welders and painters or paint applicators. 6.4. All other persons who are either authorized or allowed to be at a construction site shall wear appropri- ate PPE. SECTION 7. SAFETY PERSONNEL To ensure that a Construction Safety and Health Program is duly followed and enforced at the construction project site, each construction project site is required to have the minimum required Safety Personnel, as described herein: 7.1. The General Constructor must provide for a full time officer, who shall be assigned as the general construction safety and health officer to oversee full time the overall management of the Construction Safety and Health Program. The general construction safety and health officer shall frequently monitor and inspect any health and safety aspect of the construction work being undertaken. He shall also assist government inspectors in the conduct of safety and health inspection at any time whenever work is being performed or during the conduct of accident investigation. 7.2. The General Constructor must provide for additional Construction Safety and Health Officer/s in accor- dance with the requirements for Safety Man/Officer of Rule 1033 (Training and Personnel Complement), depending on the total number of personnel assigned to the construction project site, to oversee the effective compliance with the Construction Safety and Health Program at the site, under the direct supervision of the general construction safety and health officer. 7.3. The General Constructor must provide for one (1) Construction Safety and Health Officer for every ten
  11. 11. (10) units of heavy equipment assigned to the project site, to oversee the effective compliance with the Construction Safety and Health Program at the construction project site, in terms of heavy equipment utilization and maintenance. 7.4. Each construction subcontractor must provide for a representative, who shall have the same qualifica- tions as a Safety Man/Officer, to oversee the management of the Construction Safety and Health Program for the subcontractor's workforce and the specific area of work operations in accordance with the requirements of Rule 1033 of the OSHS. All safety personnel who will be employed by an employer on full-time basis should be accredited by the BWC of the DOLE. SECTION 8. EMERGENCY OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PERSONNEL AND FACILITIES 8.1 The construction project owner or his duly authorized representative shall provide competent emergency health personnel within the worksite duly complemented by adequate medical supplies, equipment and facilities, based on the total number of workers in the site as indicated below: a) The services of a certified first-aider when the total number of workers is fifty (50) or less; b) The services of a full-time registered nurse when the total number of workers exceeds fifty (50) but not more than two hundred (200); c) The services of a full-time registered nurse, a part-time physician and a dentist, and an emergency clinic when the total number of workers exceeds two hundred (200) but not more than three hundred (300); and d) The services of a full-time registered nurse, a full-time physician, a dentist and an infirmary or emer- gency hospital with one (1) bed capacity when the number of employees exceed three hundred (300). In addition, there should be one (1) bed capacity for every one hundred (100) employees in excess of three hundred (300). 8.2 Where an employer provides only a treatment room, he shall provide for his workers in case of emer- gency, access to the nearest medical/dental clinic or to a medical/dental clinic located within five (5) kilometers radius from the workplace and can be reached in twenty-five (25) minutes of travel. Such access shall include the necessary transportation facilities. In such situation, there shall be a written contract with the medical/dental clinic to attend to such workplace emergencies. 8.3 The engagement of an Emergency Health Provider for the construction project site shall be considered as having complied with the requirement of accessibility to the nearest hospital facilities. 8.4 The employer shall always have in the construction site the required minimum inventory of medicines, supplies and equipment as indicated in Table 47 of the OSHS. SECTION 9. CONSTRUCTION SAFETY SIGNAGES Construction Safety Signages must be provided to warn the workers and the public of hazards existing in the work- place. Signages shall be posted in prominent positions at strategic location and, as far as practicable, be in the language understandable to most of the workers employed. 9.1 The signages include but are not limited to: a) Mandatory requirement on the usage of personal protective equipment prior to entry to the project site. b) Areas where there are potential risks of falling objects. c) Areas where there are potential risks of falling. d) Areas where explosives and flammable substances are used or stored. e) Areas where there are tripping or slipping hazards. f) Approaches to working areas where danger from toxic or irritant airborne contaminants/substances may exist which should indicate the name of the contaminant/substance involved and the type of respiratory equipment 11Safety Engineering in the Field of Civil Engineering
  12. 12. to be worn. g) All places where contact with or proximity to electrical/facility equipment can cause danger. h) All places where workers may come in contact with dangerous moving parts of machineries or equip- ment. i) Location of fire alarms and firefighting equipment. j) Instructions on the usage of specific construction equipment. k) Periodic updating of man-hours lost. 9.2 Signages should be regularly inspected and maintained in good condition. Signages that are damaged or illegible or that no longer apply should be removed and replaced by the safety officer, as needed. SECTION 10. SAFETY ON CONSTRUCTION HEAVY EQUIPMENT In relation to heavy equipment operation in all construction sites, the following are required in the different phases of the project. 10.1 Pre-Construction. The General Constructor must ensure that appropriate certification is obtained from DOLE duly accredited organizations for the following: a) All heavy equipment operators assigned at the project site must be tested and certified in accordance with a standard trade test prescribed by Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) in coordi- nation with its accredited organization/s. b) All heavy equipment must be tested and certified in accordance with the standards prepared by DOLE or its recognized organization/s prior to commissioning of said equipment. 10.2 During Construction . The General Constructor must ensure that the following conditions are met or complied with: 10.2.1 Mobilization or Transport of Heavy Equipment. a) Load restriction of trailers carrying such heavy equipment. b) Load restrictions, height and width clearances as imposed by Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) for all roads and bridges to be utilized during transport. c) Only duly certified operators are allowed to load and unload heavy equipment to trailer. d) Equipment to be transported must be properly secured to the trailer. 10.2.2 Erection/Set-up of Heavy Equipment a) Existing hazards must be avoided. b) Standard checklist of steps and procedures must be observed. c) List of necessary equipment, tools and materials must be available and properly utilized. 10.2.3. Routine Inspection . In the interest of accident prevention, duly certified mechanics and operators shall conduct daily routine inspection of all heavy equipment deployed at the site in accordance with standards set by TESDA in coordination with the Association of Construction Equipment Lessors (ACEL, Inc.). a) Routine inspection of all heavy equipment must be performed by DOLE accredited professionals in accordance to standards set by DOLE recognized equipment suppliers. b) All equipment which do not comply with the minimum safety standards for equipment certification shall be immediately removed from the work site for restoration or repair until they meet said standards or require- ments. The General Constructor and the equipment owner shall maintain a separate logbook for data on maintenance, repairs, tests and inspections for each heavy equipment. Such logbook shall be used as a necessary reference during the conduct of equipment inspection. 10.2.4. Certified Operators a) Only duly certified operators shall be allowed to operate their designated heavy equipment.
  13. 13. b) All operators and riggers must wear personal protective equipment as prescribed in the above pertinent sections. 10.3 Post-Operation and Post-Construction . The procedures for dismantling and demobilization of heavy equipment shall follow the same requirements as listed under 10.2.1 and 10.2.2 above. SECTION 11. CONSTRUCTION SAFETY AND HEALTH COMMITTEE 11.1 Composition To ensure that these rules and the Construction Safety and Health Program are observed and enforced at the project site, each site shall, at the start of the construction have a construction safety and health committee composed of the following personnel as described under Section 7 above: a) Project Manager or his representative as the chairperson ex officio; b) General Construction Safety and Health Officer; c) Construction Safety and Health Officers; d) Safety representatives from each subcontractor, e) Doctors, Nurses and other Health personnel, pursuant to the requirements stated in Rule of the OSHS, who shall be members ex officio; f) Workers’ representatives (minimum of 3, union members if organized, not necessarily from one em- ployer). The persons constituting the Safety and Health Committee shall, as far as practicable, be found at the construction site whenever construction work is being undertaken. The time spent by the members of the Safety and Health Committee in the performance of their duties such as committee meetings, seminars and training, investigation and other tasks that maybe assigned or planned by the committee shall be considered hours worked and therefore compensable time. 11.2 Authority and Duties of the Construction Safety and Health Committee . The chairperson shall convene the Construction Safety and Health Committee at regular intervals so as to effectively and efficiently monitor the implementation of the Construction Safety and Health Program. As such, he shall have the following duties: a) plan, develop and oversee the implementation of accident prevention programs for the construction proj- ect; b) Direct the accident prevention efforts for the construction project in accordance with these rules and the Construction Safety and Health Program; c) Initiate and supervise the conduct of brief safety meetings or toolbox meetings everyday; d) review reports of safety and health inspections, accident investigations; e) prepare and submit to DOLE reports on committee meetings; f) provide necessary assistance to government inspecting authorities in the proper conduct of their enforce- ment and other activities; g) initiate and supervise safety and health training for employees; h) develop and maintain a disaster contingency plan and organize such emergency service units as may be necessary to handle disaster situations; and i) perform all duties provided in the Construction Safety and Health Program or those that are necessary and incidental to the fulfillment of their duties herein described. SECTION 12. SAFETY AND HEALTH INFORMATION 12.1 Workers should be adequately and suitably: a) informed of potential safety and health hazards to which they may be exposed at their workplace; and b) instructed and trained on the measures available for the prevention, control and protection against those hazards. 12.2 No person shall be deployed in a construction site unless he has undergone a safety and health awareness seminar conducted by the Occupational Safety and Health Center (OSHC), BWC and other concerned offices of DOLE or by safety professionals or safety organizations or other institutions DOLE has accredited or recognized. The DOLE in collaboration with constructors shall promote programs for the implementation of these 13Safety Engineering in the Field of Civil Engineering
  14. 14. awareness seminars for construction workers. 12.3 Every worker shall receive instruction and training regarding the general safety and health measures common to construction sites which shall include: a) basic rights and duties of workers at the construction site b) means of access and egress both during normal work and in emergency situations c) measures for good housekeeping d) location and proper use of welfare amenities and first-aid facilities e) proper care and use of the items or personal protective equipment and protective clothing provided the workers f) general measures for personal hygiene and health protection g) fire precautions to be taken h) action to be taken in case of any emergency i) requirements of relevant health and safety rules and regulations. 12.4 The instruction, training and information materials, shall be given in a language or dialect understood by the worker. Written, oral, visual and participative approaches shall be used to ensure that the worker has as- similated the material. 12.5 Each supervisor or any designated person (e.g. foreman, leadman, gangboss, etc.) shall conduct daily tool box or similar meetings prior to starting the tasks for the day to discuss with the workers and anticipate safety and health problems related to every task and the potential solutions to those problems. The supervisor shall remind the workers on the necessary safety precautions that need to be undertaken. 12.6 Specialized instruction and training should be given to: a) drivers and operators of lifting appliances, transport, earth-moving and materials-handling equipment and machinery or any equipment of specialized or dangerous nature; b) workers engaged in the erection or dismantling of scaffolds; c) workers engaged in excavations at least one meter deep or deep enough to cause danger, shafts, earth- works, underground works or tunnels; d) workers handling explosives or engaged in blasting operations; e) workers engaged in pile-driving; f) workers working in compressed air, cofferdams, and caissons; g) workers engaged in the erection of prefabricated parts of steel structural frames and tall chimneys, and in concrete work, form work and other such work; h) workers handling hazardous substances and materials; i) workers as signalers; and j) other workers as maybe categorized by TESDA. SECTION 13. CONSTRUCTION SAFETY AND HEALTH TRAINING The basic construction safety and health training shall be a forty (40)-hour training course as prescribed by the BWC. The training course shall include the provisions of Rule 1410 of the OSHS. The BWC, from time to time, may modify the basic construction safety and health training course, as the need arises. All safety personnel involved in a construction project shall be required to complete such basic training course. Every constructor shall provide continuing construction safety and health training to all technical personnel under his employ. Continuing training shall be a minimum of 16 hours per year for every full-time safety personnel. SECTION 14. CONSTRUCTION SAFETY AND HEALTH REPORTS All general constructors shall be required to submit a monthly construction safety and health report to the BWC or to the DOLE Regional Office concerned. The report shall include a monthly summary of all safety and health com- mittee meeting agreements, a summary of all accident investigations/reports and periodic hazards assessment with the corresponding remedial measures/action for each hazard. In case of any dangerous occurrence or major accident resulting in death or permanent total disability, the con- cerned employer shall initially notify the DOLE Regional Office within twenty14 four (24) hours from occurrence. After the conduct of investigation by the concerned construction safety and health officer, the employer shall report
  15. 15. all permanent total disabilities to DOLE Regional Office on or before the 20th of the month following the date of occurrence of accident using the DOLE/BWC/HSD-IP-6 form. SECTION 15. CONSTRUCTION WORKERS SKILLS CERTIFICATES In order to professionalize, upgrade and update the level of competence of construction workers, the TESDA shall: a) establish national skills standards for critical construction occupations; b) prepare guidelines on skills testing and certification for critical construction occupations; c) accredit construction sector organizations in the area of skills training and trade testing; and d) extend relevant assistance to construction sector organizations. In this regard, all construction workers in critical occupations shall undergo mandatory skills testing for certification by TESDA. An occupation shall be considered critical: a) when the performance of a job affects and endangers people’s lives and limbs; b) when the job involves the handling of tools, equipment and supplies; c) when the job requires a relatively long period of education and training; d) when the performance of the job may compromise the safety, health and environmental concerns within the immediate vicinity of the construction site. SECTION 16. WORKERS’ WELFARE FACILITIES The employer shall provide the following welfare facilities in order to ensure humane working conditions: 16.1 Adequate supply of safe drinking water. a) If the water is used in common drinking areas, it should be stored in closed containers from which the water is dispensed through taps or cocks. Such containers should be cleaned and disinfected at regular intervals not exceeding fifteen (15) days. b) Notices shall be conspicuously posted in locations where there is water supply that is not fit for drinking purposes. 16.2 Adequate sanitary and washing facilities a) Adequate facilities for changing and for the storage and drying of work clothes b) Adequate accommodation for taking meals and shelter. 16.3 Suitable living accommodation for workers, and as may be applicable, for their families 16.4 Separate sanitary, washing and sleeping facilities for men and women workers. SECTION 17. COST OF CONSTRUCTION SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM The total cost of implementing a Construction Safety and Health Program shall be a mandatory integral part of the project’s construction cost as a separate pay item, duly quantified and reflected in the Project’s Tender Documents and likewise reflected in the Project’s Construction Contract Documents. SECTION 18. MISCELLANEOUS All provisions of other existing occupational safety and health guidelines not inconsistent with the above Guidelines shall form part of this Department Order. All provisions of other existing occupational safety and health standards, rules and regulations not specifically pro- vided herein shall remain in full force and effect. In the event that any provision of this Guidelines is declared invalid by competent authority, the rest of the provisions thereof not affected shall remain in full force and effect. SECTION 19. VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES 19.1. As circumstances may warrant, the DOLE shall refer to the Philippine Contractors Accreditation Board (PCAB) its findings, after due process, on any act or omission committed by construction contractors in viola- tion of labor standards, safety rules and regulations and other pertinent policies. Any such violation committed by construction contractors, whether general constructors or sub-contractors, shall constitute as prima facie case of a construction malperformance of grave consequence due to negligence, incompetence or malpractice contemplated 15Safety Engineering in the Field of Civil Engineering
  16. 16. under R.A. 4566 (Constructors’ Licensing Law), as amended, and its Implementing Rules and Regulations. 19.2. In cases of imminent danger situations, the DOLE Regional Director shall issue a stoppage order, in conformance with the guidelines specified under Rule 1012.02 of the OSHS and other pertinent issuances for stoppage of operation or for other appropriate action to abate the danger. Pending the issuance of the order, the employer shall take appropriate measures to protect his workers. The stoppage order shall remain in effect until the danger is removed or corrected. Non-compliance with the order shall be penalized under existing provisions of labor laws. SECTION 20. EFFECTIVITY This issuance shall serve as policy and procedural guidelines for this Department and its agencies in the administra- tion and enforcement of applicable labor and social legislation and their implementing regulations. Nothing herein shall be construed to authorize diminution or reduction of benefits being enjoyed by employees at the time of issuance hereof. This Department Order shall take effect immediately. 23 July 1998 (SGD) BIENVENIDO E. LAGUESMA Secretary
  17. 17. IMPORTANCE OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH (OSH) Francis Annel Madrileño and Jennifer Espalmado OBJECTIVE: To explain the status and importance of safety, health and welfare among the workers in the various fields of the construction industry. GLOBAL OSH SITUATIONER: ILO REPORT (28 APRIL 2003) • 270 Million Accidents Reported • 355,000 of which are fatal • 160 Million work-related illnesses reported • 2,000,000 workers DIE every year • More than 100,000 work fatalities occur every month • More than 5,000 accidents every day • 4 accidents per minute. IMPORTANCE OF OSH • It is mandated by law • It preserves the lives of workers and the company • It is a form of motivation • It creates understanding ACCIDENTS -Interrupts or disrupts the normal & orderly progress of any activity & may result in injury (minor, serious or fatal) to people and/or damage or destruction of property that result to losses. -Results in losses of investments in the form of : • Damage or destruction to property • Injury/harm or sickness to the worker • And, other forms of losses, such as time delays, machine breakdowns, etc. WHAT IS SAFETY? • Freedom of oneself from HAZARDS • Control of hazards through injury prevention. • Control of hazards to attain an acceptable level of RISKS. WHY SAFETY? • People cause unsafe acts & unsafe conditions. • Safety is a way of life • It provides corrective, preventive & predictive measures to minimize accidents. • Loss avoidance thru implementation of a comprehensive Health & Safety Program. HAZARDS/RISKS HAZARDS – anything that may likely cause personal injury or damage to property, or their combination. SOURCES OF HAZARDS: 1. Unsafe Acts Examples: Failure to warm/secure, Unauthorized operation of equipment, Removing/destroying safety devices, Using defective equipment/tools, Using PPE improperly, Improper placement/lifting/loading, Horseplay, Operating at improper speed 2. Unsafe Condition Examples: Inadequate guards/barriers, Defective tools/equipment/materials, Congestion or restricted body movement, Inadequate warning systems, Fire/explosion hazards, Poor housekeeping/disorder, Noise/radiation 17Safety Engineering in the Field of Civil Engineering
  18. 18. exposure, Extremes of temperature/ventilation RISKS – the degree of exposure or chances of exposure to hazards. FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE OCCURRENCE OF ACCIDENTS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY : 1. Fall from heights is the predominant causes of accidents 2. Lack of supervision for workers working at heights 3. Workers lack awareness on OSH 4. Workers have limited trainings 5. Due to lack of training, workers a) Build improper temporary structures b) Tolerate improperly guarded floors c) Work with unstable / unsecured / scaffolds d) Use defective equipment 6) Accident reports lack relevant information 7) Proper investigations are hardly conducted INVESTORS/EMPLOYERS NEED TO PROTECT : 1. His property 2. His workers THEY ARE HIS ASSETS BECAUSE: 1. They have price 2. They have life 3. They comprise his workplace 4. They are needed DIRECT COSTS OF ACCIDENTS : 1. Emergency Medical Care 2. Equipment Damage or Material Spoilage 3. Compensation Payments 4. Investigations of Legal Authority 5. Insurance Premiums INDIRECT COST OF ACCIDENTS : 1. Injured Worked • lost productivity on day of injury • lost productivity due to follow-up care • lost productivity after returning to work 2. Worker’s Crew • completing added work • assisting injured worker • lost productivity due to inspection 3. Crew Around Accident Site • watching events and discussing accident 4. Training Replacement Worker 5. Supervisors • investigating accident • preparing reports • time with management, owner or regulatory agencies LEADING CAUSES OF FATAL ACCIDENTS IN CONSTRUCTION SITES : 1. Falls from Heights • Temporary structures • Excavation • Roof • Moving vehicle and equipment
  19. 19. 2. Excavation and Trench Work • Cave-in • Falling of persons, materials and equipment • Asphyxiation 3. Construction Machineries and Equipment • Power tools • Woodworking machines • Heavy machines 4. Cranes and Elevators • Overloading • Lifting and carrying of loads • Erection and dismantling 5. Electrical Accidents • Electrical Shock and Burns • Contact with electric lines and underground cables TYPES OF SAFETY APPROACHES : 1. Proactive Safety - one must have a proper mindset, a commitment, a behavior and a way of life. It is not affected by luck, law of probability or any kind of regulatory compliance 2. Reactive FIVE TYPES OF PERSON IN THE CONSTRUCTION SITE : 1. Those who make things happen. 2. Those who think they make things happen. 3. Those who watch things happen. 4. Those who wonder what happened. 5. Those who did not know that anything had happened. WORDS TO PONDER : “To look is one thing. To see what you look at is another To understand what you see is another To learn from what you understand is something else. But to act on what you learn is all that really matters.” -Winston Churchill 19Safety Engineering in the Field of Civil Engineering
  20. 20. SAFETY ENGINEERING IN EXCAVATION Frederick Mahinay and Geneva Saba DEFINITION OF TERMS: 1. EXCAVATION - A man–made cut, cavity, trench, or depression formed by the earth removal. 2. TRENCH - A narrow excavation. The depth is greater than the width, but not wider than 15feet.The width, but not wider than 15feet. 3. SHORING - A structure that supports the sides of an excavation and protects against cave-in 4. SHIELD -A structure able to withstand a cave-in and protect employees. 5. SLOPING - A technique that employs a specific angle of incline on the sides of excavation. 6. BENCHING - Method of protecting personnel inside excavation by cutting the sides of excavation GENERAL REQUIREMENTS PRIOR TO EXCAVATION : 1. Carry out joint site safety inspection w/ client/owner, consultant & company representatives. 2. Identify & locate underground facilities/ utilities. 3. Municipal Permit Requirements 4. Proximity of adjacent structures 5. Weather & Moisture conditions 6. Sources of the vibrations 7. Adjacent road footpaths 8. Method of excavations 9. Other possible considerations SITE EVALUATION PLANNING : 1. Evaluate soil conditions. 2. Construct protective systems. 3. Test for low oxygen, hazardous fumes and toxic gases. 4. Provide safe in and out access. 5. Contact Utilities. 6. Determine the safety equipment needed. EXCAVATION HAZARDS : 1. Cave – in or Excavation collapse 2. Excavation materials 3. Falling objects near an excavation 4. Power mobile equipment 5. Slips , trips and falls 6. Hazardous atmosphere 7. Flooding/Water hazards 8. Underground Facilities 9. Adjacent structures 10. Loose rock and soil 11. Other hazards include: 1.1.1. Asphyxiation due to lack of oxygen. 1.1.2. Inhalation of toxic materials. 1.1.3. Fire 1.1.4. Moving machinery near the edge of the excavation can cause a collapse. 1.1.5. Accident severing of underground utility lines.
  21. 21. WARNING SYSTEM : 1. Barricades 2. Hand signals 3. Mechanical signals 4. Stop logs 5. Grade away from excavation PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEES: 1. Employees should be protected from cave-ins by using an adequately designed protective system. 2. Protective systems must be able to resist all expected loads. 3. All excavation or trenches 5feet or deep require a protective system. SOIL - In trenching and excavation practices, it is defined as any materials removed from the ground to form a hole, trench or cavity for purpose of working below the earth’s surface. SOIL CLASSIFICATION: - STABLE ROCK – natural solid mineral matter that can be excavated with vertical sides and remain intact while exposed. - TYPE A - cohesive soil with unconfined compressive strength of 144kPa or greater. Example: Clay, silt clay, sandy clay , clay loam and silt clay loam and sandy clay loam. - TYPE B - cohesive soil with unconfined compressive strength greater than 48kPa but less than 144kPa. Example: Angular gravel, silt, silt loam, sandy loam - TYPE C - cohesive soil with unconfined compressive strength of 48kPa or less 144kPa. Example: Gravel, sand, loamy sand, submerged soil. TYPES OF SOIL COLLAPSE : 1. GENERAL ZONE OF EXPOSURE - The area where workers are exposes to mass and soil/ rock move- ment 2. SPOIL PILE SLIDE - Improper excavating procedures occur when the excavated material is not placed far enough away from the edge of excavation 3. SIDE WALL SHEAR - Common to fissured or desiccated clay type or alluvial soils 4. SLOUGH-IN (CAVE-IN) - Common to previously excavated material, fill, sand, silt and sand mix and gravel. 5. ROTATION - Common in clay type soil, when excavation walls are too steep or when moisture content increases rapidly. 21Safety Engineering in the Field of Civil Engineering
  22. 22. METHODS OF EXCAVATION PROTECTION : 1. Sloping 2. Benching 3. Shoring/Timbering 4. Sheet Piles 5. Concrete Piles 6. Micro Piles 7. Diaphragm 8. Dewatering System HEAVY EQUIPMENTS IN EXCAVATION : HAND TOOLS IN EXCAVATION : 1. Backhoe 1. Shovel 2. Bulldozer 2. Pickax 3. Wheel Loader 3. Pneumatic hammer, etc. 4. Grader 5. Rock Breaker MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT Materials and equipment used for protective systems shall be free from damage or defects that might impair their proper function. STABILITY OF ADJACENT STRUCTURES • Where the stability of adjoining buildings, walls, or other structures is endangered by excavation opera- tions, support systems such as shoring, bracing, or underpinning shall be provided to ensure the stability of such structures for the protection of employees. EXCAVATION BELOW STRUCTURES SHOULD NOT BE PERMITTED EXCEPT WHEN: • A support system, such as underpinning, is provided to ensure the safety of employees and the stability of the structure; or • The excavation is in stable rock • A registered professional engineer has approved the determination that the structure is sufficiently re- moved from the excavation so as to be unaffected by the excavation activity; or • A registered professional engineer has approved the determination that such excavation work will not pose a hazard to employees. PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEES FROM LOOSE ROCK OR SOIL: Such protection shall consist of scaling to remove loose material; installation of protective barricades at intervals as necessary on the face to stop and contain falling material; or other means that provide equivalent protection. ACCESS/EGRESS • Stairs, ladders, or ramps must be provided where personnel must enter excavations four feet or more in depth, • The maximum distance of travel in an excavation to a means of egress shall not exceed 25 feet. Hazardous Atmosphere • Atmospheric testing must be conducted in excavations over four feet deep where a hazardous atmosphere could reasonably be expected to exist, WATER ACCUMULATION Personnel are not permitted to work in excavations that contain, or are accumulating, water unless precautions have been taken to protect personnel from hazards posed by water accumulation. These precautions may include special support or shield systems to protect from cave-in, water removal by mechanical pump to control the level of accumulating water, or the use of a safety harness and lifeline.
  23. 23. CONSTRUCTION SITE PREMISES Divina Rose Domingo and Rodel Allan Adan GENERAL PROVISIONS Protection to every workingman against the dangers of injury, sickness or death through safe and healthful working conditions, thereby assuring the conservation of valuable manpower resources and the prevention of loss or damage to lives and properties. ACCIDENT PREVENTION HOW.. - Methods of prevention - Ample evidence WHY.. - Real factor in the economics success of any construction job - Profitable - Lower cost and greater efficiency GENERAL CONSTRUCTION SITE REQUIREMENTS : 1. Accident prevention is a legal requirement 2. Complete understanding between the owner and the contractor 3. Practical experiences in running construction jobs 4. Accident prevention as part of advance planning 5. Protection of workers and the public 6. Applicable government standard regulations WORKER’S WELFARE FACILITY: 1. Source of drinking water 2. Sanitary washing facilities 3. Living accommodation 4. Separate sanitary, washing and sleeping facilities for men and women CONSTRUCTION SITE HOUSEKEEPING : HOUSEKEEPING - means there is a place for everything and everything is in place. It is everybody’s business to observe it in the workplace. It is important because it lessens accidents and related injuries and illnesses; it there- fore improves productivity and minimizes direct and indirect costs of accident /illnesses. The 5S is a very practical simple and proven approach to improving housekeeping in the workplace. WHAT ARE THE SIGN OF DISORDER: 1. Cluttered and poorly damaging other material 2. Untidy piling 3. Piled-on material damaging other material 4. Items no longer needed 5. Blocked aisle ways 6. Material stuffed in corners and out-of-the-way places 7. Material gathering rust and dirt from disuse 8. Excessive quantities of items 9. Overcrowded bins and containers 10. Overflowing storage areas and shelves 11. Broken containers and damaged materials 12.Deteriorating housekeeping may be the first evidence of a deteriorating safety and health program 23Safety Engineering in the Field of Civil Engineering
  24. 24. RULE 1060 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ON SITE PREMISES OF ESTABLISHMENTS Good housekeeping shall be maintained at all times thru cleanliness of building, yards, machines and equipment, regular waste disposal and orderly processes, operations, storage and filling of materials. THE 5S OF GOODHOUSEKEEPING: 1. Seiri (Sort/eliminate) 2. Seiton (Systematize/organize) 3. Seiso (Sweep/clean/polish) 4. Seiketsu (Sanitize/standardize) 5. Shitsuke (Self-discipline/training) WHY 5S? 1. Safety 2. Quality Improvement 3. Efficiency 4. Productivity Improvement 5. Workers feel good in their second home 6. Easy knowledge of process abnormalities 7. Work Improvement 8. Company Image 9. Cleanliness/orderliness/beautification HOW 5S IS IMPLEMENTED? 1. Training 2. Committees 3. Planning 4. Self-diagnosis and objective setting 5. Monitoring 6. Evaluation HOW IS 5S SUSTAINED? 1. Continuous promotions 2. mascot, logo, slogan contests 3. publicity bards 4. newsletter 5. staff meetings 6. monthly themes 7. competitions 8. Benchmarking 9. External Visits 10.Implementation Plan
  25. 25. FALL PROTECTION Van Victor Butihen and Shiela Kim Balona ABSTRACT : Fall protection is the backup system planned for a worker who could lose his or her balance at height, in order to con- trol or eliminate injury potential. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Fall Protection Standard Deals with both human and equipment related issues in protecting workers from fall hazards, Prevent workers from falling off into or through working levels, Protect employees from being struck by falling objects, required the em- ployees exposed to a potential free-fall greater than six feet must receive Fall Protection training, implement proper fall prevention method. All fall protection equipment or devices shall have meet or exceed the appropriate American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard and visually inspected for defects prior to teach use. INTRODUCTION : Construction always involves people climbing great heights. In the American construction industry, the leading cause of fatalities and deaths is falls, and as a result, it must be treated seriously and appropriately. About 40,000 deaths/ disabling injuries result from falls per year in the U.S, In 1996, the Philippine construction industry accounts for 479 work accident cases report 40 - 50% were classified as struck /hit by falling objects and fall from heights. All construction safety plans must contain provisions in order to protect workers from falling from dangerous heights and undertake a complete risk evaluation in each phase of the construction work in order to identify potential sources of fall accidents. OBJECTIVE : • Describe working conditions where fall protection is required. • Identify the components of a Fall arrest system • Demonstrate how to put on and remove a full body harness. •Know how to inspect and care for personal fall arrest systems before and after use. OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARD FALL PROTECTION POLICY : Railings are required at permanent elevated locations greater than or equal to: 4 48 inches. ( Federal OSHA) 4 30 inches. ( CAL OSHA) All employees shall be protected from falls of six feet or more by the use of an approved Fall Arrest System. • Construction work is traditionally a hazardous occupation, wherein various work phases involved have its own corresponding hazards. Since majority of the work is located in high places, falls are so significant and need a lot of attention. • Most falling accidents could be traced in excavation, scaffolding, ladder, temporary structure, roofing and opening. • Likewise alarming, are falling materials that cause damages to properties and even serious injuries and death to pedestrians. CATEGORIES OF FALL Fall accidents can be classified as , fall.. - To work surface - Against an object - From moving vehicles/equipment - From stairs ,ramps , and ladders - From edge of work level - Into /through an opening - From one work level to the other. FALL PROTECTION SYSTEM - Consist of devices that arrest a free fall or devices that restrain a worker in a posi- tion to prevent a fall from occurring. 25Safety Engineering in the Field of Civil Engineering
  26. 26. CATEGORIES OF FALL PROTECTION SYSTEMS : 1. SURFACE PROTECTION (non-slip flooring) -Floors that may become slippery due to the work opera- tions should be provided w/ a non-slip type surface or coating that will provide a secure walking surface; Stair and elevated falls occur from one level to another. 2. FIXED BARRIERS (handrails, guardrails) - Must be capable of stopping a worker from proceeding past edge of a work level or into a floor opening. ` 3. SURFACE OPENING PROTECTION (removable covers, guardrails) - Surface openings in floors and other walking surfaces where workers have access, must be protected by guard railing or secured wood or metal covers. 4. TRAVEL RESTRAINT SYSTEMS (safety line and belt) - Is intended to limit a worker’s movement so the workers are unable to reach a location where there is a risk of falling. 5. FALL ARREST SYSTEMS (safety line and harness) - A fall arrest system is employed when a worker is a risk of falling from an elevated position. FALL ARREST EQUIPMENT - ABC’S Administrative Rules and Fall Arrest Maintenance : - When fall protection of any kind is provided, the project’s competent person must teach workers the limitations to that system’s effectiveness. - Orthostatic intolerance may be experienced by workers using fall arrest systems. Prolonged sus- pension from a fall arrest systems can cause orthostatic intolerance, which in turn can result in physical injury, or potentially, death. - Research indicates that suspension in a fall arrest device can result in unconsciousness, followed by death, in less than 30 minutes.
  27. 27. POSITIONING DEVICE SYSTEM A positioning system restrains the elevated worker, preventing him from getting into a hazardous position where a fall could occur, and also allows hands-free work. Both systems have three components: harnesses or belts, connection devices and tie-off points. - Full-body Harnesses and Belts - Full-body harnesses wrap around the waist, shoulders and legs. - The attachment of the body harness must be located in the center of the wearer’s back, near the shoulder level, or above the head. -Belts are used in positioning system applications. OTHER FALL PROTECTION EQUIPMENT: 1. Vertical lifelines / Lanyards - must have a minimum breaking strength of 5,000 pounds, and be protected against being cut or abraded. 2. Self-retracting Lifelines/Lanyards 3. Self-retracting vertical lifelines and lanyards - that automatically limit free fall distance to 2 feet or less must be capable of sustaining a minimum tensile load of 3,000 pounds when in the fully extended position 4. Horizontal Lifelines - are to be designed, installed, and used under the supervision of a qualified person, and as part of a complete personal fall arrest system which maintains a safety factor of at least two 5. Webbing - are the ropes and straps used in lifelines, lanyards, and strength components of body har- nesses. The webbing must be made from synthetic fibers; and qualified in the OSHA Standard: 1926.502(d)(14) 6. Connectors - must be made from drop-forged, pressed or formed steel, or equivalent materials . They must have a corrosion-resistant finish, with smooth surfaces and edges to prevent damage to connecting parts of the system. 7. D-Ring and Snap hooks - must have a minimum tensile strength of 5,000 pounds, and be proof-tested to a minimum tensile load of3,600 pounds without cracking, breaking, or becoming permanently deformed. 8. Anchorages - used for attachment of personal fall arrest equipment must be independent of any anchor- age being used to support or suspend platforms, and capable of supporting at least 5,000 pounds per employee attached. 6. FALL CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS (safety nets) - Where it is impractical to provide a fixed barrier or fall arrest system, an alternate solution is the provision of safety nets SAFETY NETS REQUIREMENTS: • It must be constructed of materials of sufficient strength to catch a falling debris. • There is sufficient tension and clearance to prevent a falling person against contacting any surface or structure below the net. • It shall be installed so that it extends 2.5 m (8ft) beyond the edge of the work area & no further than 7.5m (25ft) below the working surface • Perimeter safety nets are in position before any work is commenced. • Reach a location where there is a risk of falling. CONCLUSION Fall protection provides system and rules. It indicates the Proper guidelines, training s and proper use of fall protec- tion equipment to eliminate the risk, guard the hazards and protect workers in heights in construction industry. 27Safety Engineering in the Field of Civil Engineering
  28. 28. SAFETY IN TEMPORARY STRUCTURES George Caña and Laile Mie Tique TEMPORARY STRUCTURES USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION SITE: BARRICADES– To isolate or protect an unsafe work area from other workers, pedestrian or vehicle traffic. Barricades should be made of reflective materials and they must never be placed in line of traffic without warning. • ROAD CONSTRUCTION BARRICADE 1. Heavy – used to close streets, provide buffer zones, and mark work area obstruction. An optional light may be attached. 2. Light – used to mark the work area. An optional light may be attached. 3. A- Frame – may be used to channel traffic and mark the work area. An optional light may be attached. BARRICADE TAPES COLOR OF TAPE HAZARD CLASSIFICATION ACTION EXAMPLE Yellow (Caution) Occupational Hazard Do not cross until -Overhead work hazard is identified -Trip Hazard and safe passage/ access is assured.
  29. 29. Red (Danger) High imminent danger, Never Cross. -Energized Electrical work Fatality Prevention -Overhead suspended work -Chemical Introduction -Fall Exposure -Critical High Pressure test SCAFFOLDS - is defined as an elevated temporary work platform. COMMON HAZARD ASSOCIATED WITH ALL SCAFFOLDS : • Falls from elevation, due to lack of fall protection • Collapse of the scaffold, caused by instability or overloading • Being struck by falling tools, work materials, or debris • Electrocution CLASSIFICATION OF SCAFFOLDS : • Supported Scaffolds • Suspended Scaffolds • Others TYPES OF SUPPORTED SCAFFOLDS : •Fabricated or Framed Scaffolds - The most common type of scaffold because they are versatile, economi- cal and easy to use. These are frequently used by residential and building contractors. Their modular frames can also be stacked several stories high for use on large scale construction jobs. •Tube and Couplers – they are built from tubing connected by coupling devices. Due to their strength, they are frequently used where heavy loads needed to be carried or where multiple platforms must reach several stories high. 29Safety Engineering in the Field of Civil Engineering
  30. 30. •Manually Propelled Scaffolds – Scaffolds that are set on wheels. They are designed to be easily moved and are commonly used for things like painting and plastering, where workers must frequently change position TYPES OF SUSPENDED SCAFFOLDS : • Interior Hung Scaffolds - consists of a platform suspended from the ceiling or roof structure by fixed-length supports. • Two Point Scaffolds - also known as swing-stage scaffolds are perhaps the most common type of sus- pended scaffold. Hung by ropes or cables connected to stirrups at each end of the platform, they are typically used by window washers on skyscrapers, but play a prominent role in high-rise construction as well. OTHER TYPES OF SCAFFOLDS: • Aerial Lift - vehicle-mounted aerial devices to elevate personnel to work areas not accessible from the ground; ex- tendible boom platforms, aerial ladders, articulating booms, vertical towers, and a combination of any such devices. SCAFFOLDING REQUIREMENTS AND COMPONENTS 1. Foundation a. Scaffolds shall be capable of supporting without failure at least 4 times the maximum intended load. b. Timber sills at least 23cm wide by 3.8cm thick c. Small timber pads may be used in place of sills and nailed to prevent the base plates sliding off. d. The screw jacks shall not be adjusted more than 2/3 of the total length of the thread. 2. Post a. post shall be pitched on 15cm(6in.) by 15 (6in) steel and at least 0.64cm (1/4 in) thick. b. The inner row posts shall be placed as closed as possible to the face of the building 3. Runners
  31. 31. a. Runners shall be securely fixed to post with standard couplers and shall be horizontal b. Runners shall be vertically spaced no more than 2 meters to give adequate headroom along the platform 4. Bearers a. bearers should be installed between post and securely fixed to the post with standard couplers. 5. Board Bearers a. Board bearers shall be installed between bearers to accommodate differences in planks length 6. Bracing a. Longitudinal diagonal bracing shall be installed approx. 45˚ angle from near the base of the first outer post upward to the extreme top of the scaffold 7. Ties a. All supported scaffolds except tower and mobile shall be securely tied to a building or structure throughout their length and height to prevent movement of the scaffold. b. Ties shall occur at the top of the scaffold and at least every 7.9m (26ft) vertically and 9.1m (30ft) hori- zontally and at each end of the scaffold 8. Platform Unit a. All platform units shall be closed plank for the full width of the scaffold structure b. planks shall be extended over their end supports by not less than 15cm and not more than 30.5 cm c. Planks shall not be secured in position to prevent displacement by strong winds. 9. Guardrail and toe board system a. Guardrail shall be installed at open sides and ends of all scaffolds to prevent fall. b. Top rails shall no less than 0.91m and no more than 1.14m above the working surface and can withstand force of 200lbs. c. Mid rails must be installed halfway between the top rail and platform and can withstand force of 150lbs. d. Toe boards shall not be less than 10cm and height by 2.5cm thick. 10. Access a. Access to a working platform is best achieved by providing a separate ladder tower a cantilevered access platform so as not to obstruct the working platform and to minimize the risk of persons falling through the gaps in the guardrail system or platform units. Access should be provided to working platforms 11. Scaffold Ladders a. Scaffold ladders provide the means of access and egress for scaffolds 12. Workmanship a. Scaffolding shall be erected, altered and dismantled by experienced men working under the direction of a competent supervisor. 13. Inspection a. All scaffolds shall be inspected by a competent supervisor, safety officer. And/or civil engineers before it is used after adjustment, modifications, adverse weather conditions, etc., to measure that is safe. If safe to use, attach the GREEN scaffolding Tag, if unsafe to use, attach RED scaffolding Tag. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS : 1. Legs should be plumb 2. Eliminate slippery conditions 3. Post safety rules 4. Scaffold shall be tied and fully braced 5. Shall be capable of supporting 4x the design load 6. Plan or drawing approved by Structural Engineer 7. Avoid power lines 8. Approval for multiple usage 9. Ladders should have landing 10.Use outrigger or outboard safety support 11. Provide independent safety lines 12. Be on a firm foundation with base plates 13. Be plumb, square and adequately braced 14. Have a fully planked work deck 15. Have guardrails over 10 feet 16. Be tied in over 4 Vert./1 Horiz. high 17.Have an adequate means of access 31Safety Engineering in the Field of Civil Engineering
  32. 32. SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION MACHINERIES Joanna Grace L. Enriquez The use of mechanical equipment in the construction industry improves the quality and efficiency of work, but it can lead to situations which are potentially hazardous. The only way of using mechanical equipments is to have properly trained operators, running equipments that are well-maintained, and carrying out the work for which it is designed. Being struck-by or caught in-between are two of the eading causes of injuries and fatalities in the construction site. Of all the accidents in the construction site regarding machineries, 22% are caused by struck-by and 18% are caught in-between machines. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES: - Prevent workplace accidents - Prevent personal injuries between moving equipment and those workers who are on foot. HEAVY EQUIPMENT OPERATIONS Heavy Equipments commonly used in the construction site: 1. Front end loaders; rubber-tired and tracked 2. Crawler Tractors/ Bulldozers, skid steer bobcats 3. Wheel Tractor Scraper, elevating scrapers, tandem powered scrapers 4. Backhoes and hydraulic excavators 5. Haulage Vehicles 6. Asphalt Pavers and Pavement Rollers 7. Vibratory Rollers and compactors 8. Concrete Mixers and Pump trucks 9. Grinding Equipments 10. Pulverizing Equipments, Millers, Water Trucks 11. Cranes PERSONS AT RISK DURING HEAVY EQUIPMENT OPERATIONS 1. DIRECT PARTICIPANTS - such as Signal Persons, Flaggers, Grade Checkers, Dump Persons, Opera- tors, Teamsters, Laborers, Iron Workers, Carpenters, Foremen, Supervisors, Contractor Staff, Surveyors, Rod men, Lay-out Crew, Craftsmen. 2. PARTCIPANTS WHO NEED TO BE ON SITE - such as delivery truck drivers, service providers, concrete/ pump truck drivers, crane rental operators, contracted service persons, trash removal personnel, government inspec- tors, client’s staff, owner of the project, guests/VIP, product installation specialists, engineering services providers, utility service providers. 3. NON-PARTICIPANTS - such as [edestrians, on-lookers, sidewalk superintendents, curious people, chil- dren, job seekers, bicycle riders, skate boarders, scavengers, wood collectors, private environmentalists, thieves, burglar, media. MATERIALS HANDLING OPERATIONS - refers to any method for moving materials by people or by using machines MECHANICAL HANDLING OPERATIONS 1. Transportation 2. Mechanical; Powered 3. Lifting ; Hoist and Lift, and Crane HAZARDS IN CRANE OPERATIONS : 1. Structural Failure and overloading 2. Instability 3. Materials Fallign or slipping 4. Electrical hazards 5. Other hazards like being struck by crane/ caught in between cranes
  33. 33. CRANE SAFETY LIES WITHIN THE FOLLOWING : 1. Structural Soundness of crane and its components 2. Proper Crane Operation 3. Proper rigging operation 4. Proper assembly and dismantling procedures CRANE LOAD CAPACITY MEASUREE : 1. Structure 2. Hook - Must have a safety latch -Must have a hook opening -Hook Twisting -No Cracks 3. Wire Rope -Breaking Strength -Rope Criteria PRINCIPLES OF PREVENTING MATERIALS HANDLING ACCIDENTS 1. Eliminate all unnecessary transport and handling operations. 2. Remove human beings from transport and handling spaces 3. Segregate transport operations from each other. 4. Provide enough space for materials handling and transport operations 5. Aim at continuous transport processes. 6. Use standard elements in materials handling 7. Know materials to be handled 8. Keep loading under safe working-load capacity 9. Set speed limits low. 10. Avoid overhead lifting area where people are working underneath 11. Avoid materials handling that requires climbing/ working at high levels 12. Attach guards at danger points 13. Transport and lift people only by equipments designed for that purpose 14. Keep equipments and load stable. 15. Provide good visibility. 16. Eliminate manual lifting 17. Provide and maintain effective communication 18. Arrange human interfaces and manual handling according to ergonomic principles 19. Provide adequate training and advice 20. Provide people with a proper personal safety outfits 21. Carry out proper maintenance and inspection 22. Plan for changes of environmental conditions RULES IN OPERATION OF LIFTING EQUIPMENTS: 1. Don’t carry or use crane beyond rate load 2. Never move/load over people 3. Never allow personnel to ride on a load 4.Center crane over the load before hoisting. No side pull 5.Lift, move and lower loads smoothly 6. Don’t stop the hoist under normal operations 7. Don’t leave suspended load unattended 8. Keep hook blocked more than 2m above floor when not in use 9. Use tagline to stabilize and control loads 10. Respond to signals from designed signal man RULES IN OPERATING MACHINERIES IN SLOPES : 1. Slew load horizontally to prevent overloading 2. Don’t slew from low side to high side. 33Safety Engineering in the Field of Civil Engineering
  34. 34. 3. Slide load can cause sideways collapse SAFETY IN OPERATING DUAL LIFTS: 1. Keep load horizontal 2. Use the same type of cranes 3. Load 80% of max. loading of each crane 4. Only one signal man STABILITY - Make sure an outrigger is in place SAFETY IN ELECTRICITY : 1. Maintain a safe distance 2. Use nylon guy wire 3. In case of live wire contact, operator should jump immediately SAFETY IN RIGGING : Must be done only by designated rigger: - Familiarity with rated capacity of the crane. - Familiarity with different types of sling, implements and capacity. - Familiarity with load calculation - Sling protection(Corner Padding) - Principle of the center of Gravity SPECIFIC RULES WHEN OPERATING EQUIPMENTS: - The most dangerous movement is backing. - Know where your blind spots are; always check your windows and side mirrors - Look for people on foot nearby - STOP! When signaled, waived at violently or when in doubt - Maintain safe operating speed - Take machine “Out of Service” if it is unsafe to operate - Be aware of other machines working in the area - Clean windows and adjust mirrors - Always inspect machine; Inform appropriate personnel of abnormal conditions, defects or changes in the Machine/ Job Conditions
  35. 35. - Report unsafe/careless workers - Do not attempt repairs/ forcing equipments with defects during operation - Always have the presence of a signal man when moving - Clear all obstacles or path before operation. BASIC SOLUTIONS APPLIED BY SITE OWNERS AND/ENGINEERS TO INSTIGATE CONSTRUCTION SAFETY: 1. MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT -Restrict entry on to site of non-essential personnel -Establish controlled entry points to site -Coordinate operations of various trades working in the same areas -Provide fundamental site rulesand training to all perosnnel at risk -Adequate Lay-down areas established 2. WORKERS’ INVOLVEMENT -All workers must receive proper basic indoctrination -Management must ddress problems with employess on a regular basis -Workers must always learn, follow, and obey established rules -Workers must realize they MUST SEE and MUST BE SEEN 3. PRE-CONSTRUCTION JOB HAZARD ANALYSIS -Identify know potential hazards -Determine the safetiness of job condition -Lay-down or Storage Areas -Risk by construction methods -Side effetcs of job schedule 4. HAZARD PREVENTION AND CONTROLS -Perimeter fencing, enclosure, signs -Spotterd for the in-the-blind, backing machines and/or equipments -Poor planning forces workers to commit unsafe acts 35Safety Engineering in the Field of Civil Engineering
  36. 36. -Be alert. Stay Clear. Hear warnings. 5. POOR EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE -Machine in proper working order -Back-up alarm, horns, lights, mirrors -Cab glass not cracked /broken -Machine windows, mirrors kept clean -Pre-operational inspection conducted by operators -Prompt repairs on any noted defeciences 6. WORKERS’ AWARENESS TRAINING -Does your job requires you to approach machines/equipments?If NO, stay away from the machines/ equipments as much as possible. -Understand and know what every sign means. -Be alert on changing job conditions and your particular situation. EQUIPMENT OPERATORS’ RESPONSIBILITY: -Know the safety features of the equipment -Know how they operate and use them properly -Have a systematic maintenance and repair for their machines -Acquire a proper training -Inform repair personnel in case of machine/equipment defects -Review manufacturer’s operating manual -report unsafe workers to the supervisor -Talk about safety safety with those who always work with you duringoperations -Do not attempt to repair your own machinery/ maintenance you don’t understand -Have a signalman present in you blindspot -make sure all obstacles in your line of movement is all cleared before starting the operation SPECIFIC REMINDERS: -The most dangerous movement is backing. -Kno whre your blindspots are -Always be on the look-out for people on foot moving around the machinery -STOP when signaled, when waived at violently, or if in doubt. -Maintain a safe operating speed. -Keep machine under control at all time. -Don’t use the machinery if unsafe to operate or malfunctioning -Be aware of other amchines working in the area. -Keep lights and back0up alarm in good operating conditions -Allow no one to ride outside the Cab for any reason -Clean windows and adjust mirrors.
  37. 37. HAND TOOLS AMD EQUIPMENT SAFETY Jane Marie Velado and Kim Bladimher Hermonio OBJECTIVES: • Recognize the hazards associated with the use of the different types of tools • Learn the safety precautions necessary to prevent injuries from hand tools. • Understand the various PPEs needed when using hand tools HAZARD RECOGNITION : • Tools are such a common part of our lives that we sometimes forget that they pose hazards. • All tools are manufactured with safety in mind but, unfortunately, serious accidents often occur before measures are taken to search out and avoid or eliminate tool-related hazards. HAND TOOLS - Hand tools are non-powered. They include anything from axes to wrenches.The greatest hazards posed by hand tools result from misuse and improper maintenance. HAZARDS BY HAND TOOLS: – Using a screwdriver as a chisel may cause the tip of the screwdriver to break and fly, hitting the user or other employees. – If a wooden handle on a tool such as a hammer or an axe is loose, splintered, or cracked, the head of the tool may fly off and strike the user or another worker – A wrench must not be used if its jaws are sprung, because it might slip. – Impact tools such as chisels, wedges, or drift pins are unsafe if they have mushroomed heads. The heads might shatter on impact, sending sharp fragments flying. SAFETY IN USING HAND TOOLS: • The employer is responsible for the safe condition of tools and equipment used by employees. • The employees have the responsibility for properly using and maintaining tools. • Employers should caution employees that saw blades, knives, or other tools be directed away from aisle areas and other employees working in close proximity. Knives and scissors must be sharp. • Dull tools can be more hazardous than sharp ones. • Appropriate personal protective equipment, e.g., safety goggles, gloves, etc., should be worn due to haz- ards that may be encountered while using portable power tools and hand tools. • Safety requires that floors be kept as clean and dry as possible to prevent accidental slips with or around dangerous hand tools. • Around flammable substances, sparks produced by iron and steel hand tools can be a dangerous ignition source. Where this hazard exists, spark-resistant tools made from brass, plastic, aluminum, or wood will provide for safety. SOME NON-SPARKING TOOLS: HAND TOOLS SAFETY TIPS : 1. Screwdrivers – It is essential that a screwdriver has the correct size to fit the slot of the screw. Screwdrivers should never be carried in the pockets of coveralls or other clothing. It can produce a serious wound. 37Safety Engineering in the Field of Civil Engineering
  38. 38. 2. Hammers – Hammers head should be secured to wooden handlers with proper wedges. 3. Chisels – Cutting edges should be kept sharp at all times, and the original shape and angle should be maintained. 4. Picks and Shovels – Shovel blades should not be allowed to become blunt, turned, split or jagged. They should be maintained in a serviceable condition at all times. 5. Spanners and Wrenches – Only wrenches of the right size should be used. When possible, use box-end rather than adjustable wrenches. For heavy works, a slugging wrench should be used. 6. Pipe Wrenches – Pipe wrenches must be large enough for the job, the jaw, teeth must be kept clean and sharp and the knurl, pin and spring should be kept from damage. 7. Pliers – Pliers should only be used when there are no other tools for the job. They are meant only for gripping and should not be used as a wrench. 8. Hacksaws – The correct size of blade should be selected, installed so that teeth are pointing in the forward direction with sufficient tension applied to the blade. 9. Handsaw – The teeth should be kept sharp, clean and properly set, and lightly oiled to avoid bending in the timber which caused the blade to buckle. IN SUMMARY, THE CONTRACTOR SHOULD OBSERVE THE FOLLOWING: 1. Quality – the contractor shall ensure that the finest quality tools shall be provided for all jobs where hand tools are used. 2. Cleanliness – The contractor shall ensure that hand tools are regularly cleaned and where necessary, lightly oiled as a protection against corrosion. 3. Repair and Storage – All hand tools shall be regularly inspected before and after use, and before storage. Proper racks and boxes shall be provided for the storage of hand tools. 4. Selection – Majority of accidents are caused by using an incorrect tool for the job. It is essential that the correct type, size and weight of tool should be decided upon before any work is carried out. POWER TOOL PRECAUTIONS • Power tools can be hazardous when improperly used. • There are several types of power tools, based on the power source they use: electric, pneumatic, liquid fuel, hydraulic, and powder-actuated. • Employees should be trained in the use of all tools - not just power tools. • We should understand the potential hazards as well as the safety precautions to prevent those hazards from occurring. THE FOLLOWING GENERAL PRECAUTIONS SHOULD BE OBSERVED BY POWER TOOL USERS: – Never carry a tool by the cord or hose. – Never yank the cord or the hose to disconnect it from the receptacle. – Keep cords and hoses away from heat, oil, and sharp edges. –Disconnect tools when not in use, before servicing, and when changing accessories such as blades, bits and cutters. – All observers should be kept at a safe distance away from the work area. – Secure work with clamps or a vise, freeing both hands to operate the tool. –Avoid accidental starting. The worker should not hold a finger on the switch button while carrying a plugged-in tool. • Tools should be maintained with care. They should be kept sharp and clean for the best performance. • Follow instructions in the user’s manual for lubricating and changing accessories. • Be sure to keep good footing and maintain good balance.
  39. 39. • The proper apparel should be worn. Loose clothing, ties, or jewelry can become caught in moving parts. • All portable electric tools that are damaged shall be removed from use and tagged “Do Not Use.” CIRCULAR SAW CIRCULAR SAW GUARDS • Hazardous moving parts of a power tool need to be safeguarded. For example, belts, gears, shafts, pulleys, sprockets, spindles, drums, fly wheels, chains, or other reciprocating, rotating, • Or moving parts of equipment must be guarded if such parts are exposed to contact by employees. • Guards, as necessary, should be provided to protect the operator and others from the following: –point of operation –in-running nip points -rotating parts –And flying chips and sparks. • Safety guards must never be removed when a tool is being used. For example: – Portable circular saws must be equipped with guards. – An upper guard must cover the entire blade of the saw. – A retractable lower guard must cover the teeth of the saw, except when it makes contact with the work material. – The lower guard must automatically return to the covering position when the tool is withdrawn from the work. SAFETY SWITCHES • The following hand-held powered tools must be equipped with a momentary contact “on-off” control switch: drills, tappers, fastener drivers, horizontal, vertical and angle grinders with wheels larger than 2 inches in diameter, disc and belt sanders, reciprocating saws, saber saws, and other similar tools. • These tools also may be equipped with a lock-on control provided that a single motion of the same finger or fingers that turn it on can accomplish turn off. • The following hand-held powered tools may be equipped with only a positive “on-off” control switch: platen sanders, disc sanders with discs 2 inches or less in diameter; grinders with wheels 2 inches or less in diameter; routers, planers, laminate trimmers, nibblers, shears, scroll saws and jigsaws with blade shanks ¼-inch wide or less. • Other hand-held powered tools such as circular saws having a blade diameter greater than 2 inches, chain saws, and percussion tools without positive accessory holding means must be equipped with a constant pressure switch that will shut off the power when the pressure is released. ELECTRIC TOOLS • Employees using electric tools must be aware of several dangers; – The most serious is the possibility of electrocution. • Among the chief hazards of electric-powered tools are burns and slight shocks that can lead to injuries or even heart failure. • Under certain conditions, even a small amount of current can result in fibrillation of the heart and eventual death. • A shock also can cause the user to fall off a ladder or other elevated work surface. To protect the user from shock, – tools must either have a three-wire cord with ground and be grounded, be double insulated, – Or be powered by a low-voltage isolation transformer. • Three-wire cords contain two current-carrying conductors and a grounding conductor. –One end of the grounding conductor connects to the tool’s metal housing. – The other end is grounded through a prong on the plug. • Anytime an adapter is used to accommodate a two-hole receptacle, the adapter wire must be attached to a known ground. 39Safety Engineering in the Field of Civil Engineering
  40. 40. •The third prong should never be removed from the plug. • Double insulation is more convenient. The user and the tools are protected in two ways: by normal insulation on the wires inside, and by a housing that cannot conduct electricity to the operator in the event of a malfunction. • These general practices should be followed when using electric tools: – Electric tools should be operated within their design limitations. – Gloves and safety footwear are recommended during use of electric tools. – When not in use, tools should be stored in a dry place. – Electric tools should not be used in damp or wet locations. – Work areas should be well lighted. POWERED ABRASIVE WHEEL TOOLS • Powered abrasive grinding, cutting, polishing, and wire buffing wheels create special safety problems because they may throw off flying fragments. • Before an abrasive wheel is mounted: – It should be inspected closely and sound - or ring-tested to be sure that it is free from cracks or defects. – To test, wheels should be tapped gently with a light non-metallic instrument. – If they sound cracked or dead, they could fly apart in operation and so must not be used. – A sound and undamaged wheel will give a clear metallic tone or “ring.” • To prevent the wheel from cracking, – The user should be sure it fits freely on the spindle. – The spindle nut must be tightened enough to hold the wheel in place, without distorting the flange. – Follow the manufacturer’s recommendations. – Care must be taken to assure that the spindle wheel will not exceed the abrasive wheel specifications. • Due to the possibility of a wheel disintegrating (exploding) during start-up, the employee should never stand directly in front of the wheel as it accelerates to full operating speed. • Portable grinding tools need to be equipped with safety guards: – to protect workers not only from the moving wheel surface, – But also from flying fragments in case of breakage. • In addition, when using a powered grinder: – Always use eye protection. – Turn off the power when not in use. – Never clamp a hand-held grinder in a vise. PNEUMATIC TOOLS • Pneumatic tools are powered by compressed air and include chippers, drills, hammers, and sanders. • There are several dangers encountered in the use of pneumatic tools. – The main one is the danger of getting hit by one of the tool’s attachments – By some kind of fastener the worker is using with the tool. • Eye protection is required and face protection is recommended for employees working with pneumatic tools. • Noise is another hazard. – Working with noisy tools such as jackhammers requires proper, effective use of hearing protection. • When using pneumatic tools, employees must check to see that they are fastened securely to the hose to prevent them from becoming disconnected. – A short wire or positive locking device attaching the air hose to the tool will serve as an added safeguard. • A safety clip or retainer must be installed to prevent attachments, such as chisels on a chipping hammer, from
  41. 41. being unintentionally shot from the barrel. • Screens must be set up to protect nearby workers from being struck by flying fragments around chippers, riveting guns, staplers, or air drills. • Compressed air guns should never be pointed toward anyone. Users should never “dead-end” it against them- selves or anyone else. POWDER-ACTUATED TOOLS • Powder-actuated tools operate like a loaded gun and should be treated with the same respect and precautions. In fact, they are so dangerous that only specially trained employees must operate them. • Use of the powder actuated tool must be controlled and a procedure must be in place • Safety precautions to remember include the following: – These tools should not be used in an explosive or flammable atmosphere. – Before using the tool, the worker should inspect it to determine that it is clean, that all moving parts oper- ate freely, and that the barrel is free from obstructions. – The tool should never be pointed at anybody. – The tool should not be loaded unless it is to be used immediately. A loaded tool should not be left unat- tended, especially where it would be available to unauthorized persons. • Hands should be kept clear of the barrel end. • To prevent the tool from firing accidentally, two separate motions are required for firing: – One to bring the tool into position, and – Another to pull the trigger. • The tools must not be able to operate until they are pressed against the work surface with a force of at least 5 pounds greater than the total weight of the tool. • If a powder-actuated tool misfires, – The employee should wait at least 30 seconds, then try firing it again. – If it still will not fire, the user should wait another 30 seconds so that the faulty cartridge is less likely to explode, than carefully remove the load. – The bad cartridge should be put in water. • Suitable eye and face protection are essential when using a powder-actuated tool. • The muzzle end of the tool must have a protective shield or guard centered perpendicularly on the barrel to confine any flying fragments or particles that might otherwise create a hazard when the tool is fired. – The tool must be designed so that it will not fire unless it has this kind of safety device. • All powder-actuated tools must be designed for varying powder charges so that the user can select a powder level necessary to do the work without excessive force. • If the tool develops a defect during use it should be tagged and taken out of service immediately until it is properly repaired. CARTRIDGE POWER TOOLS • Cartridge operated tools have a great advantage since it can be used in almost any situation without inconve- nience. However, its use shall conform to ANSI A10.3-1985 and the manufacturer’s specs. 1. STORAGE Safe and secured storage for cartridges and tools must be provided on the job site. Warning signs where cartridges are stored: DANGER – NO SMOKING” shall be posted. Only authorized personnel are allowed in the store. 41Safety Engineering in the Field of Civil Engineering
  42. 42. 2. SELECTION AND TRAINING OF PERSONNEL No person may operate, clean, maintain or repair any cartridge tool without possessing a Certificate of Competency issued by an accredited tool vendor that identifies the particular model he is qualified to handle. Personnel for training should be: a. Over 18 years of age b. Physically fit and have full use of both hands and both eyes c. Ideally be a plumber, mason, electrician, etc. d. Store men if they are required to clean and maintain the tools 3. ISSUES AND RETURNS a) Contractors shall ensure that register of the serial number of each tool is kept up-to-date. b) A log inventory system of issuing and returning cartridges and tools against signatures must be initiated and maintained. c) Only personnel in possession of a user Certificate will be allowed to withdraw tools and cartridges from the store. d) Only a minimum number of cartridges required for a shift’s operation should be issued at any one time. e) Cartridges must not be left on site at lunch break or at end of shift. It must be returned to the store for safekeeping. f) Any loss of tools or cartridges must be reported at once. FASTENERS • When using powder-actuated tools to apply fasteners, there are some precautions to consider. – Fasteners must not be fired into material that would let them pass through to the other side. – The fastener must not be driven into materials like brick or concrete any closer than 3 inches to an edge or corner. – In steel, the fastener must not come any closer than one-half inch from a corner or edge. – Fasteners must not be driven into very hard or brittle materials which might chip or splatter, or make the fastener ricochet. – An alignment guide must be used when shooting a fastener into an existing hole. – A fastener must not be driven into a spoiled area caused by an unsatisfactory fastening. HYDRAULIC POWER TOOLS • The fluid used in hydraulic power tools must be an approved fire-resistant fluid and must retain its operating char- acteristics at the most extreme temperatures to which it will be exposed. • The manufacturer’s recommended safe operating pressure for hoses, valves, pipes, filters, and other fittings must not be exceeded. JACKS • All jacks - lever and ratchet jacks, screw jacks, and hydraulic jacks - must have a device that stops them from jacking up too high. • Also, the manufacturer’s load limit must be permanently marked in a prominent place on the jack and should not be exceeded. • A jack should never be used to support a lifted load. Once the load has been lifted, it must immediately be blocked up. – Use wooden blocking under the base if necessary to make the jack level and secure. – If the lift surface is metal, place a 1-inch-thick hardwood block or equivalent between it and the metal jack head to reduce the danger of slippage. • To set up a jack, make certain of the following: – the base rests on a firm level surface, – the jack is correctly centered, – the jack head bears against a level surface, and – the lift force is applied evenly. • Proper Maintenance of jacks is essential for safety. • All jacks must be inspected before each use and lubricated regularly. • If a jack is subjected to an abnormal load or shock, it should be thoroughly examined to make sure it has not been damaged.