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Media effects revision - mass media section A2

Media effects revision - mass media section A2

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Media effects revision - mass media section A2

  1. 1. MEDIA EFFECTS MILLIE PRICE – SOCIOLOGY REVISION
  2. 2. 1. THE USES AND GRATIFICATION MODEL (ACTIVE) • This model starts with the view that media audiences are thinking, active and creative human beings. • In this view the media help people to create their own personal identities. Strengths: 1. This model recognises the active role of media audiences. Audiences make conscience choices about how they use the media 2. It recognises that audiences have the power to decide media content (pluralists – we have CHOICE) Weaknesses: 1. focuses on individual use and gratification and ignores the wider social factors affecting the way audiences respond 2. The model over estimates the power of the audience to influence media content – people who own the media decide + can change peoples views through media.
  3. 3. 2. THE CULTURAL EFFECTS MODEL (PASSIVE) ‘ the drip drip effect’ • This model recognises that the media are owned and heavily influenced by the dominant and most powerful groups of society, and their interests strongly influence the content of the media • People have different backgrounds and experiences and this means that they interpret what they read, see and hear in different ways (depending on factors such as their class, gender and ethnicity. • The cultural effects model suggests that the media gradually influence the audience over a period of time – a slow, steady, subtle process of brainwashing EVALUATION: 1. Not everyone is passive – some people that adopt the pluralist view would say that we have choice whether to listen to the media or not.
  4. 4. 3. HYPERMIC SYRINGE THEORY (PASSIVE) • This model suggests that people are consuming the media passively and the media has an immediate effect on behaviour Evaluation: 1. Not everyone is effected by the media, there are other outside influences (pluralist = say we have choice of what we watch) 2. Outside influences aren't recognised (family, school) – not everything is learnt e.g. mental health
  5. 5. 4. THE TWO STEP FLOW MODEL (MORE PASSIVE THAN ACTIVE – INBETWEEN) • Developed by Katz & Lazarsfield (1955) • The responses to media will be influenced by the beliefs and values they already hold, and opinions . Also opinions of peer groups etc. • This model suggests that people are influenced by ‘OPINION LEADERS’ – which are those respected members of social groups. They get info and form views from the media who then lead opinion and discussion in their social groups. E.g. popular students who’s views are taken notice of. • It suggests that it is these OPINION LEADERS who are influenced by the media (FIRST STEP) & then they pass these opinions on with their own interpretation to their social group (SECOND STEP)
  6. 6. 4. THE TWO STEPFLOW MODEL(MORE PASSIVETHAN ACTIVE– INBETWEEN) STRENGTHS: 1. The model recognises that the effects of the media are not as direct, powerful and influential as the hypodermic syringe theory suggests – the two step flow model suggests that OPINION LEADERS are the ones subject to media influence, NOT THE WHOLE AUDIENCE 2. Recognises that audiences are not completely passive and uncritically accepting of direct messages, but that ‘OPINION LEADERS’ select, interpret and filter media messages before they reach mass audiences WEAKNESSES: 1. It still rests on the basic assumption that the influence of the audience STEMS FROM THE MEDIA TO THE AUDIENCE – still assumes that audiences are victims of media content 2. It suggests that people are very venerable to influence and manipulation by ‘opinion leaders’. – doesn’t recognise that people have their OWN OPINION to base their views on media content.

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