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Cell structure and organisation

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Lower Secondary Biology

Publié dans : Formation
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Cell structure and organisation

  1. 1. Cell Structure & Organisation
  2. 2. Chapter Outline <ul><li>(a) identify cell structures (including organelles) of typical plant and animal cells from diagrams, photomicrographs and as seen under the light microscope using prepared slides and fresh material treated with an appropriate temporary staining technique: </li></ul><ul><li>• chloroplasts </li></ul><ul><li>• cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>• cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>• cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>• cell vacuoles </li></ul><ul><li>• nucleus </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter Outline <ul><li>(b) identify the following organelles from diagrams and electronmicrographs: </li></ul><ul><li>• mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>• ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>(c) state the functions of the organelles identified above </li></ul><ul><li>(d) compare the structure of typical animal and plant cells </li></ul>
  4. 4. Chapter Outline <ul><li>(e) state, in simple terms, the relationship between cell function and cell structure for the following: </li></ul><ul><li>• absorption – root hair cells </li></ul><ul><li>• conduction and support – xylem vessels </li></ul><ul><li>• transport of oxygen – red blood cells </li></ul><ul><li>(f) differentiate cell, tissue, organ and organ system </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is a cell? <ul><li>Building blocks of life </li></ul><ul><li>Simplest units of life </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical reactions in the cell keeps us alive </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cells White Blood Cells Red Blood Cells
  7. 7. Cells Embryonic Stem Cells
  8. 8. Other Examples of Cells Amoeba Proteus Plant Stem Red Blood Cell Nerve Cell Bacteria
  9. 9. Cells <ul><li>What does a cell consists of? </li></ul><ul><li>Each living cell consists of living material called protoplasm. </li></ul><ul><li>Protoplasm: </li></ul><ul><li>Water makes up 70% of protoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Fats </li></ul>
  10. 10. Protoplasm <ul><li>Cell Surface Membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cell Structures in Plant and Animal Cells <ul><li>• nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>• cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>• cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>• cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>• cell vacuoles </li></ul><ul><li>• ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>• mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>• chloroplasts </li></ul>
  12. 12. Animal and Plant Cells Animal Cell Plant Cell Cell Structure and Function: http://lgfl.skoool.co.uk/keystage3.aspx?id=63
  13. 13. Animal Cell
  14. 14. Animal Cell
  15. 15. Cell Surface Membrane <ul><li>Surrounds the cytoplasm of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Partially permeable membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows some substances but not all to move in and out of the cell </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Nucleus <ul><li>Surrounded by a membrane called the nuclear envelope </li></ul><ul><li>Contains one or more nucleoli </li></ul><ul><li>Contains chromatin </li></ul><ul><li>Functions of the nucleus: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Controls cell activities such as cell growth and the repair of worn-out parts </li></ul><ul><li>2. Essential for cell division </li></ul>Nucleolus
  17. 17. Cytoplasm <ul><li>Between the cell surface membrane and the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Contains enzymes and organelles </li></ul>
  18. 18. Organelles in the Cytoplasm <ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Chloroplasts (only in plant cells) </li></ul><ul><li>Cell vacuoles </li></ul>
  19. 19. Mitochondria <ul><li>Aerobic respiration occurs in the mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>Energy production </li></ul><ul><li>Energy used to perform cell activities such as growth and reproduction </li></ul>
  20. 20. Ribosomes <ul><li>Required for protein synthesis in the cell </li></ul>
  21. 21. Vacuoles in Animal Cells <ul><li>A vacuole is a fluid-filled space enclosed by a membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Animal cells have many small vacuoles that contain water and food substances such as proteins and carbohydrates </li></ul>
  22. 22. Label and identify the diagram Pop Quiz! A B C D F E
  23. 23. Plant Cell Plant Cells: http://lgfl.skoool.co.uk/keystage3.aspx?id=63
  24. 24. Plant Cell
  25. 25. Differences Between Animal and Plant Cells Vacuoles are large, sap-filled in plant cells Vacuoles are small, temporary in animal cells Chloroplasts present Chloroplasts absent Cell wall present Cell wall absent Plant Cells Animal Cells
  26. 26. Cell Wall <ul><li>Surrounds the cell surface membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Cell wall is made of cellulose </li></ul><ul><li>Protects the cell from injury </li></ul><ul><li>Gives the plant cell a fixed shape </li></ul><ul><li>Cell wall is fully permeable </li></ul>
  27. 27. Chloroplasts <ul><li>Found only in plant cells </li></ul><ul><li>Chloroplasts contain a green pigment called chlorophyll </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorophyll is essential for photosynthesis , the process by which plants make food </li></ul>
  28. 28. Vacuoles in Plant Cells <ul><li>Plant cells usually have a large central vacuole which contains a liquid called cell sap </li></ul><ul><li>Cell sap contains dissolved substances such as sugars, mineral salts and amino acids </li></ul>
  29. 29. Pop Quiz! Label and identify the diagram A B C F D E
  30. 31. Specialised Cells Red Blood Cell Root Hair Cell Nerve Cell Sperm Cell Egg Cell
  31. 32. Cell Differentiation <ul><li>The process by which cells develop special structures or lose certain structures to enable them to carry out specific functions . </li></ul><ul><li>Hence, cells become differentiated to form specialised cells . </li></ul><ul><li>The structure of each cell is adapted to perform the specific functions of the cell. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Cell Differentiation
  33. 34. How is cell structure related to cell function? 1) Red Blood Cell Increased surface area to volume ratio of the cell. Hence, increased transport of oxygen. Circular biconcave shape Carry more haemoglobin which leads to increased transport of oxygen. No nucleus Haemoglobin transports oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body. Contains haemoglobin Adaptation to Function Cell Structure
  34. 35. How is cell structure related to cell function? 2) Xylem Vessel Lignin strengthens the walls and prevents the xylem vessels from collapsing. Lignified walls Enables water to move easily through the lumen. Long hollow tubes (no protoplasm) Adaptation to Function Cell Structure
  35. 36. How is cell structure related to cell function? 3) Root Hair Cell Specialised Plant and Animal Cells: http://lgfl.skoool.co.uk/keystage3.aspx?id=63 Increased surface area to volume ratio of the cell which leads to increased absorption of water and mineral salts from the soil. Long and narrow Adaptation to Function Cell Structure
  36. 37. How do cells work together in a multi-cellular organism? Organisation in Living Things: http://lgfl.skoool.co.uk/keystage3.aspx?id=63
  37. 38. Tissue <ul><li>A tissue is a group of similar cells which work together to perform a specific function. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of tissues: </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle, the lining of the intestine, the lining of the lungs, phloem, root hair tissue </li></ul>Connective Tissue
  38. 39. Organ <ul><li>Different tissues may be combined together to form organs. </li></ul><ul><li>An organ is a structure made up of different tissues working together to perform a specific function. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of organs: </li></ul><ul><li>Heart, lung, brain, leaf, root </li></ul>Lungs
  39. 40. An organ is a structure made up of different tissues working together to perform a specific function.
  40. 41. Organ System <ul><li>Organs work together to form organ systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Various systems work together to make up the entire organism. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of organ systems: </li></ul><ul><li>Circulatory system, respiratory system, digestive system, nervous system and reproductive system </li></ul>Circulatory System
  41. 42. Organ Systems
  42. 43. Organs work together to form organ systems. System Organs Digestive Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine Respiratory Trachea Lungs
  43. 44. Pop Quiz! Q1. Write out the order of cell organisation within an organism. Q2. Give an example of an animal system with the order of cell organisation stated above.
  44. 45. Pop Quiz! Q1. Write out the order of cell organisation within an organism. Organism
  45. 46. <ul><li>Intestinal cell  intestinal muscle  small intestine  digestive system  human </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve cell  nerve tissue  eye  sensory system  bird </li></ul>Pop Quiz! Q2. Give an example of an animal system with the order of cell organisation stated above.

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