Sabbatical (University of Canterbury) - Learning through ICT - Future Focus: Virtual Schooling
1. Learning through ICT
Future focus - Virtual Schooling
Professor Niki Davis & Dr. Michael Barbour
University of Canterbury College of Education
& Wayne State University, USA
2. Today’s Overview
Why me, why now, why you?
E-learning clusters of schools in New Zealand & Te Kura
Growth of Virtual Schooling in the USA
An example of an online course in an Iowan high school
The roles in e-learning
Curriculum materials for you today
2 Learn forums and web links
3. This Week’s Activities
1. Post on your experience and pre-conceptions in
Learn Forum 1
2. This PPT presentation by Professor Davis
3. Dip into the resources linked in Learn and reflect
4. Contribute to Learn discussion on virtual schooling
in Learn Forum 2
4. Why me?
Niki Davis, Professor of E-Learning
1988-2000 University of Exeter Educational Telematics Centre, UK
2000-2008 Iowa State University Center for Technology in
Learning & Teaching, Iowa, USA
2000-2006 Institute of Education, Professor of ICT (part time), UK
2008-to stay! University of Canterbury, Director of e-Learning Lab
Leader of change to
Incorporate e-learning in teacher education
Support schools adapt to 21st century learning
… and other educational organizations too!
5. Why me?
Michael Barbour, Assistant Professor of
1999-2003 Centre for Advanced Placement Education (Canada)
Centre for Distance Learning and Innovation (Canada)
2001-2008 Illinois Virtual High School
2003-2007 University of Georgia, Ph.D. Student (USA)
2007- Wayne State University
Research into the effective design, delivery and support
primary and secondary online learning opportunities
for students, particularly those in rural jurisdictions.
6. New Zealand
Te Kura The
(MoE, 2008) http://www.correspondence.schoo
Primary students in Auroa in Manaia seek support from their mTeacher
while learning Japanese from their eTeacher at Coastal Taranaki School,
8. In New Zealand
Virtual Schooling is part of blended learning
1. Nationwide The Correspondence School established 1922
• renamed Te Aho o Te Kura Pounamu - The Correspondence School
• blended learning from 2008 has >24,000 students & increasing
2. 20 E-learning clusters of collaborating schools
• Min. of Ed. Virtual Learning Network is their national hub
• Involves e-Principals, e-Teachers, m-Teachers & other staff
3. Personalised learning
Regional Health Schools, e.g. SRHS
Itinerant teachers, e.g. music
Competitions, e.g. Global Challenge
4. Some students may take courses from abroad
E.g. international Virtual High School in the USA
14. TEGIVS Scenario Max takes Math from Hospital for future teacher preparation
15. Reflect on what this means for you as
teacher in the future
Will your future primary students include those
gifted and/or talented / need to catch up?
learn(ed) through Te Kura/TCS?
Will your school get involved in blended
Will you supervise as an mTeacher?
Will you be recruited for your e-skills as an eTeacher?
Will you lead in future as a Principal / e-Principal?
17. Primary & Secondary Online
Learning in Canada
from other provinces
18. VS teacher
Exemplary Anatomy & Physiology course offered statewide blending:
Online high quality structured content with activities & assessments
Video-conference for office hours and some activities (see above)
Quarterly labs in regional locations
Iowa Public TV educational web designers & telecoms admin.
20. Rural access to higher level science courses
M-teacher present for course necessities only
Preparation for college
21. Gen Bio – Access and Equity
Checklists for student
22. GenBio - Activities Real world scenarios
associated with each unit.
New information each
submitted as part of
24. De-coupled Roles & Responsibilities
VS Teacher: Pedagogy & Class Management
Presents activities, manages pacing, rigor etc.
Interacts with students and their facilitators
Undertakes assessments, grading etc.
VS Site Facilitator: Mentoring & Advocating
Local mentor and study coach
Key liaison & advocate for student(s)
Proctors & records grades etc.
VS Designer: Course Development
Designs instructional materials
Design of online course etc.
1. Any regular classroom teacher is
already prepared to teach online
&/or via videoconference? Yes
2. Virtual teachers and regular school
staff can handle students without
leadership support, right? No
3. Future teachers will be ready to
teach online when they graduate?
26. Time to discuss
Now join our discussion forum on
2. Who is involved in Virtual Schooling now and the
Reflect on what this means for you as teacher in the
27. Thank you
• Thanks for participating
• Michael Barbour, University of Canterbury, my colleagues,
collaborating teachers and students
• New Zealand teachers, schools and the Ministry of Education VLN
• Support from U.S. Dept. of Education (FIPSE) and collaborators in
the USA especially Iowa State University Center for Technology in
Learning and Teaching: http://www.ctlt.iastate.edu
• Feedback also welcome in our Learn discussion forum or
28. Miscellaneous additional slides
Barbour, M. (2011). Introducing In-Service Teachers to Virtual Schooling through the Lens of the Three Teacher
Roles. In Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2011
(pp. 3425-3432). Chesapeake, VA: AACE. Retrieved from http://www.editlib.org/p/36851.
Barbour, M. K. (2008). Secondary students’ perceptions of web based learning. Quarterly Review of Distance
Education, 9(4), 357-371.
Barbour, M. K. (2010). Researching K-12 online learning: What do we know and what should we examine? Distance
Learning, 7(2), 6-12.
Bolstad, R. & Lin, M. (2009). Students’ experiences of learning in virtual classrooms. Wellington, New Zealand:
NZCER. Retrieved September 15, 2010, from http://www.nzcer.org.nz/pdfs/students-experiences-learning-virtual-
Davis, N.E. & Niederhauser, D. (2007). Learning & Leading.
Parkes, S., Zaka, P. & Davis, N.E. (2011). The first blended or hybrid online course in a New Zealand Secondary
School: A case study. Computers in New Zealand Schools, 13(1). Retrieved May 23, 2011 from
Pullar, K. & Brennan C. (2008). Personalising learning for secondary students working in a blended (distance/face to
face/vocational) learning environment. Computers in New Zealand Schools, 20(2), 6-16.
Sahin, S. & Ham, V. (2010). Outcomes for teachers and students in the ICT PD school clusters programme 2006-
2008 – A national overview. Wellington: Learning Media.
29. Nested & Interlinked Ecologies
Each VS class ecosystem encompasses students and educators in multiple
organizations; their ecosystems become tightly interrelated
Decoupling of roles enables teachers to adapt behaviour to fit better
within their collaborating schools, policies and communities
E-learning schools’ courses/teachers ‘traded’
A school leader may this to adapt behaviour to ensure the fit of the school
within current state and regional requirements
Equity has been supported in the USA by
Federal legislation & funding
VS Clearing House funded by AT&T
Rural equity pressures in New Zealand stimulate e-learning
32. Partnerships for Virtual Schooling:
"This whole thing started because you
couldn't find enough science teachers
to teach all the classes we were trying
to offer. A valid option was online
learning to share one chemistry
instructor between seven colleges in a
Dr. Robert Klepper
Iowa Lakes Community College Chemistry hy
33. Partnerships for Virtual Schooling:
"This is a great way for students
who are not university bound to start
and continue in the realm of post
secondary education and still make
Brad Scott: Director of Culinary
Arts at Scott Community College
NB Not expanding rapidly http://projects.educ.iastate.edu/~vhs/bettendorf.
Notes de l'éditeur
See if can add Correspondence School figures for kids and adults OtagoNet planned in 2001 and evaluated by Lai & Pratt in 2004. Early lessons too teacher directed (going over self study for the week) but they developed with teachers’ confidence and expertise with the technology, needing TPCK. Derke Wenmoth has noted that some rural areas benefited from retaining these student at home rather thn having to send them awary to school – changes farming support and Cavanaugh (2001) conducted a meta-analysis of 19 studies reporting on the academic achievements of K-12 use of videoconferencing. She concluded that this mode of teaching and learning resulted in achievement that was “comparable to traditional instruction in most academic circumstances” (p. 84). The nine schools involved in this project all had fewer than the average number of students in New Zealand, with between 10 and 275 high school students at the time of the project’s inception. Supported initially by the Community Trust of Otago, Telecom New Zealand and the Ministry of Education, the OtagoNet has been implemented since 2001, and is continuing to function and expand both in the number of schools and its offerings. In the OtagoNet project, thirteen Year 11-13 (the final three years of secondary school) videoconferencing courses were taught by 14 teachers between 2002 and 2004, as shown by Table 1. A total of approximately 150 students attended these classes. The class sizes were small, ranging from 1 to 16. The majority of the classes involved two sites (including the home site) but a few linked up to four sites, the maximum number that the system could support. All the participating schools were provided with the essential hardware for videoconferencing, i.e., one television, one document camera, and one videoconferencing camera/microphone system, which were housed in a room provided and outfitted by the school. The videoconferencing network was connected as a VPN (virtual private network) via the Internet. Some schools also provided additional peripheral equipment, such as a video player. Many participating teachers took their own laptop computers to the room to use during the videoconference session. The videoconferencing system allowed teachers to control which site or combination of sites students could see on the TV screen, although the default setting was to show whoever was speaking. When the document camera was being used, or video or computer presentations were being shown, students in the remote sites would see this on the TV monitor, and would not be able to see their teacher or classmates at the other sites. Table 1: Details of the subjects offered in the initial year (2002), and the teachers and schools from which they were delivered TeacherSchoolSubjectYear level AAGraphicsY13BBEconomicsY13CCPhysicsY13DCMathematics with StatisticsY13ECHistoryY11FCHospitalityY11G/H1D/EMathematicsY12IFMathematics with CalculusY13JGPhysicsY12KHHistoryY11LIComputingY13MJPEY13NJElectronicsY121 teacher left partway through year, another teacher took over
http://www.karen.net.nz/music-mentoring/?category=1&start=5 http://www.merc.canterbury.ac.nz/newsfeatures.shtml#dist The National Centre for Research in Music Education and Sound Arts (University of Canterbury), in partnership with the Christchurch School of Music has recently completed a Ministry of Education funded e-mentoring music trial using video conferencing to offer remote music lessons to students. Image: Mark Walton (Christchurch School of Music Musical Director and Programme Director) giving saxophone lessons to University of Auckland student Peter Chiu. Student Example Name of student or school Greymouth HighDescription This clip shows a year 10 student preparing for the upcoming video conference flute lesson. She demonstrates the key competency of managing self, an important aspect of e-learning.Curriculum Level(s) Senior Primary, Intermediate, Junior Secondary, NCEA Level 1, NCEA Level 2, NCEA Level 3 and ScholarshipDiscipline(s) Music - Sound Arts http://arts.unitec.ac.nz/studentgallery/view_example.php?id=69 Junior secondary mixed ability violin lesson Lower video in student gallery shows more strategies: http://arts.unitec.ac.nz/studentgallery/view_example.php?id=71
Three C’s contribute to 21 st century skills development, per Partnership for 21 st Century Skills www.21stcenturyskills.org: Learning for the 21st Century – A report and Mile Guide for 21st Century Skills by Partnership for 21st Century Skills
Arts Online http://arts.unitec.ac.nz/studentgallery/examples.php?level=Junior+Secondary Student Example Description This clip shows a year 10 student preparing for the upcoming video conference flute lesson. She demonstrates the key competency of managing self, an important aspect of e-learning.Curriculum Level(s) Senior Primary, Intermediate, Junior Secondary, NCEA Level 1, NCEA Level 2, NCEA Level 3 and ScholarshipDiscipline(s) Music - Sound Arts http://arts.unitec.ac.nz/studentgallery/view_example.php?id=69 Junior secondary mixed ability violin lesson Lower video in student gallery shows more strategies: http://arts.unitec.ac.nz/studentgallery/view_example.php?id=71