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Bone densitometry is a safe, painless x-ray technique that compares bone density to the peak bone density that someone of your same sex and ethnicity should have reached at about age 20-25 when it is at its highest . Bone densitometry allows your doctor to : Detect a potential problem before fracture occurs , Predict chances of future fractures and Determine your rate of bone loss . All of these factors can then be weighed to determine a course of treatment .
Bone lost as a result of Osteoporosis can not be replaced; therefore our treatments for Osteoporosis focus on prevention of further bone loss . Treatment of Osteoporosis is often a team effort with your family physician or internist, orthopaedist, gynecologist and endocrinologist working together .
The best treatment for Osteoporosis is still prevention. It is never too soon to start preventing Osteoporosis through healthy lifestyle choices. Two keys to prevention are adequate amounts of calcium and vitamin D in your diet . The National Academy of Sciences recommends 400-800 Units of Vitamin D and 1000-1500 mg of Calcium in-take per day. Your age, gender and whether or not you are pregnant will determine the best dosage-- so consult your doctor .
Calcium rich foods include : Yogurt Cheese Milk Sardines with bones and Green leafy vegetables like broccoli and collard greens . While a healthy diet should be your primary source of calcium, supplements are available. Before taking Calcium supplements you should consult your doctor . Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium; 400-800 units is recommended daily. Vitamin D supplemented dairy products are also a good choice . A note of caution here is important, because Vitamin D can be toxic, care should be taken, and your doctor consulted before you begin to take Vitamin D supplements .
Regular exercise is one of the best things we can do to prevent Osteoporosis . Bones, like muscles need exercise to stay strong . Moderate exercise 3-4 times per week is recommended . Weight bearing exercises like walking, jogging, tennis and low impact exercise classes are best for building and maintaining strong bones .
Your orthopaedist will utilize a variety of methods of treatment based upon your particular needs .
Definition of Osteoporosis: A condition of skeletal fragility characterized by:• Low bone mass. • Low bone quality (trabecular micro- architecture).• ↑bone fragility predisposing to an increased risk of fracture.
PREVALENCE• At age of 50 years: risk of hip fracture is: – 15% of white woman. – 5% of men.• At age of 80 years: risk of hip fracture is: – 30% of women. – 15% of men.
Types of osteoporosis(1) Involutional, or primary, osteoporosis, in which no underlying cause can be identified.(2) Secondary osteoporosis, in which the underlying cause (eg, steroid use) is known.(3) Rare forms of the disease, such as juvenile, pregnancy- related, and postpartum osteoporosis.
Pathogenesis1- Genetic factors: Polygenic.The single most significant influence on peak bone mass.2- Nutritional factors.3- Sex hormone status.4- Physical activity.
Risk factors• Endogenous factors: – Female gender. – Advancing age. – Family history of fracture.• Exogenous factors: – Hypogonadism (male or female). – Glucocorticoid treatment. – Low body mass index. – Previous fracture. – Smoking. – Immobilization. – Excess alcohol. – Vitamin D and calcium deficiencies in the elderly.
Symptoms• Osteoporosis, the "silent disease," has bone loss without symptoms.• Onset only occurs with sudden strains, or fall causes a fracture or a vertebra to collapse.• Collapsed vertebrae may initially be felt or seen in the form of severe back pain, loss of height, or spinal deformities such as kyphosis or stooped posture.• Dowager’s hump (kyphosis + loss of height + cervical lordosis) present in severe cases.• Peripheral fractures are more common in osteoporosis than hip and spine.
Diagnosis• Diagnosis is usually made following low trauma fragility fracture as Colle’s , Vertebral, Hip, Proximal humerus, Rib, and Pelvic fractures.• QCT: The best for trabecular bones. High radiation dose & cost.• The gold standard is DEXA: – Hip ± Spine (trabecular). – Forearm in hyperpara. (cortical).
Who Should Be Tested?• All women aged 65 and older.*• Younger postmenopausal women with multiple risk factors.• Postmenopausal women who present with fractures.• Estrogen deficient women at clinical risk for osteoporosis.• Individuals with vertebral abnormalities.• Individuals receiving, or planning to receive, long-term glucocorticoid (steroid) therapy > 7 mg for > 3m.• Individuals with primary hyperparathyroidism.• Essential before ttt of osteoporosis to assess the response or efficacy of an approved osteoporosis drug therapy.
WHO proposal for diagnosis of white postmenopausal osteoporosis• >-1 SD -Normal• -1 to -2.5 SD -Low bone mass• <-2.5 SD -Osteoporosis• <-2.5 SD -Established+ fragility fracture severe osteopoT-score: SD of young adult peak mean value.-1SD = 10% bone loss
Other Bone Density Measurements• Quantitative CT scanning : – Distinction between trabecular and cortical bone. – More expensive. – Higher radiation than other techniques.• Quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneum: – Difficulties - Limited in routine use.• Bone biopsy: – Bone biopsy may be useful in unusual forms of osteoporosis, such as osteoporosis in young adults. – Biopsy provides information about the rate of bone turnover and the presence of secondary forms of osteoporosis, such as myeloma and systemic mastocytosis.
Bone Markers• Alkaline phosphatase is derived from liver, bone, kidney (and placenta). Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase is synthesized by osteoblasts; serum levels are raised in the growing child.• Serum osteocalcin levels.• Pyridinoline or deoxypyridinoline are produced by collagen degradation, and excreted in urine. Deoxypyridinoline is bone-specific, and both are more sensitive than urinary hydroxyproline.
How can we exclude an underlying cause ?• CBC.• ESR.• Biochemistry.• RFT.• LFT: Alk phosphatase, Alb, AST, ϒ GT.• Ca, p, Alk ph.• TFT: TSH• Testosterone – LH (in men).
IN SPECIFIC SITUATION• Estradiol – FSH if hormonal state is unclear as posthystrectomy.• Serum and urine electrophoresis.• Isotopic bone scan.
Lifestyle modification• Weight bearing exercise: Jumping ↑ bone mass and walking ↓ fracture risk.• Prevent falls: Esp for hip fracture: – Fall-proofing the houeshold. – Avoid drugs with dizziness & postural hypotension. – Hip protectors.• Diet: balanced diet.• Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) reduces bone loss.• Vitamin K is required for osteocalcin to function properly.• Avoid alcohol, smoking and caffeine.• Avoid high amounts of calcium and Vitamin A.• Avoid high sodium retention negatively affects calcium / magnesium.• Avoid long-term use of Aspirin or NSAIDs, reduce magnesium and calcium.
Weight-Bearing Exercise Consult your doctor first
Therapeutic Agents Used in Osteoporosis• Inhibitors of bone • Stimulators of bone formation: resorption: – PTH. – Calcium . – Fluoride. – Estrogens +/- progest. – SERMs. – Bisphosphonates – Calcitonin.
1- Ca 1200 mg/day for postmenopausal:• Pure ca carbonate (taken with food).• Pure ca citrate ( taken ± food).2- Vitamin D: 400 for adults -800 for elderly adults IU/D ( multivitamin).Pitfall : Calcitriol should not be given regularly Risk for hypercalcemia. Need plasma Ca monitor/3 m.
Bisphosphonates 1. Alendronate and alendronate plus vitamin D (brand name Fosamax® and Fosamax® plus D). 2. Ibandronate (brand name Boniva®). 3. Risedronate and risedronate with calcium (brand name Actonel® and Actonel® with Calcium). 4. Calcitonin (brand name Miacalcin®).Indications: Steroid induced osteoporosis Men osteoporosis . Prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Effect: Anti-fracture effect: inhibit osteoclast function and decrease bone turnover
Bisphosphonates:Dose: Prevention: 5 mg/d or 35 mg/w. ttt : 10 mg/d or 70 mg/w.. Oral BPNs alendronate (Fosamax), risedronate (Actonel) have poor absorption rates and must be taken on an empty stomach with water.
Combination TherapyCombination therapy with two antiresorptiveagents is generally reserved for those who: • Have experienced a fracture while on therapy with a single drug. • Start out with a very low BMD and a history of multiple fractures. • Have a very low BMD and lose more bone mass on therapy with a single drug.
Estrogen / Hormone Therapy1. Estrogens (brand names, such as Climara®, Premarin®)2. Estrogens and Progestins (brand names, such as Premphase®, Prempro®.3. Parathyroid Hormone – Teriparatide (PTH (1-34) (brand name Fortéo®)
Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) Raloxifene (Evista)ACT on bone receptors and not breast or uterus receptors• Indications for prevention and treatment.• 60 mg/d. 40% ↑BMD. 50% ↓ hip-spine fractures after 3 ys.• Risk: – Menopausal symptoms : HOT FLUSH. – DVT & PE. – ?? CVD.
Calcitonin• Salmon calcitonin is a synthetic polypeptide that duplicates the molecular structure of calcitonin found in the salmon fish.• Salmon calcitonin is more potent than human calcitonin.• Nasal spray (Miacalcin) is the most convenient form.• approved by the FDA for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Calcitonin inhibits osteoclast-induced bone resorption.• Limited uses: Expense.• SE: allergy: salmon.• Strong analgesic.
PTH: TeriparatideDose: 20 ug/d SC.• Intermittent exposure to PTH can enhance bone mass.65% ↓ Vertebral fracture.• 53% ↓ Non-vertebral fracture.• increased vertebral, femoral, and total-body BMD.
Surgical Treatment• Appropriate treatment of fragility fractures.• Hip nailing.• Kyphoplasty – Vertebroplasty.
How can you MONITOR ttt• Max improvement occurs in 1st year.• Monitor BMD every 2 years.• Response to strong antiresorptive agents effect is best seen in the spine.• EFFECTIVE TTT IF 5% RISE AT SPINE.• Use of biochemical markers: – Formation: Alk Ph – osteocalcin. – Resorption: N- telopeptide.