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Histology of circulatory system

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functions of circulatory system
histology of the heart, histology of the arteries, histology of the
capillaries, histology of the veins

Publié dans : Santé & Médecine
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Histology of circulatory system

  1. 1. Histology Of CirculatoryHistology Of Circulatory SystemSystem ByBy Dr. Mohammed Ahamed AbuelnorDr. Mohammed Ahamed Abuelnor
  2. 2. The Functions of the circulatoryThe Functions of the circulatory SystemSystem  1- Transport of the oxygen and nutrient1- Transport of the oxygen and nutrient substance to the tissue.substance to the tissue.  2- Transport of the carbon dioxide and wast2- Transport of the carbon dioxide and wast product from the tissuesproduct from the tissues  3- regulation of the body temperature3- regulation of the body temperature  4- Transport of hormones and large molecules4- Transport of hormones and large molecules
  3. 3. The parts of the circulatory systemThe parts of the circulatory system  TheThe BloodBlood vascularvascular systemsystem: which is: which is responsible for the circulation of the bloodresponsible for the circulation of the blood  TheThe lymphlymph vascularvascular systemsystem: responsible for: responsible for circulation of the lymphcirculation of the lymph
  4. 4. The blood vascular SystemThe blood vascular System  DefinitionDefinition: It is system of vessels through: It is system of vessels through which the blood passes to the tissues by thewhich the blood passes to the tissues by the continuous contraction of the heartcontinuous contraction of the heart  The blood vascular system formed of:The blood vascular system formed of: - The heart- The heart - The arteries- The arteries - The veins- The veins - The capillaries- The capillaries
  5. 5. The Basic Layers of the circulatoryThe Basic Layers of the circulatory systemsystem  The inner layer called the tunica intimaThe inner layer called the tunica intima  The middle layer called the tunica mediaThe middle layer called the tunica media  The outer layer called the tunica adventitiaThe outer layer called the tunica adventitia
  6. 6. The HeartThe Heart  DefinitionDefinition: It is muscular organ which is: It is muscular organ which is located at the middle of the chest. It is functionlocated at the middle of the chest. It is function pumping of the bloodpumping of the blood  It is formed of four chambers, tow atria and towIt is formed of four chambers, tow atria and tow ventricles they communicate withventricles they communicate with atrioventricular orificeatrioventricular orifice  The right side of the heart carry non oxygenatedThe right side of the heart carry non oxygenated blood and the left carry oxygenatedblood and the left carry oxygenated
  7. 7. The Histological structures of theThe Histological structures of the heartheart  TheThe tunicatunica intimaintima: It is the inner layer called: It is the inner layer called the endocardium it formed of simple squamusthe endocardium it formed of simple squamus epithelium it separated from the tunica media byepithelium it separated from the tunica media by elastic fiberselastic fibers  TheThe TunicaTunica mediamedia: called the myocardium. It: called the myocardium. It is muscular layer formed of cardiac muscle. Itis muscular layer formed of cardiac muscle. It thick in the ventriclesthick in the ventricles  TheThe tunicatunica adventitiaadventitia: called the epicardium: called the epicardium formed of mesotheliumformed of mesothelium
  8. 8. The HeartThe Heart
  9. 9. The conducting system of the heartThe conducting system of the heart  DefinitionDefinition: It is formed modification of areas in: It is formed modification of areas in the myocardium of the heart to regulate thethe myocardium of the heart to regulate the contraction of the atria and ventriclescontraction of the atria and ventricles  The conducting system formed of Sino atrialThe conducting system formed of Sino atrial node (S.A.N) and atrioventricular node (A.V.N)node (S.A.N) and atrioventricular node (A.V.N) and atrio ventricular bundle (A.V.B)and atrio ventricular bundle (A.V.B)
  10. 10. The arterial systemThe arterial system  DefinitionDefinition: The arterial system carry the: The arterial system carry the oxygenated blood from the heart to theoxygenated blood from the heart to the capillariescapillaries  According to the size of the arteries there areAccording to the size of the arteries there are three types :three types : - Large arteries ( elastic arteries)Large arteries ( elastic arteries) - Medium arteries (muscular arteries)Medium arteries (muscular arteries) - Small arteries (arterioles)Small arteries (arterioles)
  11. 11. The histological structure of theThe histological structure of the large arterieslarge arteries  It is formed of the three basic layers:It is formed of the three basic layers:  TheThe tunicatunica intimaintima: formed of simple squamuse: formed of simple squamuse epithelium called the endothelium rest onepithelium called the endothelium rest on basement membrane of elastic fibersbasement membrane of elastic fibers  TunicaTunica mediamedia: It is thick layer formed of: It is thick layer formed of smooth muscle with elastic fibers distributedsmooth muscle with elastic fibers distributed between itbetween it  TunicaTunica adventitiaadventitia: formed of collagen fibers: formed of collagen fibers and small vessels called vasa vasorumand small vessels called vasa vasorum
  12. 12. Large artery (cross sectionLarge artery (cross section((
  13. 13. The histological structure mediumThe histological structure medium arteryartery  TunicaTunica intimaintima: formed of endothelium separated: formed of endothelium separated from the tunica media by the internal elastic layerfrom the tunica media by the internal elastic layer  tunicatunica mediamedia: It is muscular layer of smooth muscle it: It is muscular layer of smooth muscle it is thin than of the large arteries separated from theis thin than of the large arteries separated from the adventitia by the external elastic layeradventitia by the external elastic layer  TunicaTunica adventitiaadventitia: formed of collagenous fibers: formed of collagenous fibers support the artery with surrounded structuresupport the artery with surrounded structure
  14. 14. Medium arteryMedium artery (longitudinal section(longitudinal section((
  15. 15. The histological structure of smallThe histological structure of small arteriesarteries  It is the terminal branches it is diameter less than 0,3It is the terminal branches it is diameter less than 0,3 mm.mm.  TunicaTunica intimaintima: it is thin and formed of endothelium: it is thin and formed of endothelium  TunicaTunica mediamedia: formed of smooth muscle arranged: formed of smooth muscle arranged into six layersinto six layers  TunicaTunica adventitiaadventitia: formed of collagen fibers fused: formed of collagen fibers fused with the surrounded structurewith the surrounded structure  The flow of the blood through the capillaries isThe flow of the blood through the capillaries is regulated mainly by this arteriesregulated mainly by this arteries
  16. 16. Small artery (cross sectionSmall artery (cross section((
  17. 17. The capillariesThe capillaries  DefinitionDefinition: It is an inter connected thin walled: It is an inter connected thin walled vessels through which the material exchangevessels through which the material exchange between the blood and the tissuebetween the blood and the tissue  The blood reach the capillaries through smallThe blood reach the capillaries through small arteries called pre capillary and leave it througharteries called pre capillary and leave it through small venules called post venulessmall venules called post venules
  18. 18. Histological structure of capillariesHistological structure of capillaries  The wall of the capillaries is thin and formed of layer ofThe wall of the capillaries is thin and formed of layer of endothelium of flat cells rest on basement membraneendothelium of flat cells rest on basement membrane  The capillaries formed of many types according to theThe capillaries formed of many types according to the following:following:  The diameter of the capillaries: the are tow types.The diameter of the capillaries: the are tow types. SmallSmall capillariescapillaries which formed most of the body capillaries.which formed most of the body capillaries. LargeLarge capillariescapillaries has large diameter and calledhas large diameter and called sinusoid it found in the liver, kidney and bone marrow.sinusoid it found in the liver, kidney and bone marrow.
  19. 19. Type of capillariesType of capillaries  According to the endothelium lining the capillaries: theAccording to the endothelium lining the capillaries: the are three type of capillariesare three type of capillaries  A-A- continuouscontinuous capillariescapillaries: there is no opening: there is no opening between the endothelium cells this type formed thebetween the endothelium cells this type formed the most of the body capillariesmost of the body capillaries  B-B- fenestratedfenestrated capillariescapillaries: in this type there are: in this type there are opening between the endothelium cellsopening between the endothelium cells  C-C- discontinuousdiscontinuous capillariescapillaries: part of the capillaries: part of the capillaries formed by surrounding tissue found in the liverformed by surrounding tissue found in the liver
  20. 20. Type of capillariesType of capillaries  According to the arteriovenouse shunt: someAccording to the arteriovenouse shunt: some capillaries has shunt to rapid the process ofcapillaries has shunt to rapid the process of exchange of material between the blood and theexchange of material between the blood and the tissuestissues
  21. 21. Formation of capillariesFormation of capillaries
  22. 22. Continuous capillariesContinuous capillaries
  23. 23. Fenestrated capillariesFenestrated capillaries
  24. 24. The venous systemThe venous system  The venous system carry the non oxygenatedThe venous system carry the non oxygenated blood to the heart the veins collected to drainageblood to the heart the veins collected to drainage at the heartat the heart  The blood passes in the venous system by theThe blood passes in the venous system by the external pressure due to muscle contractions,external pressure due to muscle contractions, respiration and the valves found in the veinsrespiration and the valves found in the veins
  25. 25. Histological structures of the smallHistological structures of the small veinsveins  -- tunicatunica intimaintima: formed of endothelium and: formed of endothelium and not contain elastic fibersnot contain elastic fibers -- tunicatunica mediamedia: formed of tow layers of smooth: formed of tow layers of smooth muscle and it is very thinmuscle and it is very thin -- tunicatunica adventitiaadventitia: it is formed of collagen: it is formed of collagen fibers connected the vein with the surroundedfibers connected the vein with the surrounded structuresstructures
  26. 26. Small vein (cross sectionSmall vein (cross section((
  27. 27. Histological structures of theHistological structures of the medium veinsmedium veins  The medium veins formed by the collection ofThe medium veins formed by the collection of the small veins and drainage into the large veinsthe small veins and drainage into the large veins  The histological structure is similar to the smallThe histological structure is similar to the small veins but the tunica media is thicker and containveins but the tunica media is thicker and contain elastic fiberselastic fibers
  28. 28. The medium veinThe medium vein
  29. 29. The large veinThe large vein  This like the femoral vein, renal vein the formedThis like the femoral vein, renal vein the formed by the collection of the medium veinby the collection of the medium vein  It is structure similar to the medium vein but theIt is structure similar to the medium vein but the tunica media very thick and contain collagentunica media very thick and contain collagen fibers and the internal elastic layer may presentfibers and the internal elastic layer may present
  30. 30. Large vein (longitudinal sectionLarge vein (longitudinal section((

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