What is UTI?
Inflammation of the urothelium due to microorganism invasion.
Urinary tract infection is a term that is applied to a variety of clinical conditions ranging
from the asymptomatic presence of bacteria in the urine to severe infection of the
kidney with resultant sepsis.
The most frequent chief complaint related to urinary tract infection (UTI) is dysuria.
urinary frequency, and urgency are approximately 75% predictive for UTI.
acute onset of hesitancy, urinary dribbling, and slow stream are only approximately 33%
predictive for it.
The incidence of true urinary tract infection (UTI) in adult males younger
than 50 years is low (approximately 5-8 per year per 10,000), with adult
women being 30 times more likely than men to develop a UTI. The incidence
of UTI in men approaches that of women only in men older than 60 years.
in infants age group bacteriuria is more common in males while from 1-5
years its more common in females .
The causes of UTI in peds is commonly caused by congenital anomalies
Recurrent UTI : more than 2 infections in 6 months or 3 infections in 1 year
Isolated UTI : more than 6 months between one infection and another.
Uncomplicated UTI : UTI in structurally and functionally (both) normal urinary
tract with normal immunity and low risk of bacterial virulence ,majority are
Complicated UTI : one of these or more present; male, pt with structurally or
functionally abnormal kidney , immunocompromised , chance of increased
bacterial resistant (hx of ABx use or hospitalization) , majority are males i.e if
UTI occurred in a male its most likely to be complicated
Bacteriuria : significant amount of bacteria in urine >10^5ml. sym or asym
[asym should be treated in :1-children 2- pregnancy 3- immunocompromised
Pyuria : presence of WBC in urine more than 5 HPF. /sterile!
Without presence of bacteria.
• It means infection of the renal parenchyma and renal pelvis.
Risk factors : VUR, DM, pregnancy, congenital malformation , indwelling
Presentation ranges from mild illness to sepsis, pt may be well or ill.
Signs and symptoms : loin pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, chills, rigor , may be
associated with lower UTI symptoms, tachycardia , costovertebral angle
Histology : neutrophils infiltrates
M.c.c : ascending infection ; E.coli .
Can be also Hematogenous ,lymphatics spread.
Investigation and treatment
Investigations: UA ,culture,CBC [leukocytosis ], KFT[creatinine].
Blood culture is preserved for immunocompromised patients
Out pt :oral flouroquinilone ,broad spectrum ABX .
In pt : IV flouroquinolone s &aminoglycosides
Urine culture should be repeated 1-2 wks after ABX.
65 year old male, diabetic, with IHD came to the ER with bilateral flank pain ,fever,
lower UTI symptoms , +ve renal angle and suprapubic tenderness,what to do ?
it's a complicated UTI until proven otherwise
Do CT scan without contrast
If stone is found then its an obstructive pyelonephritis which is a life threatening
condition where pt may became shocked at anytime so Management will be with IV
fluids , IV antibiotics send blood culture don't remove the stone at this time but it’s
a must to relieve the obstruction by putting a uretric (double j) stent pr a
nephrostomy tube , after pt stabilization manage to remove the stone
Xanthogranulomatus pyelonephritis :
rare, serious, chronic inflammatory disorder of the kidney characterized by a
destructive mass that invades the renal parenchyma.
XGP is most commonly associated with Proteus or Escherichia coli infection
or Pseudomonas species.
XGP is characterized by lipid-laden foamy macrophages.
XGP shares many characteristics with true renal neoplasms in terms of its
radiographic appearance and its ability to involve adjacent structures or
Risk factors : urinary tract obstruction, infection, nephrolithiasis, diabetes,
The overall prognosis for XGP is good
CT scan shows renal calcification difficult to differentiate from CA
Treatment :is a surgically managed disease that is treated with either
nephrectomy or, in rare circumstances, partial nephrectomy. Antibiotics are
used in all cases, but medical care rarely suffices for treatment.
Inflammation of the urinary bladder .
Most common organism : E.coli others : staph.saprophytics klebsiella,
honeymoon cystitis .
-cystitis cystica and glandular cystitis
Brunn’s nests that grow into lamina propria and are transformed into urothelium lining slitlike or cystic spaces with pink fluid
Most common causative organism is neisseria gonorrhoea ,chlamydia .
Signs and SX : dysuria ,discharge , meatal and penile shaft pain
How ever ,no frequency or urgency .
=> if Dysuria without frequency then its urethritis
gonococcal : present with sudden onset of large amount of yellow discharge
and mild dysuria
non gonococcal : caused by clamydia trachomatis , present with gradual onset
of clear discharge
Dx : urethral swab +culture .
TX : sefoloxime ,azithromycin
is swelling and inflammation of the prostate gland, Due to reflux of infected
urine into prostatic duct.
Risk factors : UTI, urethral catheter
M.c organism : Ecoli, proteus, klebsiella
Acute prostatitis :
presentation is with lower urinary tract symptoms in the absence of loin pain
and presence of fever (most imp distinguishing factor),
ttt is with broad spectrum ABx, it requires hospitalization, avoidance of
urethral catheter, if needed use suprapubic catheter
o Chronic prostatitis
Causes :Recurrent infection , trauma .
Sx : Painful bowel movement ,hematuria, painful voiding ,painful ejaculation
treatment is with NSAID, steroids, alpha blockers, alpha reductase inhibitors,
if refractory to medical ttt microwave heat therapy
chronic pelvic pain syndrome
is a pelvic pain condition in men, and should be distinguished from other
forms of prostatitis ,also known as Chronic nonbacterial prostatitis
Signs and symptoms
lasting longer than 3 months. Symptoms may wax and wane. Pain can range
from mild to debilitating. Pain may radiate to the back and rectum, making
sitting uncomfortable. Pain can be present in the perineum, testicles, tip of
penis, pubic or bladder area. Dysuria, arthralgia, myalgia,
unexplained fatigue, abdominal pain, constant burning pain in the penis, and
frequency may all be present. Post-ejaculatory pain, mediated by nerves and
muscles, is a hallmark of the condition.