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Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
A Comprehensive Approach
to Tank Design and Tank
Equipment Select...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
Core objectives of a
comprehensive approach
• Through proper tank...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
Core design considerations
• In order to design the ideal tank, k...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
Emissions Factors
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
Background information:
Tools available to estimate emissions
• M...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
EMISSIONS /
PRODUCT LOSS
SAFETY
WORKING CAPACITY /
INVENTORY UTIL...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
EMISSIONS /
PRODUCT LOSS
SAFETY
WORKING CAPACITY /
INVENTORY UTIL...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
EMISSIONS /
PRODUCT LOSS
SAFETY
WORKING CAPACITY /
INVENTORY UTIL...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
EMISSIONS /
PRODUCT LOSS
SAFETY
WORKING CAPACITY /
INVENTORY UTIL...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
EMISSIONS /
PRODUCT LOSS
SAFETY
WORKING CAPACITY /
INVENTORY UTIL...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
EMISSIONS /
PRODUCT LOSS
SAFETY
WORKING CAPACITY /
INVENTORY UTIL...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
EMISSIONS /
PRODUCT LOSS
SAFETY
WORKING CAPACITY /
INVENTORY UTIL...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
EMISSIONS /
PRODUCT LOSS
SAFETY
WORKING CAPACITY /
INVENTORY UTIL...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
EMISSIONS /
PRODUCT LOSS
SAFETY
WORKING CAPACITY /
INVENTORY UTIL...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
Utilize tight-fitting seals
(that remain tight throughout the ser...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
Utilize tight-fitting seals
(that remain tight throughout the ser...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
Impact of Emissions Savings
Single-tank Comparison
Traditional Ta...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
Emissions Comparison
EFRT vs Dome + Aluminator FC system
75% Redu...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
Impact of Emissions Savings
Total Tank Farm Expansion
9 Tradition...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
Safety Factors
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
Safety Benefits of Ideal Tank vs. EFRT
• Suspended systems elimin...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
Safety Benefits of Ideal Tank vs. EFRT
• Eliminate snow and ice
h...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
Utilize Chain Suspension for
Major Safety Benefits
• Best availab...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
Chain Suspension Safety Benefit 1:
Eliminate Confined Space Entry...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
Chain Suspension Safety Benefit 2:
Set Maintenance Position at Op...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
Chain Suspension Safety Benefit 3:
Eliminate Bottom Repair Hazard...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
If using a full-contact panel-constructed
IFR, ensure it can be c...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
Utilize a seal that can be certified gas-free
EMISSIONS /
PRODUCT...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
Working Capacity and
Inventory Utilization Factors
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
Factors that contribute to working capacity:
• Type of fixed roof...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
Factors that impact working capacity:
EMISSIONS /
PRODUCT LOSS
EN...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
Working Capacity Factor 1:
Conditions at the top of the tank
EMIS...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
Capture capacity through the use of a
low-profile internal floati...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
Benefits of Working Capacity Gains
• Financial Impacts
– Increase...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
• A bottom-fill system with
suspended IFR allows roof to be
lower...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
Utilize a “plateau” bottom and suspended
roof to gain capacity an...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
Cone roof structure impedes travel of
IFR to high position by 300...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
Cone roof structure impedes travel of
IFR to high position by 300...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
• Re-capture lost
working capital
by eliminating
unusable
invento...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
• Re-capture lost
working capital
by eliminating
unusable
invento...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
Impacts of gained capacity
• To achieve the
same cumulative
worki...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
Maintenance Factors
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
Eliminate painting and coating
on your fixed and floating roofs
•...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
Eliminate structural steel
repairs on your fixed roof
• Domes req...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
Full-Contact IFR Durability Factors
• Extruded aluminum rim secti...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
Seal System Durability Factors
• All stainless steel moving parts...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
Summary
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
Summary Comparison
Traditional
Tank
Ideal Tank A
(Dome + suspende...
Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978
www.hmttank.com
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A comprehensive approach to tank design and tank equipment selection

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Tank design consideration to achieve safety;reduce risk of unplanned maintenance;ensuring working capacity and maintenance.
benefits of a fixed roof over your floating roof.
Common questions about full-contact roofs.
illustration of tank components.
tight-fitting seals

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A comprehensive approach to tank design and tank equipment selection

  1. 1. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com A Comprehensive Approach to Tank Design and Tank Equipment Selection Andrew A East Director HMT International Business Development Group
  2. 2. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com Core objectives of a comprehensive approach • Through proper tank design and consideration of all key factors, we believe we can achieve: – Greater than 80% reduction in emissions – Nearly 10% increase in working capacity – Upwards of 70% reduction in unusable inventory (adding back more than € 300k to working capital) – Between € 250K and € 400k per tank in reduced maintenance costs every 30 years – Improved tank safety – Reduced risk of unplanned maintenance – No increase in up-front capital cost
  3. 3. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com Core design considerations • In order to design the ideal tank, key performance factors need to be considered: – Emissions and product loss reduction (impacts on financial and regulations) – Safety of the tank and its appurtenances – Working capacity of the tank – Inventory utilization in the tank (usability of your working capital) – Maintenance considerations (to minimize both planned and unplanned) – Up-front capital cost of the tank and tank products
  4. 4. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com Emissions Factors
  5. 5. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com Background information: Tools available to estimate emissions • Modelling programs – Provide the capability to build virtual tanks to estimate emissions based on AP-42 equations and loss factors – Helpful for calculating emissions of future assets for permit application – Helpful for evaluating different tank equipment options – May also be used by regulators for compliance audits – Tanks 4.0.9d • The latest version of the EPA’s tank emissions estimation software – widely used in U.S. – TankESP • Additional functionality over Tanks 4.0.9d, and more up-to-date with AP-42 • Physical observation and accurate surveys/measurement – Good for finding leaks; not good for annual-average extrapolation EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY
  6. 6. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Factors that influence tank emissions: • Wind – Average wind speed and whether the tank is covered with a fixed roof or dome • Floating roof penetrations and seams – Type, quantity, size and method of sealing • Floating roof seals – Type and quality • Temperature factors – Average temperatures on site, as well as tank color (effect of solar gain) • Tank diameter / height • Operational factors – Product stored, cycles per month, etc.
  7. 7. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Capture the benefits of a fixed roof over your floating roof • A fixed roof over your floating roof eliminates the evaporative effect of the wind, greatly reducing emissions from seals and all roof penetrations Example of the Benefits For a 36.6m (120’) diameter tank, storing gasoline RVP 10 in Houston, the difference between a covered and an uncovered tank is nearly 6 metric tons per year.
  8. 8. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Self-supporting roofs yield more benefits, by eliminating column penetrations in the floating roof • No columns means elimination of the principle floating roof emission source • More significant impact on larger diameter tanks (due to the elimination of more columns) Example of the Benefits For a typical 36.6m (120’) diameter IFRT with 7 columns, storing gasoline RVP 10, column well emissions account for approximately 1.4 metric tons per year (approx. 193 kg) per column)
  9. 9. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Further reduce your emissions by eliminating leg penetrations • No leg penetrations means no leg emissions • Fixed legs (not adjustable) can achieve this because they do not penetrate the roof. • A suspended roof can also achieve this while still reducing inventory (heel) Example of the Benefits For a typical 36.6m (120’) diameter tank, storing gasoline RVP 10, the difference between a leg- supported steel IFR and a cable-suspended welded aluminum IFR or one piece roof is another 1.4 metric tons per year (approx. 32 kg per leg).
  10. 10. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Further reduce your emissions by eliminating leg penetrations • No leg penetrations means no leg emissions • Fixed legs (not adjustable) can achieve this because they do not penetrate the roof. • A suspended roof can also achieve this while still reducing inventory (heel) Example of the Benefits For a typical 36.6m (120’) diameter tank, storing gasoline RVP 10, the difference between a leg- supported steel IFR and a Deckmaster GRE one piece roof is another 1.4 metric tons per year (approx. 32 kg per leg).
  11. 11. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Common questions about full-contact roofs Question 1: By eliminating the vapor space, are deck seam emissions eliminated? – No. Only through completely eliminating seams through seal-welding or one-piece construction are deck seam emissions eliminated. FC roofs which use bolts, fasteners or adhesives to join components still have deck seam emissions according to AP-42 and all industry-accepted modeling programs Question 2: If the roof panels are factory welded, does this mean I can use the welded construction loss factor – Only through completely field-welding all seams between the panels (resulting in a single contiguous roof) does an IFR qualify as welded construction per AP-42 Question 3: Why is there a different model in TANKS 4.0.9d for IFRT and DEFRT? – Due to the way EFR penetrations are constructed, a covered external floating roof emits less than typical steel IFR construction. For example, longer leg sleeves on a typical EFR result in lower emissions. Be sure to choose the right tank type to model.
  12. 12. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Utilize a welded-seam or one-piece IFR to eliminate all deck seam emissions • Deck seam emissions refer to the product that escapes at the seams in skin-and-pontoon roofs or the seams in bolted panel roofs • Seal-welded joints between panels completely eliminate this source • One-piece construction completely eliminates this source as well Bolted construction Emissions from seams between sheets on either a pontoon roof(shown above) or bolted panel type Full contact roof Welded construction No seams, no seam emissions (Full contact welded aluminium roof shown above) One-piece construction No seams, no seam emissions (One Piece GRE roof shown above)
  13. 13. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY The impact of eliminating deck seams Skin & Pontoon Sheet-construction (Bolted) Zero Deck Seam Emissions Full Contact Panel-construction (Bolted) Any Welded or One-piece IFR Emissions along each deck seam 2,334 kg/yr* 3,852 kg/yr* 0 Kg/yr Assumptions: 36.6m x 14.6m tank, 600mm freeboard, Gasoline RVP 13, Houston, 24 turnovers/year * Deck seam emissions only; these figures do not include emissions for seals or other appurtenances
  14. 14. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Emissions Comparison (kg/year) for Various Tank Configurations and Various Major Markets Assumptions • All tanks are 36.6m diameter x 14.6m high with 13.4m of working capacity (3,722,518 gal) • Stored product is gasoline, RVP 10 • Each IFR equipped with primary mechanical shoe seal and rim-mounted secondary seal • Each IFR with the exception of the welded IFR is equipped with adjustable deck legs • Emissions based on 24 tank turnovers per year • Bolted panel based on a 5’ (1.5m) x 12’ (3.66m) panel; bolted sheet is 5’ (1.5m) wide • All deck fittings “Typical” except the suspended IFR, which has no leg penetrations • Cone roofs have 7 columns Location EFRT Domed EFRT Cone Roof, Steel IFR, Adj Legs Cone Roof, Aluminum Bolted Panel IFR, Adj Legs Cone Roof, Aluminum Skin & Pontoon IFR, Adj Legs Dome, Welded or One-piece IFR, Suspended (no legs) Houston 9,478 820 3,646 6,542 5,879 664 Los Angeles 8,029 739 3,264 5,852 5,259 602 Chicago 8,607 552 2,379 4,251 3,822 450 Rotterdam 15,179 573 2,478 4,430 3,983 464 Moscow 5,305 447 1,882 3,351 3,014 365 Lagos, Nigeria 14,028 1,163 5,268 9,480 8,514 941 Singapore 8,544 1,061 4,787 8,608 7,732 858 Saudi Arabia 18,679 1,146 5,191 9,340 8,389 933
  15. 15. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com Utilize tight-fitting seals (that remain tight throughout the service life of the tank!) • As defined in: – API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (1997) – Chapter 19, Section 2 (Evaporative Loss Measurement) – 5.2.1 – Rim-seal Loss Factor • Defined as: “The loss factors for average-fitting seals are applicable for typical rim-seal conditions and should be used except when a rim-seal is known to be consistently tight-fitting (that is, when there are no gaps more then 1/8 in. (3mm) wide between the rim seal and the tank shell), in which case the loss factors for tight-fitting seals are applicable” EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY
  16. 16. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com Utilize tight-fitting seals (that remain tight throughout the service life of the tank!) • Poorly performing seals can be a major source of emissions as well as a safety risk Example of the Benefits For a typical 36.6m (120’) diameter tank with a primary shoe seal, storing Gasoline RVP 10, the difference between tight fitting and average fitting seals can be a 33% reduction in rim seal emissions. Rim Seal Factors as per API Chapter 19.2 (1997) EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY
  17. 17. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com Impact of Emissions Savings Single-tank Comparison Traditional Tank – 36.6m(120’) x 14.63m(48’) with Cone Roof – Leg-supported steel IFR – Gasoline RVP 10, Houston • Emissions per tank: 3,646 kg/yr Reduced Emission Tank – 36.6m(120’) x 14.63m (48’) with Dome Roof – Chain-suspended, welded or one-piece IFR – Gasoline RVP 10, Houston • Emissions per tank: 664 kg/yr 82% lower emissions per tank through proactive design EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY
  18. 18. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com Emissions Comparison EFRT vs Dome + Aluminator FC system 75% Reduction in Emissions This example is based on a 135’ Crude Tank in Salt Lake City, Utah. EFRT has standard deck fittings and adjustable legs. Suspended Aluminator FC has standard deck fittings. 24 turnovers per year.
  19. 19. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com Impact of Emissions Savings Total Tank Farm Expansion 9 Traditional Tanks Total Tank Farm Emissions: 32,814 kg/yr 49 Reduced Emission Tanks Total Tank Farm Emissions: 32,536 kg/yr 444% more tanks under the same permit EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY
  20. 20. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com Safety Factors
  21. 21. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com Safety Benefits of Ideal Tank vs. EFRT • Suspended systems eliminate the risk of spiral collapse during maintenance
  22. 22. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com Safety Benefits of Ideal Tank vs. EFRT • Eliminate snow and ice hazards on EFR • Eliminate drain hazards • Recent failures:  Ohio  Pennsylvania  Alberta Also a maintenance benefit
  23. 23. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com Utilize Chain Suspension for Major Safety Benefits • Best available suspension technology • Non-kinking, high- strength alloy chain • Tight lay pattern • Eliminates potential snagging EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY
  24. 24. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com Chain Suspension Safety Benefit 1: Eliminate Confined Space Entry Risks • Easy-access dome hub cover allows pinning from the top of the dome • Simply allow the product to drain to maintenance level, then pull up the slack and pin before draining tank • After maintenance, re-pin in low operating position any time after IFR is floating • Eliminates confined space entry EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY
  25. 25. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com Chain Suspension Safety Benefit 2: Set Maintenance Position at Optimum Height • Choose optimum height - chain provides pinning flexibility • Set maintenance position above working height to give workers full ergonomic access EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY
  26. 26. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com Chain Suspension Safety Benefit 3: Eliminate Bottom Repair Hazards • Not necessary to jack up IFR to get a tractor inside • No risk of the tractor damaging support legs • Clear and open; no obstructions to work around EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY
  27. 27. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com If using a full-contact panel-constructed IFR, ensure it can be certified gas-free Open-cavity panel design • Completely open internal cavity does not impede vapor detection Traditional Metallic Sandwich/Honeycomb Panel • Internal cavity filled with partitions or fillers • Internal materials may impede vapor detection EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY
  28. 28. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com Utilize a seal that can be certified gas-free EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY • Foam log or bag seals are prone to wear and punctures, and can trap product, creating a hazardous environment, and problems with disposal of saturated foams. • Shoe seals or other mechanical seals comprised of stainless steel, fabrics and other materials which cannot retain or become damaged by product are preferred
  29. 29. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com Working Capacity and Inventory Utilization Factors
  30. 30. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com Factors that contribute to working capacity: • Type of fixed roof (impacts max fill level) • Type of internal floating roof (impacts max fill level) • Whether IFR has legs (impacts minimum fill level) • Whether tank utilizes a drain-dry sump or plateau bottom (impacts minimum fill level) Through proactive tank design and careful selection of tank products, working capacity can be maximized EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY
  31. 31. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com Factors that impact working capacity: EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS ENGINEERED SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY 1. IFR travel constraints at the top of the tank (max fill height) 2. Depth of the Floating Roof System 3. IFR travel constraints at the bottom of the tank (min fill height)
  32. 32. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com Working Capacity Factor 1: Conditions at the top of the tank EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS ENGINEERED SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Steel cone roof Rafter clips consume 6-8” of capacity Aluminum Dome Mounted flush to top angle, consuming no tank capacity Top Angle Elevation High-fill interference from rafters No high-fill interference below top angle
  33. 33. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com Capture capacity through the use of a low-profile internal floating roof • Steel internal floaters are typically 500mm in pontoon & rim depth • Low-profile aluminum or GRE roof depth is only 230mm or less EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Recapture 270mm of working capacity using a low-profile Aluminum or GRE Full-Contact Roof 500mm 230mm
  34. 34. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com Benefits of Working Capacity Gains • Financial Impacts – Increase income-generating capability of tank – Hold more product when you want in order to optimize market conditions • Maintenance Flexibility – Take a different tank out of service with less worry of storage constraints • Operational Efficiencies – Take larger deliveries at one time, reducing transactional costs per barrel • Deferred Capital Costs in the Future – Each additional barrel of storage you capture from this asset defers the need for future storage as you grow EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS ENGINEERED SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY
  35. 35. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com • A bottom-fill system with suspended IFR allows roof to be lowered to within 300mm of the floor • Recaptures 760mm of capacity (800m3 in a 36.6M tank) • 6% increase in capacity EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS ENGINEERED SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Working Capacity Factor 3: Conditions at the bottom of the tank Assumes no mixers or diffusers; however, capacity gains can still be achieved with these in place
  36. 36. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com Utilize a “plateau” bottom and suspended roof to gain capacity and reduce inventory • A mesa bottom displaces the majority of remaining product inventory when the IFR is in the low position (product that is normally unusable and ties up valuable working capital) • Ideal for use when perimeter mixers or other equipment prevents the IFR from being lowered completely to the bottom EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY
  37. 37. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com Cone roof structure impedes travel of IFR to high position by 300mm (150mm structure and 150mm safety clearance) Dome roof only requires 150mm of safety clearance Low-profile FC roof is only 230mm of roof depth plus 300mm of secondary seal Traditional steel roof is approximately 500mm of pontoon depth and 300mm of secondary seal Steel roof legs limiting vertical travel of IFR to within 1100mm of tank bottom Suspended roof and plateau bottom eliminate majority of unusable inventory Increase of 1,150m³ in working capacity Or 27,600m³ per year at 24 turnovers (over 170,000 barrels) 13,050m³ working capacity Working Capacity Comparison 1 Traditional Tank vs. Dome + Suspended Roof + Plateau Bottom 14,200m³ working capacity EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY
  38. 38. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com Cone roof structure impedes travel of IFR to high position by 300mm (150mm structure and 150mm safety clearance) Dome roof only requires 150mm of safety clearance Low-profile FC roof is only 230mm of roof depth plus 300mm of secondary seal Traditional steel roof is approximately 500mm of pontoon depth and 300mm of secondary seal Steel roof legs limiting vertical travel of IFR to within 1100mm of tank bottom Suspended roof and drain-dry sump allow IFR to travel to within 300mm of tank bottom Working Capacity Comparison 2 Traditional Tank vs. Dome + Suspended Roof + Drain Dry Sump EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Increase of 1,280m³ in working capacity Or 30,720m³ per year at 24 turnovers (over 190,000 barrels) 13,050m³ working capacity 14,330m³ working capacity
  39. 39. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com • Re-capture lost working capital by eliminating unusable inventory Inventory reduced by 672m³ (over 4000 barrels) Inventory Utilization Comparison 1 Traditional Tank vs. Dome + Suspended Roof + Plateau Bottom 1,120m³ unusable inventory 448m³ unusable inventory EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY
  40. 40. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com • Re-capture lost working capital by eliminating unusable inventory Inventory reduced by 800m³ (over 5000 barrels) Inventory Utilization Comparison 2 Traditional Tank vs. Dome + Suspended Roof + Drain Dry Sump EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY 1,120m³ unusable inventory 320m³ unusable inventory
  41. 41. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com Impacts of gained capacity • To achieve the same cumulative working capacity, a tank farm owner could operate 12 traditional tanks or 11 ideal tanks. • Or, using the same number of tanks, the owner could increase its cumulative working capacity by over 15,000m³ (over 90,000 barrels) • An owner building a new tank farm could spend only 92% of the capital to achieve the same working capacity. Traditional Tank Farm Ideal Tank Farm EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY
  42. 42. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com Maintenance Factors
  43. 43. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com Eliminate painting and coating on your fixed and floating roofs • Aluminum domes require no painting • Aluminum or GRE IFRs require no painting Example of the Benefits A steel cone roof and IFR located in a coastal zone (such as Houston ship channel), will typically require painting of the cone roof and IFR every 10 years. For a 36.6m (120’) tank, this could cost approximately € 75,000 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY
  44. 44. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com Eliminate structural steel repairs on your fixed roof • Domes require only moderate maintenance on elastomers every 20 to 30 years (estimated € 10-15k) Example of the Benefits A steel cone roof located in a coastal zone (such as Houston ship channel), will typically require structural repairs every 20 years. For a 36.6m (120’) tank, this would cost approximately € 150,000. EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY
  45. 45. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com Full-Contact IFR Durability Factors • Extruded aluminum rim section (not welded) or one-piece GRE structure – Flexibility to handle turbulence without loss of strength • Designed to handle more than minimum API loading criteria – Built for high flow rates, turbulence, pigging operations and other unanticipated operational loads and stresses EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY
  46. 46. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com Seal System Durability Factors • All stainless steel moving parts • No springs or weights that wear • Correctly specified hardened stainless steel for spring retention and centering of the roof, eliminating many sources of potential seal damage • Consideration of tank verticality and out-of-roundness • Quality fabrics • Materials that are truly compatible with the stored product EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY
  47. 47. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com Summary
  48. 48. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com Summary Comparison Traditional Tank Ideal Tank A (Dome + suspended FC + plateau bottom) Ideal Tank B (Dome + suspended FC + drain dry sump) Tank dimensions 36.6m(120’) x 14.6m(48’) 36.6m(120’) x 14.6m(48’) 36.6m(120’) x 14.6m(48’) Emissions (lbs per year) 3,646 kg/yr 664 kg/yr 664 kg/yr Maintenance cost €250 - €450k per 30 year period €10-15k every 30 years $15-20k every 30 years Safety --- Improved over Traditional Tank Improved over Traditional Tank Working capacity 13,050m³ 14,200m³ 14,330m³ Additional capacity --- +1,150m³ +1,280m³ Unusable inventory 1,120m³ 448m³ 320m³ Inventory reduction --- -672m³ -800m³ Capital Cost (new tank) --- Similar to Traditional Tank Similar to Traditional Tank 36.6m x 14.6m IFRT, Storing Gasoline (RVP 10), in Houston, Texas Equipped with primary mechanical shoe seal and rim-mounted secondary seal. Annual turnover of 24 cycles.
  49. 49. Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 www.hmttank.com Questions / Discussion
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Tank design consideration to achieve safety;reduce risk of unplanned maintenance;ensuring working capacity and maintenance. benefits of a fixed roof over your floating roof. Common questions about full-contact roofs. illustration of tank components. tight-fitting seals

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