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Falls in the Elderly

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Brief presentation in English about falls in the elderly and the nursing role

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Falls in the Elderly

  1. 1. Falls in the Elderly Mónica Soares Pinto Roque Friday, 25th October 2013
  2. 2. SUMMARY 1. Falls in the Elderly 2. Fall Risk Factors 3. Nursing Interventions Conclusion References
  3. 3. FALLS IN THE ELDERLY Inadvertently coming to rest on the ground, floor or other lower level, excluding intentional change in position to rest in furniture, wall or other objects. WHO, 2007  The risk of falling increases exponentially with age.  Most falls occur at home.  Women have more falls than men.
  4. 4. •Restriction in daily activities Loss of independence and autonomy Pain •Hip fractures •Traumatic brain injuries •Upper limb injuries Trauma •Fear of falling Loss of confidence Death
  5. 5. FALL RISK FACTORS ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS: • Inadequate lighting • Lack of grab bars in bathrooms •Lack of handrails in stairs • Slippery floors and stairs • Large clothes •Cracked or uneven sidewalks •Looser rugs
  6. 6. FALL RISK FACTORS BIOLOGICAL RISK FACTORS: •Age and gender •Loss of muscle strength •Physical disability •Impaired control of balance and gait •Vision changes •Chronic or acute illness
  7. 7. FALL RISK FACTORS BEHAVIOURAL RISK FACTORS: •History of previous falls •Use 3 or more prescription medications •Psychotropic •Sedative •Anti-hypertensive •Anti-diabetic •Excessive alcohol use •Inactivity •Inadequate diet •Fear of falling
  8. 8. FEAR OF FALLING: WHY IS IT A FALL RISK FACTOR? The fear of Falling Inactivity Increase of the weakness Increase of the fear of falling A fall
  9. 9. NURSING INTERVENTIONS Prevention of falls • Individual Risk Assessment •Appropriate nursing interventions EXERCISES ENVIRONMENTAL ADAPTATIONS OTHER INTERVENTIONS
  10. 10. Nursing Interventions GOALS: •Increase muscle strength •Increase balance EXERCISES •Maintain or improve posture Environmental Adaptations •Be able to carry out daily activities •Decrease pain. Other Interventions Balance Exercises Strength Exercises Gait Training
  11. 11. Nursing Interventions •Install grab bars in the shower or where Exercises ENVIRONMENTAL ADAPTATIONS necessary •Install handrails in stairs •Use a non-skid bath/shower mat •Use a non-skid shower chair •Avoid large clothes Other Interventions •Use adequate shoes
  12. 12. Nursing Interventions •Medication review and modification; Exercises Environmental Adaptations •Managing visual problems; •Providing education and training; •Reducing the number of medications, particularly those that contribute to postural hypotension or sedation OTHER INTERVENTIONS
  13. 13. CONCLUSION Identify risk factors Implement an Individual Risk Assessment Effective interventions INJURY PREVENTION IS AN IMPORTANT GOAL IN POPULATIONS AT HIGH RISK FOR FALLS
  14. 14. REFERENCES • National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. (2008). Preventing Falls: How to Develop Communitybased Fall Prevention Programs for Older Adults. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. •National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2013) Falls: assessment and prevention of falls in older people. NICE clinical guideline 161 •Réseau francophone de prévention des traumatismes et de promotion de la sécurité (2005) Good Practise Guide: Prevention of falls in the elderly living at home. France, Éditions Inpes •Todd C, Skelton D. (2004) What are the main risk factors for falls among older people and what are the most effective interventions to prevent these falls? Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe •World Health Organisation. (2007) WHO global report on falls prevention in older age.