1. An Introduction to The
Social Justice and
2. Who are the Aboriginal People?
At the insistence of various Native organizations, Section 35 is inserted
into the Constitution Act of 1982 explicitly affirming the existence of
Aboriginal and treaty rights; guaranteed to both sexes. It includes Indian,
Inuit and Métis peoples in the definition of “Aboriginal peoples of
Canada”, as well as a commitment to Aboriginal participation in
constitutional talks before any amendments are considered for items
dealing directly with Aboriginal rights.
3. Relationships to Land
Aboriginal people have a very unique
relationship to the land. From it springs
forth their culture, spirituality and
traditional ways of being.
The colonisation of land has radically
altered the trajectory of Indigenous
cultures the world over.
The fundamental issue facing
Aboriginal people is deeply involved
with the settling of land claims issues.
The creation of Nunavut in 1999 is an
example of how Canada can move
forward together with Aboriginal
Discussion Question: What does this image of North America say to you?
5. 28 Language Families = 100’s of Indigenous
Discussion Question: What do you know about the relationship Aboriginal people
have with the land?
6. North America by Satellite
An Aboriginal orientation of
relating to the land is not
concerned with ownership
so much as traditional use.
There are seasonal migratory
movements through the land
That define traditional
land areas of the First Nations,
Métis and Inuit people.
The Aboriginal relationship
to the land is based on respect
for its sustenance and life giving
7. Tribal Distributions at the time of Contact
Various treaties were signed to redefine the land as Canada.
8. The First Nations of Canada
Each coloured dot represents a different unique First Nation’s regional location.
9. Aboriginal Canada
Today there are 630 First Nations communities. In the past few decades,
Canada’s First Nations have stepped forward to reclaim their history and heritage.
For Aboriginal people North America is a place called Turtle Island, which came
into being after the Great Flood. Today, some 630 distinct First Nations
communities in Canada, speaking more than 60 languages, tell some version of
the Turtle Island story.
Judy Waytiuk, 6 May 2010
For more specific information on the 630 First Nation Communities:
10. A Timeline of Aboriginal Events
Archeological timelines continue to shift further back in time in with regards to dating the first
humans in North America. 24,500 BCE is the date of the first evidence of human tools found in
the Bluefish Caves of the Yukon Territories. This timeline starts with the first proclamation of
colonial ownership of Canada.
1763 The Proclamation Act is passed by the British Government.. The Act establishes a
colonization pattern in which settlers cannot simply take over indigenous lands without first
obtaining some form of surrender or cession of the land.
1862 One of the worst small pox epidemics sweeps British Columbia, killing one-third of the
First Nations population in the province.
1867 Canadian Confederation
1871 Treaty #1 is signed at Upper Fort Garry. This treaty covers much of southern Manitoba.
1876 The Indian Act is passed by the Government of Canada. It influences all aspects of a First
Nations person's life from birth to death. Indian Bands were created and Indian Agents became
the intermediaries between First Nations people and the rest of the country.
11. Timeline Contd.
1880 The Department of Indian Affairs is created by the Government of Canada.
1884 Anti-potlatch laws were enacted under the Indian Act. Responsibility for the
education of children was given in large part to church-run residential schools. There was
resistance to the aggressive polices of the governments. The people retained a profound
conviction that their hereditary title still exists.
1880s- More than 140 church-run Indian Residential Schools operate across Canada.
1996 (Most schools were closed in the 1970s; the last one remained open until 1996.)
1909 First Nations make application to King Edward VII to have the Privy Council
determine aboriginal title. The request was denied.
1910 Prime Minister Wilfred Laurier supports recognition of aboriginal rights. There is
deep division between the federal and provincial government as to the recognition of
1927 Indian Act amended to make it illegal for First Nations to raise money or retain a
lawyer to advance land claims, thereby blocking effective political court action.
1930 Control of Crown Lands is transferred from Federal to Provincial Governments by
means of the Natural Resources Transfer Act.
12. Timeline Contd.
1951 Parliament repeals Indian Act provisions of anti-potlatch and land claims
1960 Aboriginal people finally gain the right to vote.
1969 Pierre Trudeau's Minister of Indian Affairs, Jean Chretien, releases a White
Paper that proposes to abolish the Department of Indian Affairs, and eliminate special
status for Indian peoples and lands. It is vehemently opposed by Aboriginal leaders
who say its language of equality masks a sinister assimilation agenda.
1972 Indian Control of Indian Education policy document written by National Indian
Brotherhood advocating parental responsibility and local control over First Nations
education. This policy is accepted by federal government a year later.
1982 Patriation of the Canadian Constitution, which includes the Charter of Rights
and Freedoms that recognizes Aboriginal and treaty rights.
1990 Prime Minister Mulroney’s Meech Lake Accord is defeated, in part by Elijah
Harper's famous stand in the Manitoba Legislature.
1990 Plans to create a golf course on Aboriginal burial grounds lead to the Oka Crisis
13. Timeline Contd.
1991- The federally created Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples becomes the 1996 longest
and most expensive royal commission in Canadian history.
1992 Prime Minister Mulroney’s national referendum on the Charlottetown Accord is
defeated. The Accord promises to recognize the “inherent right to self government” of Aboriginal
1992 Four of the five First Nations that signed the 1977 NFA sign subsequent 1996
1997 20 Manitoba First Nations sign a Treaty Land Entitlement framework agreement with
Canada and Manitoba. It sets out a program to fulfill obligations of treaties with respect to land
allotment. The Oka land claim crisis resolved.
1999 Nunavut, the largest, northernmost and newest territory of Canada is established
through the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement Act. Inuit is one of the three official languages
spoken by the predominantly Inuit population.
2006 Aboriginal people and citizens of Caledonia, Ontario enter into a heated and much
publicized land dispute.
2010 The Truth and Reconciliation Commission holds its first public event in Winnipeg.
More nuanced timelines can be found at:
15. Who invented Apartheid:
South Africa or Canada ?
Numerous articles, websites and essays report that officials visited
South Africa in the early to mid 1900’s to study Canada’s reservation
system as a means to assist them to develop their system of apartheid.
While there is great similarity between reserves in Canada and the
Bantustans created by South Africa to segregate Blacks, there is no
specific confirmation of these visits. However a historical parallel
between these two former British colonies with regards to the denial
of rights and the creation of a separate, second class of citizen does
•For further information see the essay, “Terminologies of Control:
Tracing the Canadian-South African Connection in a Word” by Maria-
Carolina Cambre printed in Politikon, The Journal of South African
Studies, April 2007.
16. 2012 Truth and Reconciliation
The Commission has concluded that:
1) Residential schools constituted an assault on Aboriginal children.
2) Residential schools constituted an assault on Aboriginal families.
3) Residential schools constituted an assault on Aboriginal culture.
4) Residential schools constituted an assault on self-governing and self-sustaining
5) The impacts of the residential school system were immediate, and have been
ongoing since the earliest years of the schools.
6) Canadians have been denied a full and proper education as to the nature of
Aboriginal societies, and the history of the relationship between Aboriginal and
Discussion Question: How can we as educators work to fulfill this last conclusion?
17. Truth and Reconciliation – A Missed
In order for healing to take place the vital component of a truth and
reconciliation commission is to hear the voice of the oppressor speak.
No individual or representative has claimed responsibility or has
spoken about the truth of what was done to Aboriginal people or to
ask them for forgiveness.
Discussion Question: What is inter-generational trauma?
18. Themes related to Social Justice for
• The Cycle of Destruction
• Breaking the Cycle
• Health Care
• Employment Barriers
Material Sourced from the Centre for Social Justice:
19. The Cycle of Destruction
Since colonisation a variety of themes continue to
afflict Aboriginal people in Canada. Poverty, ill health,
educational failure, family violence and other
problems reinforce one another. Marginalization and
discrimination further complicate the circle of
These issues are historical
and complex. The repetitive
cycle of destruction will
require dynamic solutions to
address them collectively.
20. Breaking the Cycle
Despite the systemic nature of the countless
oppressive forces that continue to burden many
Aboriginal people, Aboriginal communities are
making strides along their healing path. There
are now many Aboriginal scholars, artists,
activists and leaders that are working to
challenge the status quo for Aboriginal peoples
and create a fairer world that offers meaningful
and fulfilling opportunities.
Poverty begins for Aboriginal communities when they were forced to relocate onto
Reserves, small pockets of land with no infrastructure, planning or economy provided
to develop these relocated people.
Access to their traditional ways of being had been destroyed or outlawed.
Gross poverty, a lack of shelter, health care and food resulted in disease, death and
When Aboriginal people were allowed off the reserves many sought out access to the
materials and resources of Urban Centres. But here they faced ingrained racist
attitudes that marginalized them in cities.
•1996 Census data showed that Aboriginal peoples in urban areas were more than twice as
likely to live in poverty (as defined by the Low Income Cut-Off) as non-Aboriginal people.
•On average, 55.6% of Aboriginal people living in Canadian cities were poor in 1995.
•52.1% of all aboriginal children were poor in 2003.
•Shelter is a significant issue among First Nations communities, as only 56.9% of homes
were considered adequate in 1999-/00.
•Many reserves still do not have the resources required to raise the standard of living out
of third-world conditions.
Developments in Aboriginal Leadership, Education, Law, Self-Government and local
community development have created a new path towards increased prosperity.
Non-Aboriginal people also have a role to play in lobbying the government and addressing
issues of discrimination and marginalization.
Shifts in federal and provincial policies that will address and provide financial and other
forms of support to help develop indigenous communities.
23. Health Care
• Europeans brought diseases that devastated
Aboriginal populations who were neither
immune nor knew how to cure them.
• Only white settlers had access to health care
• Traditional medicine practices were
dismissed or even banned by the Europeans
• Federal, provincial and jurisdictional disputes,
cultural barriers and geographic isolation
have impeded Aboriginal peoples’ access to
the health care system.
• Tuberculosis rate among First Nations people
remained 8 to 10 times that seen in the
Canadian population as a whole.
• Dental decay rates for Aboriginal children in
Ontario are two to five times higher than
rates among non-Aboriginal children. They
are far less likely to be decay-free.
24. Traditional Healing is Holistic
It does not focus on symptoms or diseases but deals with the total
“It is our belief that because our white man’s medicine is very
technical-oriented, very symptom-oriented, very drugs- and surgery-
oriented, that it lacks something that Native medicine has, which we
desperately need but don’t practice: spirituality….In many of these
things we are talking about — family violence, alcohol abuse, trauma,
suicide — I believe that the Native public health nurses, Native nurses,
Native doctors would have that in their approach as well — a spiritual
Statement to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples
David Skinner, Non-Aboriginal doctor
25. Employment Barriers
Poverty, ill health, a lack of education combined with a history of racism and
ignorance helped to create many barriers to employment as well as feelings
of mistrust, anger and resentment towards the white population.
•1996 Census data estimated unemployment rate for Aboriginal people is
double that of the national average, in some areas of the country the rate is
five to six times higher than that recorded for non-Aboriginal people.
•In 2001, Aboriginal Youth 15-24 were twice as likely to be unemployed.
•A 1995 survey found that 77 percent of employers faced challenges in hiring
and retaining Aboriginal employees. They cited barriers in the following
areas: communication, culture, skills and training, misconceptions. Similarly,
low educational attainment affects the participation of Aboriginal and First
Nation people in the Canadian labour market.
•Only 31 percent – about half the Canadian average – of the Aboriginal on-
reserve population has a high school education.
26. Employment Barriers
•The good news is that many of these trends are
changing, and the Aboriginal labour force is
increasingly highly educated and skilled.
•In 1969, only 800 Aboriginal peoples had a post-
secondary education. By 1991, the number was
•In the mid-1960s, there were about 200 Status
Indian students enrolled at Canadian colleges and
universities. By 1999, the number was more than
Starting in the late 1800’s the Canadian Gov’t. and Church bodies began removing
children from their home and placed them in Industrial schools which were later
called Residential schools.
Residential schools focussed on removing Aboriginal culture and
identity for assimilation into mainstream Canadian society.
7 decades of abuse (emotional, physical and sexual produced
teenagers with limited knowledge of their own culture, some
manual labour skills and a large degree of illiteracy.
A Euro-centric focus and lack of cultural sensitivity did not
encourage Aboriginal youth to become part of the mainstream
society and resulted in alienation and limited success
•In 2001 only 8% of the 25-34 age group of Aboriginal peoples had a
completed university degree, while 28% of all Canadians did.
•In 1996, 68% of Aboriginal youth were in school compared to 83%
of non-Aboriginal youth.
•Only 24% of Aboriginal peoples under 25 were able to converse in
an Aboriginal language www.ccsd.ca/pr/2003/aboriginal.htm
29. Aboriginal Education is Holistic
The Assembly of First Nations, Canadian
Government, Provincial Ministries of
Education and Universities have all worked
over the last four decades to raise
awareness and develop programs to
address specific needs around the reality of
The focus needs to be on creating a holistic
model that responds to unique aspects of
Aboriginal identity and culture.
•In 2000, 98% of the schools on reserves
were administered by First Nations
•There are presently 502 schools on reserve
and all but 8 are under First Nations
•Over 2000 students attend the First
Nations University located at U of Regina.
30. The Education Role of non-Aboriginals
A Necessary Shift
To properly address education for Aboriginal peoples there must be greater
understanding of the history, and culture of Aboriginal people by non-Aboriginal
children. By understanding the basics of Aboriginal culture and by promoting this in
the school system we can move forward together in a respectful manner.
•A guide to Canadian Aboriginal Education Resources:
•To visit the Coalition for the Advancement of Aboriginal studies:
•To learn more about the Indigenous Education Network, visit:
www.turning-point.ca, click “Resources,” click “Education” and scroll down to “
Indigenous Education Network.
The restriction and denial of political and civil rights, including the right to vote, has historically
stopped Aboriginal people from gaining access to a political system required to address the many
issues that they face. Issues of status, treaty rights and civil rights have been ongoing divisive
issues that have restricted Aboriginal peoples from being able to determine their own future.
This negotiation with the Government of Canada is an ongoing process.
•To date, Canada has completed 18 comprehensive self-government agreements involving 32
•Currently, some 393 Aboriginal communities are represented at 83 tables at various stages of
negotiation From Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development
Recent Developments August 2, 2012
•Federal Court ruling that says it was "unreasonable in all circumstances" to appoint an outside
manager to Attawapiskat First Nation to take over financial management in the community.
•There are currently 11 third party managers in place in various communities across Canada.
32. Aboriginal Political Traditions
The League of Six Nations was a sophisticated system that embodied
highly democratic values including:
•decision-making by consensus,
•the liberty of the individual, and
•leadership by persuasion rather than coercion
•limited self-government in the form of the band council system is
seen as seriously flawed
The Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples identified the need to
negotiate and reconcile Aboriginal governments within Canada as one
key step towards resolving the concerns of Aboriginal peoples.
33. Aboriginal Leaders
Shawn Atleo, the newly re-elected national chief of the Assembly of
First Nations, called on all Canadians to unite with his people in making
a new future for native people, saying they “are on the cusp of major
transformative change. It is about time we pull back the veil on
misunderstanding and we engage all Canadians to walk with us and give
effect to the notion... we are all treaty people.” July, 2012
34. Canadian Electoral Firsts
She was the first Aboriginal woman to be elected to the
Andrew, Dene, 1951 -
Parliament of Canada. Blondin-Andrew is a Dene first elected in
the 1988 election. She was one of the first accredited Aboriginal
teachers in the North. She was re-elected in 1993 and was
appointed Secretary of State for Training and Youth, making her
the first Aboriginal woman to become member of the Privy
Council and Cabinet. Re-elected in the 2004 and named
Minister of State for Northern Development under Paul Martin.
First Aboriginal Canadian elected to a Legislature in
Frank Arthur Calder, BC New Democratic Party 1949-
1975 was a Nisga'a politician in Canada, the first Status
Indian to be elected to any legislature in Canada.
Calder was the first Indian to graduate from the
Anglican Theological College of UBC and was a
hereditary chief of the House of Wisinxiltkw from the
Killerwhale Tribe . August 1913 - November 2006
36. “The Five Planes Deity”
We natives believe in the
following saying: Our God is
Native. The Great Deity of
the Five Planes is so. We are
neither for nor against, We
speak not of Christ nor of
God. We say, 'Let them be.'
We follow the Spirit on its
Inward Journey of Soul
through attitudes and
attentions. Remember we
are all in a big School and
the Inner Master teaches us
Experience over many
“Christ” by Norval Morrisseau
37. The Language of the Circle
“In the circle there is a stone for you and for me, stones for mothers, fathers, all living
things, stones for governments, philosophies, for all nations. All things are contained
within the the circle and all things are equal within it. The circle is the total universe.”
From “Elders Share Perspectives on Traditions & Spirituality
by Noel Archie Starr Voices of the First Nations
Circles represent important principles in the Aboriginal worldview and belief systems:
The movement of animals and people are continuous, like a circle, like the cycles of the
seasons and the sun. It is used in the construction of teepees, sweat lodges, the medicine
wheel, the dream catcher and in other powerful symbols.
38. The Talking Circle
The Talking Circle symbolizes completeness and equality.
•All circle participants’ views must be respected and listened to.
•All comments directly address the question or the issue, not the comments
another person has made.
•An object is used in the circle that symbolizes a connection to the land is
used to designate the speaker ( a talking stick, feather, or stone for example)
•Participants can indicate their desire to speak by raising their hands.
•Going around the circle systematically gives everyone the opportunity to
•Silence is also acceptable – any participant can choose not to speak.
From “Aboriginal Perspectives: A Teacher’s Toolkit” MOE 2009
39. The Spiritual Language of the Land
Medicine wheels, or sacred hoops, are circular
stone structures with spokes constructed by
indigenous peoples for ritual, healing and teaching
purposes. Alberta and British Columbia, have two-
thirds of all known Medicine wheels (47) which
suggests that Southern Alberta was a central
meeting place for many Plains First Nations tribes
who followed Medicine Wheel ceremonies.
“A Medicine Wheel can best be described as a mirror within, which everything about
the human condition is reflected back. It requires courage to look into the mirror and
really see what is being reflected back about an individual's life. It helps us with our
creative "Vision", to see exactly where we are in life and which areas we need to
work on and develop in order to realize our full potential. It is a tool to be used for
the uplifting and betterment of humankind, healing and connecting to the Infinite.”
By Sandra Laframboise and Karen Sherbina
40. Inclusion: The “Medicine Wheel”
Photo of what is believed to be the oldest wheel from a 7000 year old culture.
This wheel was built 300-800 years ago at the Bighorn Wheel Site in Wyoming.
43. TRIBES model
• an extension of the talking circle is a way of seeing Aboriginal
culture at work in schools to help create a positive, safe climate in
• What is Tribes?
• Tribes is a “way of learning and being together” (5). It is a process
that uses a learning-community, whole-school model to create a
positive school climate through improved teaching and classroom
management, positive interpersonal relations, and opportunities
for student participation. The Tribes process consists of four key
agreements that staff, students and parents are expected to abide
• Attentive listening
• Appreciation/no put-downs
• Mutual respect
• Participation/right to pass.
“Our stories and our traditions are the very foundation of our culture. Our stories teach
us how to live, give us the reason for why things are as they are, record our history,
entertain us, help us, help us make meaning of our experiences, counsel and comfort
us. If schools don’t use our stories and traditions then schools become one of the
agencies that make us lose our identity.”
From Martha Demientieff’s “Our Stories: The Roots that Bind Us
The Voices of First Nations: The Senior Issues Collection,
Ahenakew, Gardipy, Lafond; McGraw Hill Ryerson, 1995.
Activity: At tables in groups of four:
1. Share who told you stories as a child. What was a favourite story of yours?
2. Share how you learned about your racial, ethnic or cultural origin.
3. Compare the different ways people in your group learned about their
45. Gender Equity: The Drum & Mother Earth
The beat of the Drum is the Heartbeat of the Medicine Earth Women, Mother
The heartbeat of all creatures on Mother Earth are in rhythm with this heartbeat.
The four seasons are also in rhythm with the many heartbeats of nature. Most
drums are round and could be linked to the four directions. The drum is an integral
part of Aboriginal life.
The drum is afforded the
same respect as your own
Taking care of that drum is
of paramount importance.
You would not leave her out
In the rain, uncovered. You
Do not lend it to someone
you do not know. The drum
should be sounded often so
we do not forget her
46. The Aboriginal Social Education
Sitting in a Circle
“All are welcome, all nations, all people, sit together in a circle. When we sit in a
circle there are no lines, no hierarchies. There are only two sides to a circle – in or
out. We can all see each other in the circle.”
Our First Song
“The drum is the heartbeat – when we come to this world singing our warrior song,
our own cry, our mother placed our head on her heart and we heard our first song.
The drum comes from grandmother and she has the power to take it away.”
How do we support men?
“Grandmother teaches young men to understand their feelings at an early age, not
to shun other emotions but to embrace them all, to be a whole person.
Grandmother teaches young men that it is alright to cry.”
Elder Joe Paquette, Turtle Clan, Ojibway speaking at St. Francis Xavier S.S. 2007
47. Healthy Relationships: Teachings From
1. Love each other
2. Share and care for
3. Respect each other
4. Be honest with each
5. Be gentle with each
From a teaching session by
Elder Joe Paquette,
Turtle Clan, Ojibway
St. Francis Xavier S.S. 2007
“Mother and Child” by Norval Morrisseau
48. Family and Community Structure
Aboriginal community dynamics and
interpersonal relationships are founded upon a
sense of caring for all.
The familiar phrase that has been adopted the
world over, “it takes a village to raise a child,” is
an indigenous concept. We are responsible for
the well being of each other and for the well
being of each other’s children.
49. Niizhwaaswi Mishomisag: Seven Grandfathers
Kinomaagi’ oonan: Traditional Teachings
These are the Gifts, which were passed on from
the vessel of the grandfathers.
From The Mishomis Book by Edward Benton-Banai
50. The Traditional Teachings in Ojibway
Nbwaakaawin: (Wisdom) To cherish knowledge is to know wisdom
Zaagidiwn: (Love) To Know love is to know peace
Mnaaden diwin: (Respect) To honour all of the creation is to have respect
Aakdehwin: (Bravery) Is to face the foe with integrity
Gwekwaadziwin: (Honesty/Honour) In facing a situation is to be brave
Dbaadebdizwin: (Humility) Is to know yourself as a sacred part of Creation
Debwewin: (Truth) Is to know all of these things.
Compare these teachings to FAITH RESPECT
the D-PCDSB’s Virtues Program: EMPATHY KINDNESS
There are many overlapping and shared CONSCIENCE LOVE
values to be found between a Catholic and HOPE ACCEPTANCE
Aboriginal worldview. SELF-CONTROL FAIRNESS
For a detailed look at Traditional Teachings, or the Seven Grandfathers, and how they
are interpreted in a contemporary manner:http
51. Two-Spirited: Sexuality and Gender
The Way Of The Two Spirited People addresses Native American concepts of gender
and sexual orientation by Sandra Laframboise and Michael Anhorn
•The two-spirited person is a native tradition that researchers have identified in some
of the earliest discoveries of Native artifacts. Much evidence indicates that Native
people, prior to colonization, believed in the existence of cross-gender roles, the
male-female, the female-male, what we now call the two-spirited person.
•In Native American culture, before the Europeans came to the America's, "two-spirit"
referred to an ancient teaching. This type of cross-gender identity has been
documented in over 155 tribes across Native North America (Roscoe 1988).
•Our Elders tell us of people who were gifted among all beings because they carried
two spirits, that of male and female. It is told that women engaged in tribal warfare
and married other women, as there were men who married other men. These
individuals were looked upon as a third and fourth gender in many cases and in almost
all cultures they were honoured and revered. Two-spirit people were often the
visionaries, the healers, the medicine people, the nannies of orphans and the care
givers. (Roscoe 1988).
52. Your Experiences of Aboriginal
Culture: Talking Circle Pt. 2
Back to talking circles and three questions:
1) What was your first experience of
2) When did you first know that Aboriginal
people were treated differently in Canada?
3) In what ways are we connected to
Aboriginal people in Canada?
53. Curriculum Infusion
“By its very nature, Native studies is integrative.”
Native Studies, The Ontario Curriculum Grades 9 & 10
•Aspects of Aboriginal culture, history and knowledge can be infused across the curriculum in
many disciplines as suggested by the ministry of education
Some Curriculum Links
•Use of Literature across the panels: Aboriginal Literatures in Canada by: R. Eigenbrod and J.
•http://www.civilization.ca/cmc/exhibitions/tresors/ethno/ety0000e.shtml for younger kids in
the elementary panel
•Voices of the First Nations from the Senior Issues Collection by Ahenakew, Gardipy and LaFond
“Given the cultural topics and contemporary issues explored in the Native studies curriculum,
teachers will find it necessary to reach beyond the usual sources in preparation for instruction.
Important resources include First Nation community-based resources, Aboriginal elders, and
Native Studies, The Ontario Curriculum Grades 11 & 12
54. School Culture
How can schools intersect with
•Heritage and history month
acknowledgements across the year
•Use of healing circles and restorative
•Be conscious of appropriate
representations of indigenous cultures in
Discussion Question: What is the role of education with regards to raising
awareness of the history and culture of Aboriginal peoples and better
participate in the successful development of Aboriginal Culture and People?
55. Appropriation of Aboriginal Culture
in the West
Aspects of Aboriginal culture have
been exploited in mainstream culture
for decades in mass media, movies,
the naming of sports teams, fashion etc.
Understanding the Aboriginal Story in Canada requires personal investigation,
to move past the historical derogatory stereotypes, exploitation and
For more information on this topic consider the following resources:
•Marketing the Imaginary Indian: from the Voices of First Nations Daniel
•The Truth about Stories Thomas King
•The Pocahontas Myth http://www.powhatan.org/pocc.html
•“A Short History of Indians in Canada” by Thomas King
56. Inclusive or Stereotype?
How do schools create a balance
between both historical/traditional
and contemporary ideas about
Does this image on the left promote or
work against stereotypes? Is its
representation of Aboriginal peoples
different from the image bottom right?
Lesson Idea: Stereotypes
and Tonto - Hollywood’s
stereotyping of the
‘Indian.’ Click the link
below to get this lesson.
57. The UN Declaration on the Rights of
This general assembly declaration was not legally binding but was still voted
against by four countries: Canada, United States, Australia and New Zealand
when it was passed in 2007.
Eventually, these four countries did adopt the resolution whose goal is to set
standards of treatment for indigenous peoples to help eliminate human
rights violations against the 370 million indigenous people.
Canada has been repeatedly criticized at the United Nations General
Assembly for its treatment of Aboriginal peoples with the living conditions in
Attawapiskat to be the most recent criticism leveled against the Canadian
Canada continues to create legal norms and to help assist Aboriginal people
to combat discrimination and marginalization as proposed in the UN
58. The Global Resurgence of Indigenous
Across the planet there is a growing international movement
that recognizes the impact of colonisation and globalisation
on indigenous peoples.
Global Indigenous movements
•There is a rise in urban populations of indigenous people.
•A reclaiming of lands and a reclaiming of culture through
both traditional and contemporary means.
•Growing trends towards recognizing the rights, status and
land ownership of indigenous people
•Global connections with other indigenous cultures’
experiences of displacement and resurgence
59. Canadian Forward Momentum
• Reforms/Changes to the Indian Act
• Land Claims Resolution
• Shifts in Education, Health Care, Housing
• Rights to Self-Determination
• Status rights regained for Grandchildren of women who
• Increase in native law development in B.C. and in in
aboriginal youth pursuing degrees in areas of law.
• Integration and promotion of Aboriginal Culture and
history in main stream society
Discussion Question: What is your role in all of this? What
story will you share with people you know?
60. Reflection: Stories to Read
Read a formative short story selection
from Our Story: Aboriginal Voices on
Canada's Past and bring back your
reflection for the following class.
For more aboriginal stories to use in
class or for personal reading the
Library Archive of Canada has an
incredible collection of First Nations,
Métis and Inuit books available to read
61. The Canada Collections
Two samples from the Canada Collections and Library Archive of “our stories” which contain
complete colour pdf’s of stories by First Nations, Métis and Inuit peoples.
62. Important Related Links
A Canadian portal for Curriculum and Education Programs as well as
Métis Culture and Heritage and Resource Centre
First Nations Histories
Index of Native American History Resources on the Internet
General History of North American Native Peoples and Resources