biology revision igcse cells pre-u a level mitosis dna enzymes cell biology proteins variation meiosis plants a2 science ib as level cambridge darwin prokaryotes eukaryotes taxonomy species protein synthesis classification diffusion active transport osmosis respiration reproduction ocr life processes gcse international baccalaureate practical organelles cell division molecules water lipids biodiversity phylogeny dna replication cell cycle haemoglobin alleles genes lungs ribosomes biochemistry active site carbohydrates lac operon genetics infectious disease variety of living organisms bacteria cell differentiation organisation organ systems education ecology exchange and transport microscopy blood groups sex linkage dihybird genotype phenotype apoptosis cancer oncogenes mendel monohybrod codominance ratio autosomes trna genomics mrna exón lead generation intron proteomics natural selection sympatric allopatric ring species binomial phylum clade genus cladistics domain order phenetic classroom family luca allosteric substrate immobilised competitive cyclins helicase gram-positive capsule murein vector plasmid binary fission cytology gram-negative templates endocytosis cholesterol bilayer sem membranes cytoplasm phospholipid electron transport chain chemiosmosis glycolysis energy atp chlorophyll calvin krebs photophosphorylation photosynthesis oilrig nadph nadh saccharides collagen rna saturated bonds nucleic acids teaching life physiology investigation ia internal experiments coursework mrexham assessment conservation evolution superbug speciation plant asexualreproduction lactic acid ph enzyme viruses ions geotropism tropism phototropism edexcel animal physiology adaptation selection antibiotics genetic comparisons gills blood lymph tissue fluid exchange specialised cells organ tissue growth interphase pmat oxygen dissociation glycogen plant cell cellulose starch selective breeding founder effect anaphase chromosome bases double helix homologous pairs prophase metaphase purines telophase environmental genetic active immunity plasma cells vaccination passive immunity lymphocyte t-cells phagocyte immunity white blood cells valves capillaries aorta cardiac cycle veins arteries heart rate heart disease heart lung disease tuberculosis chronic bronchitis asthma emphysema nucleus rer golgi ser bonding inhibition digestion food tests data disease health lifestyle pathogen aqa a2 biology kingdoms protoctists pathogens animals fungi cell (biology) tissues organs fermentation mitochondria ecosystem excretion circulatory system plant transport nervous system hormones communication endocrine mrsgren
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