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Mr. Hunter04/08/2013Chapter 14Exam Review QuestionsNAME____________________ DATE_________ PER#______ 1. Biogenesis can be defined as ______________ pg. 279 2. Spontaneous generation can be defined as __________ pg. 279 3. An isotope of an element has_____ a different number of _____ 4. One of the observations that led people to think that life could arise from nonliving things was that ___________ observed by Redi. pg. 279 5. The purpose of the netting in Redi’s experiment was to prevent_____ pg. 279 6. Describe the experimental group in Spallanzini’s experiment_______ pg. 280 7. How did Spallanzani’s opponents disagree with his conclusion that microorganism from the air contaminated the boiled meat broth.? Pg. 280 8. What was the function of the In Pasteur’s experiment, the function of the curved necked flasks in Pasteur’s experiment? Pg. 281 9. Which scientist conclusively demonstrated that the principle of spontaneous Generation was not correct? Pg. 281 10. How do scientists theorize that the Earth formed? Pg. 282 11. The age of the Earth is estimated to be _________ pg. 282 12. Sulfur has an atomic number of 16. Therefore, the isotope sulfur-35 has _____ protons and _____neutrons 13. When performing radioactive dating scientists measure the ________pg. 283 14. Carbon-14 dating is useful for estimating the age of _____ pg. 284 15. Determining the age of a rock by comparing relative proportions of its radioactive isotopes is called_____ pg. 282-283 16. The total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus is the ____ pg. 282 17. A half-life can be defined as _____ pg. 283 18. Before life arose on this planet, what gas was present in the atmosphere?_____ pg. 284-285 19. What type of organic molecules were Miller and Urey able to produce in their 1953 experiment?___ pg. 285 20. Thomas Cech found a type of RNA that can act as a catalyst in some chemical reactions. What did he call this type of RNA molecule?______ pg. 288 21. Which of the following is true of microspheres and living cells?___ pg. 286 22. Aerobic respiration requires what type of gas to be present? ____ pg. 288-289 23. Aerobic respiration may have protected early unicellular organisms from damage by_____ pg. 288-289 24. What role did ozone play in the evolution of early life on this planet? Pg. 289
25. Based on the conditions of the early Earth, and experimentation, scientists have inferred that the first cellular life-forms were anaerobic prokaryotes and that they used ________ pg. 289-29026. The first organisms on Earth were probably______pg. 289-29027. The eukaryotic organelle that is thought to have evolved from aerobic prokaryotes is the ________ pg. 29028. Eukaryotes may have evolved from _____ pg. 29029. Which of the following enabled the formation of true cells on early Earth? Pg. 28930. What theory proposes a method for the evolution of photosynthetic eukaryotic Organisms from prokaryotyes?____ pg. 29031. The oldest known fossil organisms are about 3.5 billion years old and are Similar to_______pg. 286-29132. Oxygen began to enter the atmosphere of the early Earth as a result of____ pg. 28933. The forerunners of the first cells may have been the gathering of Protein molecules into ______ pg. 286-28934. Some scientists believe that areas that were protected from the atmosphere might favor the production of organic compounds on early Earth because___ pg. 285- 28935. The half-life of an isotope affects its usefulness in dating specific types of rocks because__________ pg. 28436. The discovery of microspheres and coacervates were an important contribution in understanding how life might have originated on Earth because ____pg. 28637. ___________ in the upper atmosphere is responsible for the absorption of UV radiation. Pg. 289
The graph above represents the radioactive decay of an isotope. If the half life of Selium-45Is 25,000 years. 38. How old is a rock that contains only 1/16 th of its original Selium-45? 39. If the half-life of carbon-14 is 5730 yrs, how many half lives have passed to obtain a sample of carbon-14 at 50%?________ 40. The half-life of boron-12 is 4500 yrs. How old is a sample that contains only 25% Of boron-12? __________