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Bi isn't big data and big data isn't BI

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Big data is hyped, but isn't hype. There are definite technical, process and business differences in the big data market when compared to BI and data warehousing, but they are often poorly understood or explained. BI isn't big data, and big data isn't BI. By distilling the technical and process realities of big data systems and projects we can separate fact from fiction. This session examines the underlying assumptions and abstractions we use in the BI and DW world, the abstractions that evolved in the big data world, and how they are different. Armed with this knowledge, you will be better able to make design and architecture decisions. The session is sometimes conceptual, sometimes detailed technical explorations of data, processing and technology, but promises to be entertaining regardless of the level.

Yes, it’s about the data normally called “big”, but it’s not Hadoop for the database crowd, despite the prominent role Hadoop plays. The session will be technical, but in a technology preview/overview fashion. I won’t be teaching you to write MapReduce jobs or anything of the sort.

The first part will be an overview of the types, formats and structures of data that aren’t normally in the data warehouse realm. The second part will cover some of the basic technology components, vendors and architecture.

The goal is to provide an overview of the extent of data available and some of the nuances or challenges in processing it, coupled with some examples of tools or vendors that may be a starting point if you are building in a particular area.

Publié dans : Données & analyses
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Bi isn't big data and big data isn't BI

  1. SQL.. . SQL! SQL? SQL Hadoop BI Isn’t Big Data, Big Data Isn’t BI June, 2014 Mark Madsen www.ThirdNature.net @markmadsen
  2. © Third Nature Inc. Summary Common uses and commodity technology lead to Novel practices lead to Different data and different technology needs lead to New architectures Lead to Common uses and commodity technology
  3. © Third Nature Inc. Our ideas about information and how it’s used are outdated.
  4. © Third Nature Inc. How We Think of Users Our design point is the passive consumer of information. Proof: methodology ▪ IT role is requirements, design, build, deploy, administer ▪ User role is run reports Self-serve BI is not like picking the right doughnut from a box. Slide 4
  5. © Third Nature Inc. How We Think of Users Our design point is the passive consumer of information. Proof: methodology ▪ IT role is requirements, design, build, deploy, administer ▪ User role is run reports Self-serve BI is not like picking the right doughnut from a box. How We Want Users to Think of Us
  6. © Third Nature Inc. How We Think of Users What Users Really Think
  7. © Third Nature Inc. We think of BI as publishing, an old metaphor. Publishing has value, but may not be actionable.
  8. © Third Nature Inc. When you first give people access to information that was unavailable… OH GOD I can see into forever
  9. © Third Nature Inc. After a while it becomes the new normal
  10. © Third Nature Inc. Planning data strategy means understanding the context of data use so we can build infrastructure Monitor Analyze Exceptions Analyze Causes Decide Act No problem No idea Do nothing We need to focus on what people do with information as the primary task, not on the data or the technology.
  11. © Third Nature Inc. General model for organizational use of data Monitor Analyze Exceptions Analyze Causes Decide Act No problem No idea Do nothing Act within the process Usually real-time to daily
  12. © Third Nature Inc. Origin of BI and data warehouse concepts The general concept of a separate architecture for BI has been around longer, but this paper by Devlin and Murphy is the first formal data warehouse architecture and definition published. 12 “An architecture for a business and information system”, B. A. Devlin, P. T. Murphy, IBM Systems Journal, Vol.27, No. 1, (1988) Slide 12Copyright Third Nature, Inc.
  13. © Third Nature Inc. Origins: in 1988 there was only big hair. ▪ No real commercial email, public internet barely started ▪ Storage state of the art: 100MB, cost $10,000/GB ▪ Oracle Applications v1 GL released; SAP goes public, enters US market ▪ Unix is mostly run by long-haired freaks ▪ Mobile was this This is the context: scarcity of data, of system resources, of automated systems outside core financials, of money to pay for storage.
  14. © Third Nature Inc. General model for organizational use of data Collect new data Monitor Analyze Exceptions Analyze Causes Decide Act No problem No idea Do nothing Act on the process Usually days/longer timeframe Copyright Third Nature, Inc.
  15. © Third Nature Inc. Straight line vs closed loop causality BI is suited for stability, analytics for adaptation
  16. © Third Nature Inc. You need to be able to support both paths Collect new data Monitor Analyze Exceptions Analyze Causes Decide Act Act on the process Act within the process Conventional BI, addition of EDM Causal analysis, “data science” Copyright Third Nature, Inc.
  17. © Third Nature Inc. The usage models for conventional BI Collect new data Monitor Analyze Exceptions Analyze Causes Decide Act No problem No idea Do nothing Act on the process Usually days/longer timeframe Act within the process Usually real-time to daily This is what we’ve been doing with BI so far: static reporting, dashboards, ad-hoc query, OLAP Copyright Third Nature, Inc.
  18. © Third Nature Inc. The usage models for analytics and “big data” Collect new data Monitor Analyze Exceptions Analyze Causes Decide Act No problem No idea Do nothing Act on the process Usually days/longer timeframe Act within the process Usually real-time to daily Analytics and big data is focused on new use cases: deeper analysis, causes, prediction, optimizing decisions This isn’t ad-hoc, reporting, or OLAP. Copyright Third Nature, Inc.
  19. © Third Nature Inc. Simple Complicated Complex Assumption: Order Assumption: Unorder Assumption: Disorder Cause and effect is repeatable & predictable Cause and effect is separated in time & space, repeatable, learnable Cause and effect is coherent in retrospect only, modelable but changing Known Knowable Unpredictable Standard processes, clear metrics, best practice Analytical techniques to determine options, effects Experiment to create possible options Sense, categorize, respond Sense, analyze, respond Test, sense, respond Like a bike Like a car Like economic systems Copyright Third Nature, Inc. Over time, processes are (usually) better understood, so there is a movement of decisions from right to left, where support is more automated.
  20. © Third Nature Inc. As practices evolve based on new capabilities… A new level of complexity develops over top of the older, now better understood processes, leading to new data and analysis needs.
  21. © Third Nature Inc. Technology captures observations. These change our understanding. New understanding changes practices. Practices drive changes to technology, needing more data Complexity will continue to increase
  22. © Third Nature Inc. I never said the “E” in EDW meant “everything”… What do you mean, “Just doughnuts?”
  23. © Third Nature Inc. It’s going to get a lot worse Not E E Conclusion: any methodology built on the premise that you must know and model all the data first is untenable
  24. © Third Nature Inc. “Big data is unprecedented.” - Anyone involved with big data in even the most barely perceptible way
  25. © Third Nature Inc. We’ve been here before Source: Bill Schmarzo, EMC
  26. © Third Nature Inc. “Big” is well supported by databases now Source:Noumenal,Inc.
  27. © Third Nature Inc. Orders of magnitude: 20 years ago TB, today PB Shifts in data availability by orders of magnitude necessitate new means of managing and using it.
  28. © Third Nature Inc. Analytics embiggens the data volume problem Many of the processing problems are O(n2) or worse, so moderate data can be a problem for DB-based platforms
  29. © Third Nature Inc. Much of the big data value comes from analytics BI is a retrieval problem, not a computational problem. Five basic things you can do with analytics ▪Prediction – what is most likely to happen? ▪Estimation – what’s the future value of a variable? ▪Description – what relationships exist in the data? ▪Simulation – what could happen? ▪Prescription – what should you do? Slide 29 Copyright Third Nature, Inc. Copyright Third Nature, Inc.
  30. © Third Nature Inc. Most people do not need special technologyNumberofpeople The distribution of data size is about normal, yet these guys set the tone of the market today. Bigness of data Copyright Third Nature, Inc.
  31. © Third Nature Inc. Analytics: This is really raw data under storageNumberofjobs Microsoft study of 174,000 analytic jobs in their cluster: median size ??? Bigness of data Copyright Third Nature, Inc.
  32. © Third Nature Inc. Working data for analytics most often not bigNumberofjobs 14 GB Smallness of data Copyright Third Nature, Inc.
  33. © Third Nature Inc. A Simple Division of the Problem SpaceComputation LittleLots Data volume Little Lots Big analytics, little data Specialized computing, modeling problems: supercomputing, GPUs Big analytics, big data Complex math over large data volumes requires shared nothing architectures Little analytics, little data The entry point; SAS, SMP databases, even OLAP can work Little analytics, big data The BI/DW space, for the most part
  34. © Third Nature Inc.© Third Nature Inc. What makes the actual data “big”? Very large amounts Hierarchical structures Nested structures Encoded values Non-standard (for a database) types Deep structure Human authored text “big” is better off being defined as “complex” or “hard to manage” Copyright Third Nature, Inc.
  35. © Third Nature Inc. Three kinds of measurement data we collect The convenient data is transactional data. ▪ Goes in the DW and is used, even if it isn’t the right measurement. The inconvenient data is observational data. ▪ It’s not neat, clean, or designed into most systems of operation. The difficult and misleading data is declarative data. ▪ What people say and what they do require ground truth. We need to make use of all three. Copyright Third Nature, Inc.
  36. © Third Nature Inc. “big data” vs. transactions The classic example of “structured data” Transaction data includes: ▪ quantification details (date, value, count) ▪ reference data for explanation (product, customer, account) ▪ Lots of meaningful information Reference data is usually shared across the organization, hence its importance. There are two parts: ▪ identifier to uniquely identify the subject ▪ descriptive attributes with common or standardized value domains Transaction details Reference data
  37. © Third Nature Inc. Today it’s different data: observations, not transactions Sensor data doesn’t fit well with current methods of collection and storage, or with the technology to process and analyze it. Copyright Third Nature, Inc.
  38. © Third Nature Inc. Big data as a type of data: Transactions vs. Events Transactions: ▪ Each one is valuable ▪ Mutable ▪ The elements of a transaction can be aggregated easily ▪ A set of transactions does not usually have important ordering or dependency Events: ▪ A single event often has no value, e.g. what is the value of one click in a series? Some events are extremely valuable, but this is only detectable within the context of other events. ▪ Elements of events are often not easily aggregated ▪ A set of events usually has a natural order and dependencies ▪ Immutable
  39. © Third Nature Inc. Example “big data”: Web tracking data USER_ID 301212631165031 SESSION_ID 590387153892659 VISIT_DATE 1/10/2010 0:00 SESSION_START_DATE 1:41:44 AM PAGE_VIEW_DATE 1/10/2010 9:59 DESTINATION_URL https://www.phisherking.com/gifts/store/LogonForm?mmc= link-src-email-_-m100109-_-44IOJ1-_-shop&langId=- 1&storeId=1055&URL=BECGiftListItemDisplay REFERRAL_NAME Google.com REFERRAL_URL http://www.google.com/search?sourceid=navclient&aq=0h& oq=Italian&ie=UTF8&rlz=1T4ACGW_enUS386US387&q=italia n+rose&fu=0&ifi=1&dtd=204&xpc=1KoLqh374s PAGE_ID PROD_24259_CARD REL_PRODUCTS PROD_24654_CARD, PROD_3648_FLOWERS SITE_LOCATION_NAME VALENTINE'S DAY MICROSITE SITE_LOCATION_ID SHOP-BY-HOLIDAY VALENTINES DAY IP_ADDRESS 67.189.110.179 BROWSER_OS_NAME MOZILLA/4.0 (COMPATIBLE; MSIE 7.0; AOL 9.0; WINDOWS NT 5.1; TRIDENT/4.0; GTB6; .NET CLR 1.1.4322)
  40. © Third Nature Inc. Web tracking data has a nested structure USER_ID 301212631165031 SESSION_ID 590387153892659 VISIT_DATE 1/10/2010 0:00 SESSION_START_DATE 1:41:44 AM PAGE_VIEW_DATE 1/10/2010 9:59 DESTINATION_URL https://www.phisherking.com/gifts/store/LogonForm?mmc= link-src-email-_-m100109-_-44IOJ1-_-shop&langId=- 1&storeId=1055&URL=BECGiftListItemDisplay REFERRAL_NAME Direct REFERRAL_URL - PAGE_ID PROD_24259_CARD REL_PRODUCTS PROD_24654_CARD, PROD_3648_FLOWERS SITE_LOCATION_NAME VALENTINE'S DAY MICROSITE SITE_LOCATION_ID SHOP-BY-HOLIDAY VALENTINES DAY IP_ADDRESS 67.189.110.179 BROWSER_OS_NAME MOZILLA/4.0 (COMPATIBLE; MSIE 7.0; AOL 9.0; WINDOWS NT 5.1; TRIDENT/4.0; GTB6; .NET CLR 1.1.4322) “unstructured” data embedded in the logged message: complex strings
  41. © Third Nature Inc. The missing ingredient from most big data
  42. © Third Nature Inc. The creation and flow of data is different for observations, interactions and declarations Data entry Extract Cleanse Load Use Data Generation Store Store Use Use The process for most human-entered data The process for much machine-generated data Cleanse Copyright Third Nature, Inc.
  43. We collect large volumes of text, a rare practice ten years ago. Today we can turn text into data. Categories, taxonomies Topics, genres, relationships, abstracts Sentiment, tone, opinion Words & counts, keywords, tags Entities people, places, things, events, IDs Copyright Third Nature, Inc.
  44. © Third Nature Inc. You can store this data in an RDBMS, but…
  45. Example data: Twitter Message API Payload Looks like: This is really just a record format much like a DB row. Datetime, userID, name, location, description, message, message metadata, etc. But it’s In json or xml.
  46. © Third Nature Inc. @markmadsen Check out: From #MongoDB to #Cassandra: Why The Atlas Platform Is Migrating http://owl.li/cvxFK A tweet has lots of fields, but one important one The payload is free text but has other elements: From these things you likely want to generate or link to reference data. ‘To’ username Hashtag HashtagURL
  47. © Third Nature Inc.© Third Nature Inc. Internal payload elements form a new graph The @elements point to other records and create a deeply linked structure. You have to assemble the linked structure to see what’s really there, which means repeated scanning some/all of the data. The derived pattern is interesting data, sometimes more than the individual messages.
  48. © Third Nature Inc.© Third Nature Inc. There are many patterns in the data Follower / following networks are easy – they are explicit and independent of the events. Community detection requires looking at patterns of @ communication in addition to follow relationships. What do you do with these after discovery? Follower network Conversational communities
  49. © Third Nature Inc. More data: patterns emerge from lots of event data Patterns emerge from the underlying structure of the entire dataset. The patterns are more interesting than sums and counts of the events. Web paths: clicks in a session as network node traversal. Email: traffic analysis producing a network The event stream is a source for analysis, generating another set of data that is the source for different analysis.
  50. © Third Nature Inc. Big changes for data warehousing workloads The results of analytic processing can, often do, feed back into the system from which they originate. Much of the data is being read, written and processed in real time. Our design point was not changing tables and ephemeral patterns.
  51. Unstructured is Not Really Unstructured Slide 51 Unstructured data isn’t really unstructured: language has structure. Text can contain traditional structured data elements. The problem is that the content is unmodeled.
  52. © Third Nature Inc. Slide 52 THE BIG CHANGE ISN’T TECHNOLOGY, IT’S ARCHITECTURE
  53. © Third Nature Inc. There are really three workloads to consider, not two 1. Operational: OLTP systems 2. Analytic: OLAP systems 3. Scientific: Computational systems Unit of focus: 1. Transaction 2. Query 3. Computation Different problems require different platforms
  54. © Third Nature Inc. The geography has been redefined The box we created: • not any data, rigidly typed data • not any form, tabular rows and columns of typed data • not any latency, persist what the DB can keep up with • not any process, only queries The digital world was diminished to only what’s inside the box until we forgot the box was there.
  55. © Third Nature Inc. Layered data architecture The DW assumed a single flat model of data, DB in the center. New technology enables new ways to organize data: ▪ Raw – straight from the source ▪ Enhanced –cleaned, standardized ▪ Integrated – modeled, augmented, ~semi-persistent ▪ Derived – analytic output, pattern based sets, ephemeral Implies a new technology architecture and data modeling approaches.
  56. © Third Nature Inc. Food supply chain: an analogy for data Multiple contexts of use, differing quality levels
  57. © Third Nature Inc. Data infrastructure is a platform ▪ Any data – structures, forms ▪ Any latency –in motion, at rest ▪ Any process – query, algorithm, transformation ▪ Any access – SQL, API, queue, file movement
  58. © Third Nature Inc. The evolution of BI is to a data platform, which means separating application from infrastructure. Derived data Raw data Infrastructure layer: Process and analyze Store and manage Application layer: Deliver and use The new model also encompasses data at rest and data in motion Multiple access methods Enhanced data Multiple ingest methods BI, data extracts, analytics, applications The platform has to do more than serve queries; it has to be read-write.
  59. © Third Nature Inc.© Third Nature Inc. IT reality is multiple data stores and systems Separate, purpose-built databases and processing systems for different types of data and query / computing workloads, plus any access method, is the new norm for information delivery. BI, Reporting, Dashboards, apps 1 MargeInovera $150,000 Statistician 2 AnitaBath $120,000 Sewerinspector 3 IvanAwfulitch $160,000 Dermatologist 4 NadiaGeddit $36,000 DBA 1 MargeInovera $150,000 Statistician 2 AnitaBath $120,000 Sewerinspector 3 IvanAwfulitch $160,000 Dermatologist 4 NadiaGeddit $36,000 DBA 1 MargeInovera $150,000 Statistician 2 AnitaBath $120,000 Sewerinspector 3 IvanAwfulitch $160,000 Dermatologist 4 NadiaGeddit $36,000 DBA 1 MargeInovera $150,000 Statistician 2 AnitaBath $120,000 Sewerinspector 3 IvanAwfulitch $160,000 Dermatologist 4 NadiaGeddit $36,000 DBA 1 MargeInovera $150,000 Statistician 2 AnitaBath $120,000 Sewerinspector 3 IvanAwfulitch $160,000 Dermatologist 4 NadiaGeddit $36,000 DBA 1 MargeInovera $150,000 Statistician 2 AnitaBath $120,000 Sewerinspector 3 IvanAwfulitch $160,000 Dermatologist 4 NadiaGeddit $36,000 DBA 1 MargeInovera $150,000 Statistician 2 AnitaBath $120,000 Sewerinspector 3 IvanAwfulitch $160,000 Dermatologist 4 NadiaGeddit $36,000 DBA 1 MargeInovera $150,000 Statistician 2 AnitaBath $120,000 Sewerinspector 3 IvanAwfulitch $160,000 Dermatologist 4 NadiaGeddit $36,000 DBA 1 MargeInovera $150,000 Statistician 2 AnitaBath $120,000 Sewerinspector 3 IvanAwfulitch $160,000 Dermatologist 4 NadiaGeddit $36,000 DBA 1 MargeInovera $150,000 Statistician 2 AnitaBath $120,000 Sewerinspector 3 IvanAwfulitch $160,000 Dermatologist 4 NadiaGeddit $36,000 DBA 1 MargeInovera $150,000 Statistician 2 AnitaBath $120,000 Sewerinspector 3 IvanAwfulitch $160,000 Dermatologist 4 NadiaGeddit $36,000 DBA 1 MargeInovera $150,000 Statistician 2 AnitaBath $120,000 Sewerinspector 3 IvanAwfulitch $160,000 Dermatologist 4 NadiaGeddit $36,000 DBA 1 MargeInovera $150,000 Statistician 2 AnitaBath $120,000 Sewerinspector 3 IvanAwfulitch $160,000 Dermatologist 4 NadiaGeddit $36,000 DBA 1 MargeInovera $150,000 Statistician 2 AnitaBath $120,000 Sewerinspector 3 IvanAwfulitch $160,000 Dermatologist 4 NadiaGeddit $36,000 DBA 1 MargeInovera $150,000 Statistician 2 AnitaBath $120,000 Sewerinspector 3 IvanAwfulitch $160,000 Dermatologist 4 NadiaGeddit $36,000 DBA 1 MargeInovera $150,000 Statistician 2 AnitaBath $120,000 Sewerinspector 3 IvanAwfulitch $160,000 Dermatologist 4 NadiaGeddit $36,000 DBA 1 MargeInovera $150,000 Statistician 2 AnitaBath $120,000 Sewerinspector 3 IvanAwfulitch $160,000 Dermatologist 4 NadiaGeddit $36,000 DBA 1 MargeInovera $150,000 Statistician 2 AnitaBath $120,000 Sewerinspector 3 IvanAwfulitch $160,000 Dermatologist 4 NadiaGeddit $36,000 DBA Data Warehouse Databases Documents Flat Files XML Queues ERP Applications Source Environments Data processing Stream processing
  60. © Third Nature Inc. Away from “one throat to choke”, back to best of breed “The extremely specialized nature of mass production raises the costs of product change and therefore slows down innovation.” - Abernathy, 1978 Tight coupling leads to slow changes. In a rapidly evolving market componentized architectures, modularity and loose coupling are favorable over monolithic stacks, single-vendor architectures and tight coupling.
  61. © Third Nature Inc. Staff and skills are a problem in a build market @BigDataBorat: Give man Hadoop cluster he gain insight for a day. Teach man build Hadoop cluster he soon leave for better job #bigdata
  62. © Third Nature Inc. Technology Adoption Some people can’t resist getting the next new thing because it’s new and new is always better. Many IT organizations are like this, promoting a solution and hunting for the problem that matches it. Better to ask “What is the problem for which this technology is the answer?” Copyright Third Nature, Inc.
  63. © Third Nature Inc. Four core capabilities big data technologies add 1. Unlimited scale of storage, processing ▪ Agility, faster turnaround for new data requests (but not a replacement for BI) ▪ Fewer staff to accomplish same goals 2. New data accessibility ▪ More data retained for longer period ▪ Access to data unused due to cost or processing limits ▪ Any digital information becomes usable data 3. Scalable realtime processing ▪ Brings ability to monitor and act on data as events occur 4. Arbitrary analytics ▪ Faster analysis ▪ Deeper analysis ▪ More broadly accessible analytics
  64. © Third Nature Inc. An important Hadoop + cloud computing benefit Scalability is free – if your task requires 10 units of work, you can decide when you want results: 10 servers, 1 unit of time Cost is the same. Not true of the conventional IT model Time 1 server, 10 units of time X X
  65. © Third Nature Inc. Hadoop: a summary of the magic 1. Provides both storage and complex processing as part of the same platform 2. Makes parallel programming more accessible 3. Schemaless and file-based, therefore flexible 4. Inexpensive, reliable scale-out 5. Potential for fast, scalable ingest 6. Low-cost
  66. © Third Nature Inc. As a technology moves from emerging to commodity the nature of acquiring, using and managing it changes Generate options Innovation Novel practice Maximize value Maturation Constrain choices Adaptation Good practice Optimize Standardize / minimize choice Acquisition Best practice Minimize costs SaturationInnovation Copyright Third Nature, Inc. Agile & open source* methods 6 Sigma & process methods
  67. © Third Nature Inc. Today: repeating the experience of the 80s & 90s This is the turbulent phase of the market as it goes through rapid development, then product and service changes. Copyright Third Nature, Inc. The Internet combined with commodity computing is forcing a new business and IT structural evolution, already underway. Maturation SaturationInnovation
  68. © Third Nature Inc. How we develop best practices: survival bias We don’t need best practices, we need worst failures.Copyright Third Nature, Inc.
  69. © Third Nature Inc. TANSTAAFL Technologies are not perfect replacements for one another. When replacing the old with the new (or ignoring the new over the old) you always make tradeoffs, and usually you won’t see them for a long time.
  70. © Third Nature Inc. Questions?“When a new technology rolls over you, you're either part of the steamroller or part of the road.” – Stewart Brand
  71. © Third Nature Inc. Welcome to the big data revolution, more of an evolution Be pragmatic, not dogmatic
  72. © Third Nature Inc. CC Image Attributions Thanks to the people who supplied the creative commons licensed images used in this presentation: acorn_blue.jpg - http://www.flickr.com/photos/rogersmith/314324893/ wheat_field.jpg - http://www.flickr.com/photos/ecstaticist/1120119742/ Phone dump - Richard Barnes ponies in field.jpg - http://www.flickr.com/photos/bulle_de/352732514/ straw men.jpg - http://www.flickr.com/photos/robinellis/6034919721/ text composition - http://flickr.com/photos/candiedwomanire/60224567/ girl on cell tokyo .jpg - http://flickr.com/photos/8024992@N06/986538717/ hamadan people mosaic.jpg - http://flickr.com/photos/hamed/225868856/ twitter_network_bw.jpg - http://www.flickr.com/photos/dr/2048034334/ klein_bottle_red.jpg - http://flickr.com/photos/sveinhal/2081201200/ donuts_4_views.jpg - http://www.flickr.com/photos/le_hibou/76718773/ subway dc metro - http://flickr.com/photos/musaeum/509899161/
  73. About the Presenter Mark Madsen is president of Third Nature, a technology research and consulting firm focused on business intelligence, data integration and data management. Mark is an award-winning author, architect and CTO whose work has been featured in numerous industry publications. Over the past ten years Mark received awards for his work from the American Productivity & Quality Center, TDWI, and the Smithsonian Institute. He is an international speaker, a contributor to Forbes Online and on the O’Reilly Strata program committee. For more information or to contact Mark, follow @markmadsen on Twitter or visit http://ThirdNature.net
  74. © Third Nature Inc. About Third Nature Third Nature is a research and consulting firm focused on new and emerging technology and practices in analytics, business intelligence, information strategy and data management. If your question is related to data, analytics, information strategy and technology infrastructure then you‘re at the right place. Our goal is to help organizations solve problems using data. We offer education, consulting and research services to support business and IT organizations as well as technology vendors. We fill the gap between what the industry analyst firms cover and what IT needs. We specialize in product and technology analysis, so we look at emerging technologies and markets, evaluating technology and hw it is applied rather than vendor market positions.

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