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Important Supreme Court Cases

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Dred Scott
Roe v. Wade
Brown v. Board of Ed
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Important Supreme Court Cases

  1. 1. Supreme Court Justice Supreme Court Justice Cases Cases By: Nicole Kalhorn
  2. 2. Brown v. Board of Education Oliver Brown v. Board of Education (angry parents) v. (stubborn school board) 1951-1954
  3. 3. Background: Topeka,KS 1951 An African American father, Oliver Brown,was fed up with having his daughter walk six blocks to her school bus stop, only to catch a bus for another mile for school, while a white school was only 7 blocks away from their house!
  4. 4. Background 13 other parents tried enrolling their 20 African American students into white schools in Topeka...and were rejected because of race.
  5. 5. Ruling May 17th, 1954 Oliver Brown v. Board of Education -Through a unanimous (9-0) decision in Warren’s Court, it was decided that “separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.” -Segregation was psychologically harmful to African American students and unconstitutional.
  6. 6. This ruling cancels out Plessy v. Ferguson’s “separate but equal” clause of 1806.
  7. 7. Short Term Effects Multiple desegregation attempts ensued after the ruling; 1957 Nat’l Guard blocking 9 African American students from entering Little Rock High School, and a handful of governors created literal obstacles. Kansas high school’s did integrate student’s effectively.
  8. 8. Long Term Effects on Society -grew civil rights -sparked integration -equal opportunity especially through education -inspired women’s suffrage (indirectly) -opened minds and practiced constitutional conduct
  9. 9. Dred Scott v. Sanford
  10. 10. Background -Dred Scott was born a slave in Virginia under his owner, Emerson. -The two moved to the Wisconsin territory, a free state, where Emerson sold Scott’s work illegally, violating the 1820 Missouri Compromise. -Scott married, and went with his new family to work under Emerson and his wife in St. Louis. -After Emerson’s death, the wife refused to let Scott buy his freedom.
  11. 11. Background -Scott sued Emerson’s wife for his freedom in Scott v. Emerson, but during the process, the Scott’s ownership got transferred to Emerson’s brother, John Sanford. -Scott v. Emerson case ruled that they were still slaves, so Scott sued again for his freedom in Federal Court in Scott v. Sanford.
  12. 12. Ruling -Chief Justice Roger B. Taney (immense slavery advocate) and the majority (7- 2) ruled that all blacks, slaves or free, were not citizens of the US, and therefore had no right to even sue. -The 1820 Missouri Compromise was outlawed and slavery became permitted throughout the nation. “[Blacks] had no rights which the white man was bound to respect, and that the negro might justly and lawfully be reduced to slavery for his benefit.” ~Taney
  13. 13. Short Term -Abolitionists were appalled, and disdain grew in the North. -Helped fuel the Civil War 4 years later. -It raised awareness as to how serious of a problem slavery was.
  14. 14. Long Term -indirectly led to 14th Amendment -infuriated Civil Rights activists -society now practices equality -equal opportunity is prominent among citizens -greatly expanded Civil Rights indirectly
  15. 15. Roe v. Wade Jan. 22nd, 1973 ~The decision that divided the nation’s view on life~
  16. 16. Background Norma McCorvey was a single mom in Texas, pregnant for a third time. She did not want to bear the child and looked to abort it legally (by declaring rape), but she could not prove it.
  17. 17. Background Background Texas law prohibited abortion unless it involved rape or incest. Under the alias of Jane Roe, she filed a lawsuit for violating her constitutional right toT pexriavsa lcayw. prohibited abortion unless it involved rape or incest. Under the alias of Jane Roe, she filed a lawsuit for violating her constitutional right to privacy.
  18. 18. Ruling Warren Burger along with the rest of the Supreme Court ruled in favor 97-2) of a woman’s right to privacy and control over one’s body. It guaranteed the right of women to terminate pregnancies.
  19. 19. Ruling As Burger said, “[the] right of privacy, whether it be founded in the Fourteenth Amendment's concept of personal liberty and restrictions upon state action, as we feel it is, or, as the district court determined, in the Ninth Amendment's reservation of rights to the people, is broad enough to encompass a woman's decision whether or not to terminate her pregnancy."
  20. 20. Societal Effects -It prompted an ongoing national debate. -It divided most of the nation into either “pro-life” or “pro-choice.”
  21. 21. Effects -Calls into question the definition of “life.” -Different stances on ethics are taken. -Abortion is now legal.
  22. 22. Works Cited "Explore It." National Constitution Center – Constitutioncenter.org. N.p., n.d. Web. Dec. 2014. <http://constitutioncenter.org/constitution>. Webley, Kayla. "Top 10 Controversial Supreme Court Cases." Time. Time Inc., 13 Dec. 2010. Web. 04 Dec. 2014. <http://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,2036448_2036452_2036559,00.html>. http://ec.l.thumbs.canstockphoto.com/canstock15997946.jpg http://www.aperfectworld.org/clipart/government/gavel08b.gif http://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,2036448_2036452_2118018,00.html http://www.supremecourt.gov/ http://thegrio.files.wordpress.com/2011/12/elizabeth-eckford.jpg?w=488 http://www.cluepicsanswers.com/images/cluepics/an-open-mind.jpg http://faithandheritage.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/slavery.jpg http://www.clipartbest.com/cliparts/RcA/7ay/RcA7ayqpi.jpeg http://blog.lib.umn.edu/cspg/smartpolitics/images/prolife.jpg