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FIRST AID & BANDAGINGMaybelle B. Animas, R.N Nurse II- Imus I
First Aid The immediate care given to aperson/victim who has suddenly become ill or has been injured.
Role of First Aider• Bridge the gap between the time of the accident and the arrival of the physician.• Ends when medical assistance begins.• Doesn’t intend to compete with or take place of the physician.
Objectives of First Aid• To prolong life• To alleviate suffering• To prevent further or added injury
Characteristic of a Good First Aider• Observant- notice all signs• Resourceful- make best use of all things• Gentle- shouldn’t cause pain• Tactful- shouldn’t be alarming• Sympathetic- should be comforting
First Aid kit• Rubbing Alcohol • Tweezers• Povidone Iodine • Medical tape• Hydrogen Peroxide • Splints• Cotton • Tongue depressor• Cotton swab• Band aid• Gauge pads• Gloves• Bandage (triangular) Elastic Roller bandage• Penlight• Safety pins• Forceps• Scissors
Conditions Requiring First AidFAINTING Signs & Symptoms - Conditions Requiring First Aid caused by a sudden • Sweating fall in the supply of • Dizziness blood to their brain that • Nausea results in the temporary • Weakness loss of consciousness. • Paleness • Ringing in the ears • Blurred vision
First Aid• Lay the person flat on the ground. Elevate the legs to coax more blood into your brain.• If person is on chair, push his head down between his knees.• Loosen tight clothing.• Avoid crowding the patient.• Call a doctor if necessary.
Conditions Requiring First AidNOSE BLEED -occurs when a small blood vessel in the lining of the nose bursts. It very common in children and often result from harmless activities such as your child picking their nose, blowing it too hard or too often or from getting knocked on the nose during play.
First Aid• Sit down and lean forward slightly.• Pinch the lower part of the nostrils just below the bony part of the nose for 10minutes while breathing through the mouth.• Release nostrils slowly, repeat procedure if bleeding continue.• Do not touch or blow the nose for about 24hrs. Do not pact the affected nostrils with cotton.• Bring patient to hospital if necessary.
Wounds• Break in the Signs & Symptoms continuity of a tissue • Pain either external or • Swelling external. • Discoloration • HematomaCLASSIFICATION • Uncontrolled restlessness • Thirst• Closed (internal) • Shock• Open (external) • Vomiting• Explosion
Closed WoundThe types of closed wounds are:• Contusions, more commonly known as bruises, caused by a blunt force trauma that damages tissue under the skin.• Strained Muscles- Over-stretching of muscles that have not been sufficiently warmed-up (could be called "cold" muscles).• Sprained Ligament- Sudden force causing joint to move beyond its natural range of movement e.g. to break ones fall at speed during an activity such as ice-skating.
First Aid• Rest the affected area• Ice application or cold compress• Compression over the affected area• Elevate the affected area above the heart
Open Wound• Abrasions (grazes), superficial wounds in which the topmost layer of the skin (the epidermis) is scraped off.• Lacerations are jagged, irregular, or blunt breaks or tears in the soft tissues.• Avulsion is forcible separation or tearing of tissue from the victim’s body.
Open Wound• Incised wounds, or cuts in-body tissues are commonly caused by knives, metal edges, broken glass, or other sharp objects commonly cause incised wounds, or cuts, in-body tissues.• Puncture wounds are caused by a sharp object that penetrates the skin.
First AidThe major principles of open-wound treatment are to:• Control bleeding. – Direct pressure – Elevation• Prevent further contamination of the wound (wound dressing & bandaging)• Immobilize the injured part.• Stabilize any impaled object.
Fracture• a medical condition in which there is a break in the continuity of the bone. A bone fracture can be the result of high force impact or stress, or trivial injury as a result of certain medical conditions that weaken the bones
Types of Fracture• Greenstick fracture: an incomplete fracture in which the bone is bent.• Transverse fracture: a fracture at a right angle to the bones axis.• Spiral fracture: a fracture in which the break has a curved or sloped pattern.• Comminuted fracture: a fracture in which the bone fragments into several pieces.• Compound fracture - meaning the bone ends are no longer touching.
Signs and Symptoms• Pain and swelling at the fracture site.• Tenderness close to the fracture.• Paleness and deformity (sometimes).• Loss of pulse below the fracture, usually in an extremity (this is an emergency).• Numbness, tingling or paralysis below the fracture (rare; this is an emergency).• Bleeding or bruising at the site.• Weakness and inability to bear weight.
First Aid• Initial treatment for fractures of the arms, legs, hands and feet in the field include splinting the extremity in the position it is found, elevation and ice. Immobilization will be very helpful with initial pain control.
BandagingBandages have three key uses: applying pressure tobleeding wounds; covering wounds and burns; andproviding support and immobilization for brokenbones, sprains, and strains. These includes gauze,triangular, Elastic, and tubular bandage.
Head Top (for head injuries)• Fold the base at least 2-3”• Place folded base aligned with eyebrows• Pull back and cross-over at the back, tucking apex beneath• Pull both ends in front/secure with a square knot at the center of the folded base/tuck ends• Pull down apex (tuck sides neatly)• Tuck apex neatly at cross-over area
Chest Bandage• Apex at the shoulder of injured part• Pull back folded base and secure with square knot at the center indention of the back.• Knot/tie longer end with apex
Hand Bandage• Place the hand in the middle of the triangular bandage with the wrist at the base of the• Place the apex over the fingers and tuck any excess material into the pleats on each side of the hand• Cross the ends on top of the hand, take them around the wrist, and tie them with a square knot.
Arm Sling• Place folded base vertically over• One arm, with pointed directly under the elbow of injured arm• Lower ends of base at the side of the neck using a square knot• Make several twist with apex and tie a knot• Hide the knot
Underarm Sling• Same procedure as arm sling except that the lower end of the base is tucked under the injured arm.• Secure end of base and apex with a square knot the center indention at the back.
Cravat Bandage for Forehead• Place the center of the cravat over the compress covering the wound.• Carry the ends around to the opposite side of the head, cross them. Bring them back to the staring point and tie them.
Cravat Bandage for the Neck • Place the center of the cravat over the compress covering the wound. • Carry the ends around to the neck, cross them. Bring them back to the starting point and tie them loosely.
Cravat Bandage for the Cheek or Ears• Use the wide cravat. Start with the middle of the cravat over the compress covering the cheek or the ear.• Carry one end over the top of the head and the other under the chin.• Cross the ends at the opposite side.• Bring the short end back around the forehead and the long end around the back of the head.• Tie them down over the compress
Cravat Bandage for the Eye• Lay center of the first cravat over top of he with the front end falling over uninjured eye.• Bring second cravat around head, over eyes, and over loose ends of first cravat. Tie in front• Bring ends of first cravat back over top of head, tying there and pulling second cravat up and away form uninjured eye.
Cravat for Elbow• Bend arm at elbow and place center of cravat at point of elbow• Bring ends up and across each other in overlapping spiral turns. Continue one end up arm and the other end down forearm.• Bring ends to front of elbow and tie.
Cravat for the Knee• Start on top of the knees.• Cross over and twist 2-3 times under the knee.• Cross over on top/pull ends to opposite sides.• Secure with a square knot under the knee
Cravat for the Forearm, Arm, Leg and Thigh• Place center of cravat over the dressing• Begin ascending turns wit upper end and descending turns with lower end, with each turn covering two-third of preceding turn until dressing is covered.• Terminate by tying both ends in square knot.
Shoulder Armpit Cravat• Start at the armpit.• Cross-over at injured shoulder• Tie at the opposite armpit (side of front)