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Cognitive theory in classroom

Educational Psychology

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Cognitive theory in classroom

  1. 1. Topic: Application of cognitive theory in classroom Submitted to: Shahzad Mughal Submitted By: Rida Amajad(2016- 1813)
  2. 2. • Cognitive Theory: stems from traditional psychological concepts of thinking. Cognitivists view activities such as thinking, deciding, and remembering in terms of how they underlie behavior.
  3. 3. Background Information • Cognitive theory came about as a reaction to behaviorism. • Congnitivists and Behaviorists have conflicting views. • A cognitive revolution took place in the 1950’s which led to a collection of cognitive sciences studied present day.
  4. 4. Key cognitive Theory Concepts • Cognitive psychology focuses on how people think, understand and know. • Emphasis on learning how people comprehend and represent the world around them. • Focus on conscious thinking. • Emphasis on individual's active construction of understanding.
  5. 5. Allan Paivio(1925-present) • Dual Coding Theory- believed people process information in two ways: processing images or processing language. • His dual coding theory formed the beginnings of subsequent educational theories. • Paivio placed an equal importance on verbal and nonverbal processing.
  6. 6. Howard Gardner(1943-present) • Focused on understanding and defining intelligence. • Developed a theory of multiple intelligences(there are eleven in all). • Professor at Harvard University where he conducted research on his regular, gifted, and adult students. • Believed educators need to take into account the students' multiple intelligences and use them to guide themselves while instructing.
  7. 7. Benjamin Bloom(1913-1999) • Educational Psychologists who focused on students learning domains. • Classified learning into three domains( cognitive, affective, and psychomotor) • Created Bloom’s Taxonomy which is made up of six levels that can be used to acquire knowledge.
  8. 8. High order Thinking Skills Creating Evaluating Analyzing Applying Understanding Remembering Lower Order Thinking Skills
  9. 9. Teachers Applying Cognitive Theory • Expository Teaching: – Teacher gives students the tools to organize information for easier encoding, storage and retrieval. – Teacher exposes students to underlying and selective interrelationships in cognitive learning to help students come up with the correct conclusions.
  10. 10. • Meaningful learning method- when presenting new information the teacher uses old information to introduce new information and make connections. • Dual coding: – Using both text and picture or sound while instructing gives students a better chance of remembering and encoding the information. – Technology can easily be used to enhance a lesson and a dual coding method.
  11. 11. Students Applying Cognitive Theory • Students use sensory, short term and long term memory to store information learning in class. • Students come up with mnemonic devices to remember facts with ease. • Using existing schemas to connect new information to help students retain information. • Technology can be used to organize information into charts, graphs, concepts maps, etc.
  12. 12. Cognitive Theory In Classroom • In my opinion, cognitive theory provides an effective way to teach students. Cognitive theory enables the learners to develop the ability to analyze the language, make generalizations about rules, take risks in trying out the language, and to learn from errors. It enhances the meaningfulness of new material to increase the chances of its being anchored to what is already known.