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Comparing Instructional Design Models

Selected instructional design models are considered, including ASSURE, Morrison Ross & Kemp, Dick, Carey, and Carey, Delphi, DACUM, and rapid prototyping. Drs. Sharon Smaldino, Gary Morrison, Rob Branch, Walt Dick, and Steve Ross offered quotes to include in this presentation about their models and instructional design.

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Comparing Instructional Design Models

  1. Image from http://mrg.bz/EYiC2sMichael M. Grant 2013 Comparing Instructional Design Models Designing Interactive Learning Environments
  2. from InstructionalDesign.org Image from http://www.instructionaldesign.org/books.html
  3. Elements of ID Models ClassroomSelected Characteristics Orientation Product Orientation System OrientationTypical output One or a few hours Self-instructional or Course or entire of instruction instructor-delivered curriculum packageResources committed to Very low High HighdevelopmentTeam or Individual Individual Usually a team TeamID skill/experience Low High High/very highEmphasis on development Select Develop Developor selectionAmount of analysis Low Low to medium Very highTechnological complexity Low Medium to high Medium to highAmount of revision Low to medium Very high Medium to highAmount of distribution None High Medium to high from Branch & Gustafson (1997)
  4. Image from http://mrg.bz/dEOBDJSelected ID Models
  5. Dick & Carey¤ Now, (Walt) Dick, (Lou) Carey & (James) Carey¤ Systems orientation¤ Widespread use in corporate & military Image from http://vig-fp.pearsoned.co.uk/bigcovers/0205585566.jpg
  6. Images from http://insys.fsu.edu/assets/faculty_pics/dick.jpg & http://gminks.edublogs.org/files/2008/11/dickandcareymodel.gif
  7. A voice from the field… Dr. Walter Dick
  8. “Dr. Walter Dick —I would say that they should remain novices for as short aperiod of time as possible — by taking every opportunity topractice design in many different settings.Be confident and respectful with your client and subject-matter expert. Image from http://mrg.bz/BoNNJk
  9. ASSURE¤  Heinich, Molenda, Russell & Smaldino¤  Now, Smaldino, Lowther, Russell (2008)¤  Classroom orientation¤  Note the selection of materials instead of development Image from http://vig-fp.prenhall.com/bigcovers/0137132395.jpg
  10. A — Analyze learnersS — State standards & objectivesS — Select strategies, technology, media & materialsU — Utilize technology, media & materialsR — Require learner participationE — Evaluate & revise Images from http://www.performancexpress.org/0205/images/JimRussell2.JPG, http://www.intime.uni.edu/Photo_album/new/management_individuals.htm & http://www.memphis.edu/releases/may09/firsttnprofessors.htm
  11. A voice from the field… Dr. Sharon Smaldino
  12. “Dr. Sharon Smaldino —To ASSURE good learning, I believe it is not one single thingthat a teacher or designer should consider, but I do believethat there are areas of emphasis.First, ASSURE starts with looking at the learner in detail.Nothing you plan or design is effective unless you have takenthe time to look at the learners. In Illinois, for example, it is nowstate law that ALL teachers must assess their studentsknowledge and skills prior to instruction to ensure that theydifferentiate instruction. That means that by understandingwhere the learners are at the start of instruction, a teacherwill make every effort to assist all learners to be successful intheir learning endeavors. This new direction supports myposition about knowing the learner. I feel that knowing asmuch as possible about your learners is critical to design andimplementation of instruction. Image from http://mrg.bz/BoNNJk
  13. “Dr. Sharon Smaldino —Second, the second letter in ASSURE, S, refers to knowing theintended outcomes or expectations. No instruction should beginwithout everyone having a clear understanding of what issupposed to happen in the instruction. This does not preclude thepossibility of additional learning taking place, but without a roadmap, some of your learners may well be "lost."And, especially in the schools today, as we edge closer to the100% of all students meeting or exceeding expectations, I believethat students need to know what is expected of them. I dobelieve that there is more than one "right way" to achieve thoseexpectations and more than one "right medium" to use, becauseits not a one-size fits all world. BUT, as NCLB is still a mandate, weneed to find ways to make it possible for our diverse learningpopulation fit into the "mold" that has been outlined for us.Learners need to know what they are to do. Image from http://mrg.bz/BoNNJk
  14. “Dr. Sharon Smaldino —And, I add that you cannot assess learning without knowing whatwas expected. NOW, because I opened that can of worms, letme quickly state that assessment can be formative andsummative and can take multiple formats. But, that is another cup of tea for sure. Image from http://mrg.bz/BoNNJk
  15. “Dr. Sharon Smaldino —My final area of importance in the design andimplementation process to ASSURE good learning is thereflection component of evaluation. Once you havecompleted the design and instruction and gathered the dataabout the outcomes and impressions from your learners, youneed to take the time to consider what went well and whatcould be changed in that particular instructional event. Thisinformation will help you re-design that instructional event forfuture opportunities. But, this information also guides you onhow to better address your learners in instruction beyond thisparticular instructional event. We often do not put enoughemphasis on reflection as teachers and designers, but I doconsider that it is not time wasted.Oh, my goodness, it appears Ive nearly written the chapteron the ASSURE model. I will close with the idea that its notabout the technology and media. Its about the learnersand the important decisions we make as designers andinstructors to ensure successful learning opportunities. Image from http://mrg.bz/BoNNJk
  16. Smith & Ragan¤  Patricia Smith & Tim Ragan¤  Systems orientation¤  Emphasis on cognitive psychology and instructional strategies Image from http://i5.ebayimg.com/01/c/02/d1/cb/80_8.JPG
  17. ¤ Analyzing the learning context¤ Analyzing the learners¤ Analyzing the learning task¤ Assessing learner performance¤ Develop instructional strategies¤ Produce instruction¤ Conduct evaluations¤ Revise instructionImage © Tillman Ragan at http://www.flickr.com/photos/tandpragan/25103076/sizes/l/ & http://www.flickr.com/photos/tandpragan/25102775/sizes/m/
  18. Morrison, Ross & Kemp¤  Classroom orientation¤  It has been modified over time Images from http://www.borders.com.au/book/designing-effective-instruction/337124/
  19. Images from http://www.odu.edu/~gmorriso/, http://www.edvantia.org/about/faculty/graph/Ross100.jpg, http://www.ait.net/technos/ tq_09/3kemp.php & http://tomdorgan.com/images/model_images/kemp_morrison_ross.jpg
  20. A voice from the field… Dr. Gary Morrison
  21. “Dr. Gary Morrison —I think there are two things that are taken for granted bydesigners (the first of which I just observed yesterday in anemail). First, you must define the instructional problem. I haveseen designers jump in when management has stated thereis a problem without a) confirming the problem exists or b) atleast doing a goal analysis to obtain agreement on theoutcomes which can also disrupt the plans.For example, I observed a case yesterday where thecompany was pushing very frequent training to their financialadvisors and the advisors were resisting the training. Therationale I received was that the products are continuallychanging. I am not sure any type of analysis was done. Itappears they were doing training because training wasprobably needed. In reality, a job aid or simply a bulletinmight have been more effective and time and resourcesmart. Part of the problem may have been related thesecond issue. Image from http://mrg.bz/BoNNJk
  22. “Dr. Gary Morrison —Second, when I asked me students at the end of the designclass which step of the process had little impact on theirdesign and they might skip in future projects, it is almostalways the learner analysis step. If you look at what we knowabout learner analysis and then how we treat the analysis inthe strategy design it is weak.We have found that learning styles have no researchfoundation and do not have a role in the design ofinstruction. The aptitude-treatment interaction studies of thepast century produced no useful heuristics. Basically, learner(and environmental analysis) tend to limit our designs. Thus,learner analysis has not worked out the way we thought itwould, or at least the way my professors projected in the1970’s. Image from http://mrg.bz/BoNNJk
  23. “Dr. Gary Morrison —Today, the learner analysis limits our design such as two hoursof instruction starting one hour before work rather than 40 hoursof instruction in one week. Or, not all students have access tothat application or a laptop computer. Then, there are specificlearner characteristics that can limit instruction such as eyesight, reading level, and prior knowledge (e.g., students with alllevels of background knowledge). All these characteristics areimportant and must be accounted for when we designinstruction. I have seen too many examples of inappropriatedesigns that failed to account for the learner. Image from http://mrg.bz/BoNNJk
  24. “Dr. Gary Morrison —One of the classics stories of bad learner analysis was from afederal grant some 40 years ago. The design team createdaudio tapes for teachers of the deaf. Once they tried toimplement the materials, they learned that a large number ofthe teachers were also deaf. Thus, learner analysis may not beas exciting as say a needs assessment or task analysis, we muststill do a learner analysis even though it may limit what we cando, or to look at it in a positive way, it can create some greatchallenges for creative designs to address the instructionalproblem. Image from http://mrg.bz/BoNNJk
  25. A voice from the field… Dr. Steve Ross
  26. “Dr. Steve Ross —The most significant implication, in my view, is thatinstructional design is not a linear or predefined process, butrather, is dynamic and variable due to unique features of thedesign task and context. For example, although learning  and instructional theoriesmay suggest reliance on particular design methods orcomponents, the success of the particular project will likelynecessitate variations due to available resources, usercharacteristics, client preferences, policy changes, and othersituational conditions that are predetermined or, often,unexpected.  So, an effective designer must not only beexpert in the field, but needs to be creative, flexible, andsensitive to the unique aspects and requirements of eachproject.   So, it’s certainly good to have a textbook like MRKat hand (and please spread that word around!), but a“textbook” approach, by itself, is likely to be limited in the realworld. Image from http://mrg.bz/BoNNJk
  27. ADDIE¤  Been around a long time¤  Beyond just instructional design — design process in general¤  Model or framework? Image from http://img.amazon.ca/images/I/31zEaGNTdpL._SL500_AA240_.jpg
  28. Image from http://technoscribe.files.wordpress.com/2009/08/addie.jpg, http://edweb.sdsu.edu/Courses/EDTEC700/ETP/images/addie.jpg, http://www.ivyvilos.com/images/addiemodel.gif & http://gramconsulting.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/addie_model.jpg
  29. A voice from the field… Dr. Robert M. Branch
  30. “Dr. Rob M. Branch—For what it is worth … designers shouldnot overlook the the need to practiceall five phases of ADDIE concurrentlyfor most of the instructional designprocess. Image from http://mrg.bz/BoNNJk
  31. Concurrent Design Image from http://www.intechopen.com/source/html/19453/media/image2.jpeg
  32. Rapid Prototyping¤  Originated in ¤  Types of prototypes manufacturing §  Look-and-feel: colors, effects, gross screen layouts¤  ID hijacked from §  Media: use of sound effects, software development narration, 3D illustrations, video, etc.¤  Focused on development primarily §  Navigation: move through sections, access support (glossary, calculator, etc.) §  Interactivity: content, activities, feedback
  33. Design (productProcess specs & treatment) Develop Review prototype
  34. from Tripp, S., & Bichelmeyer, B. (1990)
  35. A common confusion … t yp i n g ¤ R ap id p roto shoul d n ot b e d with c o nf use rapid e le a r n i n g m e nt! deve l op
  36. DACUM¤  Developing A CurriculUM 1.  Written description of the¤  Began in Canada occupation¤  A single sheet profile is 2.  Identify general areas of used to present the skills competence of an entire occupation (Finch & Crunkilton, 1993) 3.  Identify specific skills¤  Creates the task analysis 4.  Structure skills into learning¤  Typically, uses a sequence committee of 10-12 experts 5.  Establish levels of competence for each skills
  37. Image from http://geoinfo.sdsu.edu/hightech/Images/dacumchart.jpg
  38. Image from http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8a/ The_Temple_of_Apollo_at_Delphi.jpgDelphi TechniqueRuins of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, Greece
  39. Delphi Technique¤  Developed by the RAND 1.  Initial questionnaire requests Corporation list of content each expert feels should be included¤  Enables experts to speculate individually 2.  All lists are compiled, sent then reach consensus back out and each experts collectively regarding rates each item. the content needed 3.  The ratings are analyzed,¤  Uses successive rounds ranked and sent back out. 4.  Repeat. Image from feuillu at http://www.flickr.com/photos/feuilllu/154786300/sizes/o/
  40. Image © 2006 AEAP, Cornell University from http://www.cerp.cornell.edu/aeap/pages/delphi.htm
  41. References & Acknolwedgements¤  Finch, C.R., & Crunkilton, J.R. (1997). Curriculum development in vocational and technical education (4th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.¤  Gustafson, K.L., & Branch, R.M. (1997). Survey of instructional development models (3rd ed.). Syracuse, N.Y.: ERIC Clearinghouse on Information & Technology.¤  Tripp, S., & Bichelmeyer, B. (1990). Rapid prototyping: An alternative instructional design strategy [image]. Educational Technology Research & Development, 38(1), 31-44.¤  Special thanks to Drs. Rob Branch, Gary Morrison, and Sharon Smaldino for contributing to this presentation.
  42. Michael M. Grant 2013