2. Nowitsupto youthat earningmoneyismore importantforyouor saving planet
water pollution is caused by
Humans (Anthropogenic activities)
Burning of fossil fuel
Leakage from sewer lines
Household waste water generation
Underground storage leakage
Inorganic (NH3) and organic factors (VOCs)
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Control remediation’s of water pollution includes
Muncipal solid waste
Electronic waste treatment
Supercritical water oxidation
Energy from waste
Biomedical waste treatment
Life saver bottles
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Measurement of water pollution
a) Physical testing
b) Chemical testing
c) Biological testing
Specifics Conductance or EC, Electrical Conductance, Conductivity
Total suspended solids (TSS)
Transparency or Turbidity
Total dissolved solids (TDS)
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
Chemical oxygen demand (COD)
Dissolved oxygen (DO)
Petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)
Related to organisms testing in water
Biological testing involves the use of plant, animal, and/or microbial indicators to monitor the health of
an aquatic ecosystem. One example of a group of bio-indicators are the copepods and other small
water crustaceans that are present in many water bodies. Such organisms can be monitored for changes
(biochemical, physiological, or behavioral) that may indicate a problem within their ecosystem.
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Control remediation include
Control of Water pollution (proactive)
Treatment or remediation of polluted water (reactive)
Water pollution can be controlled if we control the causes of water pollution that cause water pollution.
It is estimated that global production of plastics is approximately 225 mt yr−1. These plastics are disposed off into
ocean by most of the countries and when they enter into the ocean, affect the marine ecosystem for decades, it
causing death of marine life like fishes, seals and other marine life who often mistake it for food so use avoid
using plastic bags and bottles.
Three major forms of plastic that contribute to plastic pollution:
Plastic debris is categorized as
Plastic debris include
Are in their original form when collected. Examples of these would be
Account for smaller plastics that have resulted from the degradation of primary plastics.
6. Nowitsupto youthat earningmoneyismore importantforyouor saving planet
2um to 5mm
Micro-debris is more commonly referred to as nurdles
Nurdles are recycled to make new plastic items
larger than 20mm
These include items such as plastic grocery bags, fishing Nets( they continue to trap marine organisms )
Macro-debris are often found in ocean waters, and can have a serious impact on the native organisms
Decomposition of plastics
In 2012, it was estimated that there was approximately 165 million tons of plastic pollution in the world's oceans
Polymer degradation takes much longer time while on the other hands Starch, cellulose based plastic take less
time to degrade.
The Marine Conservancy has predicted the decomposition rates of several plastic products. It is estimated that a
foam (Table: 1.1)
Table. 1.1: Decomposition time of different types of plastics
Plastics Decomposition time (years)
Plastic Cup 50
Plastic beverage holder 400
Disposable diaper 450
Fishing line 600
Biodegradation of plastics
There are many microorganisms which speed up the biodegradation of plastics. The microorganisms include
bacteria such as Pseudomonas, nylon eating bacteria, and Flavobacteria. These bacteria break down nylon through
the activity of the nylonase enzyme. When biodegradable plastics are broken down, methane is released, which
is a very powerful greenhouse gas that contributes significantly to global warming and also a fuel as well as.
Control/Treatment (What you can do?)
Reduce the use of plastics
7. Nowitsupto youthat earningmoneyismore importantforyouor saving planet
Promote plastic recycling.
Some communities and businesses have put a ban on some commonly used plastic items, such as bottled water
and plastic bags.
Download your own music instead of buying CDs.
Cut disposable plastics out of your routine
Control/ Treatment of water pollutions
Anaerobic digestion is a collection of processes by which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in
the absence of oxygen.
The process is used for industrial or domestic purpose waste to manage waste and to produce fuels.
It also occurs naturally in some soil and in lake and oceanic basin sediments, where it usually referred to as
It begins with bacterial hydrolysis of the input material include: insoluble organic polymers, such as
carbohydrates are broken down to soluble derivatives such as simple sugars, amino acids and fatty acids. that
become available for other bacterial. Acidogenic bacteria then convert the sugars and amino acids into carbon
dioxide, hydrogen, ammonia and organic acids. These bacteria convert these resulting organic acids into acetic
acid, along with additional ammonia, hydrogen and carbon dioxide and than finally, methanogens convert these
products to methane and carbon dioxide. The methanogenic-archea populations play an indispensable role in
anaerobic wastewater treatment.
Grid injection (Injection of Biogas into natural gas grid)
IMPORTANT: Anaerobic digestion is also a source of marsh gas (methane)
IMPORTANT: Overall plastic recycling was approximately 8% in the united state and approximately 2.7
million tons of plastics were recycled in the U.S.
8. Nowitsupto youthat earningmoneyismore importantforyouor saving planet
Fertilizers and soil conditionars
Biotransformation (transformation of chemicals/organic waste into other chemicals or products)
Biodegradation is biotransformation of an organic pollutant into other compounds with the help of
microorganisms like fungi, bacteria. Breaking carbon bonds to get energy.
Biodegradation usually respiration by microbes (fungi + bacteria)
Good at biodegradation of complex carbon Better at biodegradation of Simple carbon
Require O2 Don’t require O2
Plerotus, Rhizopus, penicillium, Ganoderma,
Lentinula, Armillaria, Trametes
Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, Arthrobacteria,
bacillus, Serratia, Flavobacterium, Mycobacterium
Where the biodegradation will be fastest and where the slowest?
What is Fast biodegradation of pollutant or where
the biodegradation will be fast
What is the Slow biodegradation of pollutants or
where the will be slow
Where more oxygen is present (Aerobic) Where less oxygen is present (Anaerobic)
Low molecular weight compounds are present High molecular weight compounds are present
Simple compounds Complex compounds
Need Met: N, P, right water, temperature, light Limiting conditions: N, P, Water, Temp., light
Like sugars, Amino acids, cellulose Like Lignin, Vitamins, Xenobiotic compounds
Takes less time to degrade Takes long time to degrade
IMPORTANT: Pesticidesare the onlytoxicsubstancesreleasedintentionallyintoourenvironmenttokill living
IMPORTANT: Xenobioticcompoundsare those compoundsthatare neveroccur innature.Theyare made,for
9. Nowitsupto youthat earningmoneyismore importantforyouor saving planet
Chlorinated organic compounds, which include chlorinated solvents (TCE and PCE), industrial chemicals
(PCBs and polyvinyl chloride), pesticides (DDT and its derivatives, chlordane, and dieldrin), and by-products of
manufacturing and combustion processes (dioxins andfurans), are global pollutants.
Product Time to Biodegrade
Paper towel 2–4 weeks
Newspaper 6 weeks
Apple core 2 months
Cardboard box 2 months
Wax coated milk carton 3 months
Cotton gloves 1–5 months
Wool gloves 1 year
Plywood 1–3 years
Painted wooden sticks 13 years
Plastic bags 10–20 years
Tin cans 50 years
Disposable diapers 50–100 years
Plastic bottle 100 years
Bioplastics (cellulose, starch based) 90 days – 180 days in lab
Aluminium cans 200 years
Glass bottles Undetermined
Detergents (linear) Take lesser time to degrade
Detergents (Branched) Take too much time to degrade
INFORMATION:Chlorinatedcompounds,whichinclude chlorinatedsolvents(TrichloroethyleneasTCE and
PerchloroethyleneasPCE),industrial chemicals( polychlorinatedbiphenylsasPCBsandPolyvinyl chloride),
Pesticides(Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane asDDTand its derivatives,chlordane anddieldrin) andby-productsof
manufacturingandcombustionprocesses(dioxinsandfurans).Andtheyare global pollutants.
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It is organic matter that has been decomposed and recycled as a fertilizer and soil amendment. Compost is a key
ingredient in organic farming.
At the simplest level, the process of composting simply requires making a heap of wetted organic matter known
as green waste (leaves, food waste) and waiting for the materials to break down into humus after a period of
weeks or months.
Human, animals waste can also put into compositing process. Urine contain N, P, K. so it can be good source of
fertilizer directly or put into compost. But it can be used of a fresh healthy person not diseased and including in
Compost is rich in nutrients.
It can be used in gardens, landscaping, horticulture (cultivation of plants) and agriculture (cultivation of land).
Benefits includes as a soil conditioner, a fertilizer, addition of vital humus or humic acids, and as a
natural pesticide (chemical used to kill pest) for soil. Useful for erosion control, land and stream reclamation,
wetland construction, and as landfill cover (see compost uses). Organic ingredients intended for composting can
alternatively be used to generate biogas through anaerobic digestion.
Animals manure and bedding, poultry manure, Human waste can be fixed. That is dissolved with water and
pollutes land and water.
Illegal dumping is the dumping of waste illegally not on a proper place.
Waste contain batteries, chemicals and many other hazardous substances…etc that contain toxic chemicals and
pollute water and spread different kinds of diseases.
Dumping of wastes into ocean is also hazardous for us because it will rising the ocean level and also harmful to
marine life because damage marine ecosystem and causing death of marine life.
IMPORTANT: Free large bulkdumpsiteswill be providebyourGovt. to clean
our citiesas well asPakistan.
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Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste
materials. Incineration and other high-temperature waste treatment systems are described as "thermal treatment".
Incineration of waste materials converts the waste into ash, flue gas, and heat. The ash is mostly formed by
the inorganic constituents of the waste, and may take the form of solid lumps or particulates carried by the flue
gas. The flue gases must be cleaned of gaseous and particulate pollutants before they are dispersed into
the atmosphere. In some cases, the heat generated by incineration can be used to generate electric power.
Little by little, the waste is slowly pushed into the burning chamber
The incinerator burns the waste at a temperature of about 750oC
The heat produced is used to heat a boiler, which produces great steam
The steam is used to propel turbines to generate electricity
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Ash with heavy debris is collected in a basement chamber
An electromagnet is passed over it to collect all the metal debris from ash for recycling
Gases containing acid pollutants such as SO2 and dioxins are treated in a scrubber reactor
The gases go through a fine particulate removal system, where finer pollutants are trapped.
Clean gases are then released through the chimney stack
The disposal of waste material by burying it
It is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial and is the oldest form of waste treatment. Historically,
landfills have been the most common method of organized waste disposal and remain.
Gases are produced in the landfill due to anaerobic activity of microbes which are used for the generation of
Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage.
It includes physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove these contaminants and produce
environmentally safe treated wastewater.
Municipal solid waste (MSW)
Commonly known as trash or garbage in the United States and as refuse or rubbish in Britain
It is a waste type consisting of everyday items that are discarded by the public. "Garbage" can also refer
specifically to food waste.
Sewage treatment process ( a short summary)
First is the screening of larger particles through filtration
Second is the screening of smaller particles though filtration
Grit chamber used to remove organic particles (waste)
IMPORTANT: In US more than850 lanfills,have active landfill gasrecoverysystem
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Primary sedimentation tank, removal of organic solids, retention of floating substances, oil grease, temporary
storage of sludge that are removed
Bioreactor designed on two nitrification and one aeration tank to degrade the biological content of the sewage
which are derived from human waste, food waste, soaps and detergent.
Secondary sedimentation tank Further sludge is removed and further improve the water quality
Brown Waste is any biodegradable waste that is predominantly carbon based.
The term includes such items as grass cuttings, dry leaves, twigs, hay, paper, sawdust, corn cobs, cardboard, pine
needles or cones, etc. Carbon is necessary to composting (organic matter degrade and recycled as a fertilizer),
which uses a combination of green waste and brown waste to promote the microbial processes involved in the
The composting of brown waste sustainably returns the carbon to the carbon cycle.
Electronic waste or e-waste is describes as discarded/unwanted electrical or electronic devices.
These are not further recycled, reuse, resale.
Electronic waste in developing countries may cause serious health and pollution problems.
Electronic scrap components, such as CPUs, mobile phones, Laptops, Tabs, Video games, entertainment devices,
television sets, refrigerators, may contain contaminants such as lead, Copper, cadmium, beryllium, other heavy
metals or brominated flame retardants.
E-Waste Component Potential Environmental Hazard
Cathode ray tubes (used in TVs, computer
monitors, ATM, video cameras, and more)
Lead, barium and other heavy metals leaching into the
ground water and release of toxic phosphorus
Printed circuit board (a thin plate on which
chips and other electronic components are
Air emissions as well as discharge into rivers of glass dust,
tin, lead, brominated dioxin, beryllium cadmium, and
14. Nowitsupto youthat earningmoneyismore importantforyouor saving planet
Chips and other gold plated components Hydrocarbons, heavy metals, brominated substances
discharged directly into rivers acidifying fish and flora. Tin
and lead contamination of surface and groundwater. Air
emissions of brominated dioxins, heavy metals and
Plastics from printers, keyboards,
Emissions of brominated dioxins, heavy metals and
Computer wires Hydrocarbon ashes released into air, water and soil.
SO first way is to recycle it.
Radioactive waste is waste that contains radioactive material.
Disposal into space
Disposal in ice sheets
Supercritical water oxidation
It was foundthat these radioactive organic materialscouldbe decomposedintogaseousproductsinsupercritical water
mixed with RuO2, at 450C and 43 MPa, without adding any oxidizing reagent.When this method was applied to the
decomposition of radioactive organic wastes such as fire resistant sheeting and rubber gloves, and other widely used
organicmaterialsinnuclearpowerplantsorothernuclearfacilitiesandanionexchangeresin,onlyasmall amountof oil-
like product was obtained like water becomes fluid with a unique properties.
Comes from outside
Change the habitat for the already existing species
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These species can cause secrete toxic chemicals into the water and pollute the water.
So identified these species and remove them.
Bioremediation is a waste management technique.
It involves the use of organisms to remove or neutralize pollutants from a contaminated sites.
Or bioremediation is a “treatment that uses naturally occurring organisms to break down hazardous substances
into less toxic or non toxic substances
Some examples of bioremediation related technologies are Mycoremediation, Mycofiltration,
bioleaching, landfarming, bioreactor, composting, bioaugmentation, rhizofiltration, and biostimulation.
Mycoremediation is a form of bioremediation in which fungi are used to decontaminate the area.
Like mycelium that secrete extracellular enzymes and acids that break down the lignin and cellulose, long chains
of carbons, chlorinated compounds.
It is a similar process to the mycoremediation, using fungal mycelia to filter toxic waste and microorganisms from
water in soil
It is the removal of contaminants (toxic material especially heavy metals) from the contaminated soil, surface and
ground water with the help of potential plants.
This technique is applied where the environment is polluted (contaminated water or soil)
Many plants such as mustard plants, alpine pennycress, hemp, and pigweed have proven to be successful at
hyperaccumulating contaminants at toxic waste sites.
Remove contaminants from water and soil
Cost effective, cheap
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Increase soil fertility
Enhance other plants growth
Also helpful for that Chemicals that are also leached down into soil or into water and pollute the water as
a result of mining activity
Safe disposal of affected plants is necessary.
Toxics and heavy metals may not enter into the environment by through consumers
Rhizofiltration filtering water through a mass of roots to remove toxic substances or excess nutrients. The
pollutants remain absorbed in or adsorbed to the roots.
Waste-to-energy (WtE) or energy-from-waste (EtW)
It is the process of generating energy in the form of electricity and/or heat from the primary treatment of waste.
WtE is a form of energy recovery. Most WtE processes produce electricity and/or heat directly through
combustion, or produce a combustible fuel commodity, such as methane, methanol, ethanol or synthetic fuels
Biomedical waste is waste that is potentially infectious.
Biomedical waste may be solid or liquid. Examples of infectious waste include discarded blood, sharps, unwanted
microbiological cultures and stocks, identifiable body parts, other human or animal tissue, used bandages and
dressings, discarded gloves, other medical supplies that may have been in contact with blood and body fluids,
and laboratory waste that exhibits the characteristics described above. Waste sharps include potentially
contaminated used (and unused discarded) needles, scalpels, lancets and other devices capable of penetrating
An autoclave (pressure chamber used in medical applications to perform sterilization), heat, alkaline digesters
and the use of microwave may also be used to treat biomedical waste.
Biomedical waste companies also degrade biomedical waste.
Life saver bottles