Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Nous utilisons votre profil LinkedIn et vos données d’activité pour vous proposer des publicités personnalisées et pertinentes. Vous pouvez changer vos préférences de publicités à tout moment.
A TALK BY 
MUJIB U. SIDDIQUI 
Assistant Mineral Economist (Int.) 
On 
MARBLE MINING & PROCESSING
STONE TOOLS
DIMENSION STONES 
➲ Dimension stone can be defined as natural rock material 
quarried for the purpose of obtaining blocks ...
India has a long history of utilisation of stones. Towering temples, 
acquisitive carvings, huge imposing palaces, monumen...
MARBLE 
➲ The term marble is derived from the Latin word MURMUR which itself 
came from Greek root ‘Marmorous’ meaning ‘Sh...
Why is marble so beautiful? 
It is largely consisting of calcite, whose boundaries are fused. 
This has the ability to tra...
TYPES OF MARBLE 
. True marbles (recrystallised metamorphic limestone, 
calciferous and cipolin (siliceous marbles) 
➲ · L...
Indian Classification of Marble 
➲ BIS : 1130-1969 (reaffirmed in October 1998) for marble blocks, slabs and tiles to be u...
International Classification of marble 
Group A 
Sound marbles with uniform and favourable working qualities containing no...
Resources of Marble 
Geological distribution: 
Dharwar System: 
The marble belonging to Dharwar System is mostly distribut...
Geographical Distribution 
Andhra Pradesh: Khamam,Cuddapah,Nellore districts 
Gujarat : Ambuja Marble deposit, Banakantha ...
Resources of Marble 1.4.2005 (UNFC) (Grade-wise) 
(000 t) 
(Cat 121 & 122) Cat 333) 
(Max.) 
Grade Reserve Resources Total...
State wise Resources of Marble, 1.4.2005 (UNFC) 
(000 tonnes) 
State Reserves Resources Total 
Andhra Pradesh 0 3 3 
Chhat...
STATE WISE RESOURCES OF MARBLE AS ON 
1.4.2005 
Rajasthan 
62.61% 
Sikkim 
0.13% 
Haryana 
1.25% 
J & K 
22.58% 
Maharasht...
Total resources v/s Production 
State Total resources NMI 1.4.2005 
(million tonnes) 
Production (2005-06) 
(Rs. million) ...
Production 
➲ Blocks 
➲ Khandas 
➲ Luffers 
➲ Slabs 
➲ Tiles 
➲ Karezy 
➲ Artefacts 
➲ Statues 
➲ Garden 
Furniture 
➲ Lat...
All India Value of production ,2001-02 to 2005-06 
(Value: Rs. Million) 
2001-02 4425 
2002-03 5535 
2003-04 5443 
2004-05...
Production 
State-wise Value of production 
(Value: Rs.’000) 
State 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 
Andhra 
Prade...
STATE WISE PRODUCTION OF MARBLE,2005-06 
(VALUE WISE) 
Rajasthan 
94.182% 
Gujarat 
3.873% 
Jharkhand 
0.001% 
Madhya Prad...
MARBLE MINING AND PROCESSING
Mining of marble 
➲ marble mines are semi-mechanised and few are fully 
mechanised 
➲ preferred mining method is 'Bench-Qu...
CONVENTIONAL MINING
SEMI MECHANISED MINING
Extraction of key block ,Gully or Toda making
Toppling of Thaddi or Phada
Use of Hydro bags for toppling Thaddi
Block cutting from Thaddi using Wire Saw
Block cutting or Khasra karna from Thaddi using 
Wire Saw
Block shifting by fork lift
Derrick Crane for Block Lifting
MODERN MINING TECHNIQUES
Processing of marble 
➲ Dressing of block by single blade cutter or wire saw cutter 
➲ Fixing on trolley for gang saw cutt...
INDUSTRY FLOW DIAGRAM 
EXPORTS 
QUARRY/ 
PRODUCERS 
AGENTS DIRECT SALES 
SLAB DISTRBUTION 
WHOLE SELLERS 
STONE FINISHERS ...
Dressing Block for Gang Saw
Multi Disc Circular Saw
Cutting By Gang Saw
PLACEMENT OF BLADES AND CUTTING WASTE IN 
GANG SAW
Various Sizes of Slabs/Tiles
MODERN WIRE SAW MACHINE
VARIABLE THICKNESS OF SLABS BY WIRE SAW
DECORATIVE PIECES CUT BY WIRE SAW
PILLAR SECTIONS CUT BY WIRE SAW
STRENTHENING MARBLE SLAB 
BY NETTING AND ALUMINIUM 
PANEL
T H E A R T M A K E R S
Designer Tile sequence
Inlay Work
Inlay Work
Inlay Work
Inlay Work
Decorative sofa
Statue made from Makrana Marble
Statue made from Makrana Marble
Statue made from Black Marble
CARVING USING LASER SENSOR AND CNC MACHINE
JALI CUT BY WATER JET 
STAIR CASES CUT BY WIRE SAW
Jali (Lattice ) Work
Decorative Balls of Stone
TRADE
Major Trading countries from India 
Major Exports Major Imports 
U.S.A Italy 
China Sri Lanka 
Hong Kong Turkey 
Italy Egy...
Exports of Marble (Total ) (Quantity & Value ) 
Year Quantity 
000t 
Value 
Rs. Million 
Per Unit 
Value 
2001-02 170 1841...
Exports of Marble by type 
(Dressed & Others) 
(Quantity : in 000 t) ; (Value: in Rs. Million) 
Dressed Others 
Year Quan ...
Value of Exports of Marble vis-à-vis Granite (Total) 
Value: Rs. Million 
Year Marble Granite 
2001-02 1841 18739 
2002-03...
Imports of Marble (Total) 
(Quantity : in 000 t) ; (Value: in Rs. Million) 
Year Quantity Value Per Unit 
Value 
2001-02 5...
Total Demand (Value-wise) 
(Rs. million) 
Year Produ 
ction 
Export Balance 
A 
Imports 
B 
Total 
consumption 
A+B 
2001-...
DEMAND OF MARBLE (Value in Rs. Million) 
y = 2112.1x + 279.3 
16000 
14000 
12000 
10000 
8000 
6000 
4000 
2000 
0 
2001-...
POLICY 
➲ Marble, and other stones are minor minerals, as per the definition contained 
under Section 3 (e) of Mines and M...
SWOT MATRIX
STRENGTH 
Huge deposits 
High quality stones 
 A developed quarrying base 
 A leading exporter of stones which is rank...
WEAKNESS 
 Low quality awareness in customers 
 Poor quality consciousness in manufacturers 
 Absence of a training mec...
OPPORTUNITIES 
 A large domestic market 
 Increase in construction activity in India 
 Increasing awareness amongst Arc...
THREATS 
 Opening up of import regulations 
 Competition from ceramic products 
 Import restriction in Europe without p...
Marble processing
Marble processing
Marble processing
Marble processing
Marble processing
Marble processing
Marble processing
Marble processing
Marble processing
Marble processing
Marble processing
Marble processing
Marble processing
Marble processing
Prochain SlideShare
Chargement dans…5
×

Marble processing

This is a presentation about Marble mining and processing

  • Soyez le premier à commenter

Marble processing

  1. 1. A TALK BY MUJIB U. SIDDIQUI Assistant Mineral Economist (Int.) On MARBLE MINING & PROCESSING
  2. 2. STONE TOOLS
  3. 3. DIMENSION STONES ➲ Dimension stone can be defined as natural rock material quarried for the purpose of obtaining blocks or slabs that meet specifications as to size (width, length, and thickness) and shape (Barton, 1968, p. 4). Color, grain texture and pattern, and surface finish of the stone are also normal requirements. Durability (essentially based on mineral composition and hardness and past performance), strength, and the ability of the stone to take a polish are other important selection criteria. method of finishing a stone, and the type of finish applied (Stone World, 2001, p. 106-139).
  4. 4. India has a long history of utilisation of stones. Towering temples, acquisitive carvings, huge imposing palaces, monuments, musoleums, minarets, gates and artefacts speaks volumes about the use of stones, let it be the Khajuraho, Delwara temples, caves of Ajanta & Ellora, stupas of Sanchi, Konarktemple, Buland Darwaza of Fatehpur Sikri, Victory Tower ofChittorgarh, Forts of Rajasthan, U.P and Delhi all have been built using one stone or other. The Taj Mahal, beauty par excellence built in 17th century by Emperor Shahjahan in memory of his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal has been built using white marble from Makrana area, Nagaur Distt. of Rajasthan. Although Delwara temple at Mount Abu, built earlier than Taj Mahal could not give impetus to marble industry as the Taj had given. It has remained the trademark of India for the last three hundred years.
  5. 5. MARBLE ➲ The term marble is derived from the Latin word MURMUR which itself came from Greek root ‘Marmorous’ meaning ‘Shining Stone’. ➲ Murmur in Persian means ‘White’ and ‘Sang’ means stone hence ‘Sange-murmur’ ➲ Geological definition: A metamorphosed limestone produced by recrystallisation under condition of thermal and also regional metamorphism. ➲  In commercial parlance almost any rock which can take polish easily – more especially unmetamorphosed lime stones are termed as marble. ➲ Marble definition (USGS):Commercial marble includes metamorphosed lime stones and serpentine rocks, all of which are capable of taking a polish. An important member of this classification is serpentine marble, which is also known as Verde antique, and comprises green-to-black serpentine, which is a hydrous magnesium silicate mineral that is crisscrossed by veins of lighter minerals, such as calcite or dolomite.
  6. 6. Why is marble so beautiful? It is largely consisting of calcite, whose boundaries are fused. This has the ability to transmit lights to a depth of 12.7 to 38 millimeters from where it is reflected by the surfaces of deeper lying crystals which gives a pleasing and cool look. Your eyes will never tire off looking at marble.
  7. 7. TYPES OF MARBLE . True marbles (recrystallised metamorphic limestone, calciferous and cipolin (siliceous marbles) ➲ · Limestone dolomite and polishable calcareous breccia ➲ · Travertine deposited from water solutions ➲ · Onyx ➲ · Calcareous alabaster ➲ · Serpentines ➲ · Ophicalcite (serpentine limestones) ➲ · Verde-antique (massive serpentine with crossed vein lets of other minerals like calcite/dolomite)
  8. 8. Indian Classification of Marble ➲ BIS : 1130-1969 (reaffirmed in October 1998) for marble blocks, slabs and tiles to be utilised as dimension stone has classified marbles into 25 different categories comprising 7 categories under a broad group of white marbles and 18 categories under a group of coloured marbles , 8 new varieties are also in the trade The important new types not included in BIS classification are: ➲ 1) Yellow marble of Jaisalmer ➲ 2) Pista marble (amphibolite variety) of Andhi-Jhiri belt, Jaipur, Alwar and Dausa districts, Rajasthan ➲ 3) Brown green and golden ultramafics of Dunkar, Churu district, Rajasthan ➲ 4) Chocolate-brown and English teak wood marble of Jodhpur district, Rajasthan ➲ 5) Parrot green marble of Jhilo in Sikar district, Rajasthan ➲ 6) Chocolate-brown or wood finish marble of Mandaldeh, Chittaurgarh district, Rajasthan ➲ ➲ 7) Purple marble of Tripura Sundari in Banswara district, Rajasthan ➲ 8) Blue marble of Desuri in Pali district, Rajasthan
  9. 9. International Classification of marble Group A Sound marbles with uniform and favourable working qualities containing no geological flaws or voids. Group B Marbles similar in character to the preceding group, but less favourable working qualities may have natural faults such as hairline cracks, voids and inclusions, a limited amount of wasting, sticking and filling may be required. Group C Marbles with some variation in working qualities, geological flaws, voids, veins and lines of separation are common. It is standard practice to repair these variations by one or more of several methods - wasting, sticking, filling or cementing. Liners and other forms of reinforcement are used when necessary. Group D Marbles similar to Group C but containing a larger proportion of natural faults such as cracks, voids, discolouration, maximum variations in working qualities and requiring more of the same methods of finishing. This group comprises many of the highly coloured marbles significant for their decorative values. The soundness classifications merely indicate what method and amount of repair and fabrication is necessary prior or during installation, as based on standard trade practices.
  10. 10. Resources of Marble Geological distribution: Dharwar System: The marble belonging to Dharwar System is mostly distributed in Aravali and Raialo Series of Rajasthan, Champaner Series of Gujarat, Sakoli Series of Madhya Pradesh and Chilpi Series of Maharashtra. Cuddapah and Delhi Systems Marble deposits of Cuddapah System are located in the Papaghani Series of Andhra Pradesh, Bijawar series of Madhya Pradesh and Kaladgi Series of Karnataka. Delhi System marbles are located in Alwar Series and Ajabgarh Series of Rajasthan. Marbles of Ajabgarh Series are exposed around Jaipur Bharatpur, Kishangarh, Ajmer, Mewar, Udaipur and Sirohi areas of Rajasthan; Danta and Palanpur area of Gujarat; and Narnaul area of Haryana. Vindhyan System It is mostly found in Morena district of Madhya Pradesh, and Guntur & Kurnool districts of Andhra Pradesh. Bhima Series are developed in Bijapur and Gulburga districts of Karnataka. Marble belonging to Vindhyan System is of creamy, grey, bluish and buff in colours and is capable of taking a good polish. Jurassic System Fossiliferous limestones of Jurassic System occurring in Jaisalmer and Bikaner districts of Rajasthan take very good polish. Cretaceous System Coraline limestone belonging to Bagh Beds of Upper Cretaceous age furnish a very handsome marble capable of taking a good polish and are located at Kherwan, Chirakhan and Bowarle in Dhar district of Madhya Pradesh.
  11. 11. Geographical Distribution Andhra Pradesh: Khamam,Cuddapah,Nellore districts Gujarat : Ambuja Marble deposit, Banakantha dist, Ambaji, Jarivav, Kumbheri, Kateshwar,Bharaj, Khikla etc. Chhuchupura Marble deposit in Vadodra districts Haryana : Antri – Beharipur, Zainpur, Chappra-Bibipur, Nangal durg, Islampur and Dhanota- Dhancoli in Mahendergarh districts. Jammu & Kashmir : Doda and Kupwada districts. Maharashtra: Near villages Katta-Hiwara, Kadbikhera, Sakaritola, Pauni, Chorbaoli,Deolapar, Mansar, Kandri, Chargaon, Junewani, etc. in Nagpur district. Madhya Pradesh : Katni, Jabalpur, Narsinghpur, Harda, Sidhi and Jhabua districts. Rajasthan:20Districts : Ajmer,Alwar,Banswara,Bhilwara,Bundi,Chittorgarh,Churu, Dausa,Dungarpur,Jaipur,Jaisalmer,Jalore,Jodhpur,Nagaur,Pali,Rajsamand, Sikar,Udaipur
  12. 12. Resources of Marble 1.4.2005 (UNFC) (Grade-wise) (000 t) (Cat 121 & 122) Cat 333) (Max.) Grade Reserve Resources Total Total 4700 178938 1792638 White colour 373 8193 8566 Off colour 108 677435 677543 Unclassified 0 1080531 1080531 Not known 4219 21779 25998
  13. 13. State wise Resources of Marble, 1.4.2005 (UNFC) (000 tonnes) State Reserves Resources Total Andhra Pradesh 0 3 3 Chhattisgarh 0 3000 83000 Gujarat 0 93740 93740 Haryana 0 22328 22328 J & K 0 404703 404703 Maharashtra 324 57723 58047 Rajasthan 2184 1118058 1122435 Sikkim 0 2382 2382 Uttarakhand 0 6000 6000
  14. 14. STATE WISE RESOURCES OF MARBLE AS ON 1.4.2005 Rajasthan 62.61% Sikkim 0.13% Haryana 1.25% J & K 22.58% Maharashtra 3.24% Gujarat 5.23% Chhattisgarh 4.63% Andhra Pradesh 0.00% Uttarakhand 0.33%
  15. 15. Total resources v/s Production State Total resources NMI 1.4.2005 (million tonnes) Production (2005-06) (Rs. million) Chhattisgarh 83 Nil Gujarat 94 490 Haryana 22 Nil Jammu & Kashmir 405 Nil Madhya Pradesh Not covered 245 Maharashtra 58 Nil Orissa Not covered 0.4 Rajasthan 1122 11916 Sikkim 2 Nil Uttarakhand 6 Nil
  16. 16. Production ➲ Blocks ➲ Khandas ➲ Luffers ➲ Slabs ➲ Tiles ➲ Karezy ➲ Artefacts ➲ Statues ➲ Garden Furniture ➲ Lattices
  17. 17. All India Value of production ,2001-02 to 2005-06 (Value: Rs. Million) 2001-02 4425 2002-03 5535 2003-04 5443 2004-05 5780 2005-06 12652 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 YEAR Value Rs.Million
  18. 18. Production State-wise Value of production (Value: Rs.’000) State 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 Andhra Pradesh 1435 448 373 659 695 Gujarat 315612 294576 287242 312587 490042 Jharkhand - - - - 106 Madhya Pradesh 15634 97278 177106 244845 244845 Orissa 210 362 415 415 415 Rajasthan 4092393 5141838 4978112 5221400 11916345
  19. 19. STATE WISE PRODUCTION OF MARBLE,2005-06 (VALUE WISE) Rajasthan 94.182% Gujarat 3.873% Jharkhand 0.001% Madhya Pradesh 1.935% Orissa 0.003% Andhra Pradesh 0.005%
  20. 20. MARBLE MINING AND PROCESSING
  21. 21. Mining of marble ➲ marble mines are semi-mechanised and few are fully mechanised ➲ preferred mining method is 'Bench-Quarrying' ➲ mining machineries like line drillers, chain saws, belt saws, diamond wire saw cutters, derrick cranes, loaders and tippers are used ➲ ultimate product in marble mining is parallelepiped regular blocks, luffers and khandas ➲ Fully mechanised mines recover about 35% regular blocks, 30% luffers and 30% khandas
  22. 22. CONVENTIONAL MINING
  23. 23. SEMI MECHANISED MINING
  24. 24. Extraction of key block ,Gully or Toda making
  25. 25. Toppling of Thaddi or Phada
  26. 26. Use of Hydro bags for toppling Thaddi
  27. 27. Block cutting from Thaddi using Wire Saw
  28. 28. Block cutting or Khasra karna from Thaddi using Wire Saw
  29. 29. Block shifting by fork lift
  30. 30. Derrick Crane for Block Lifting
  31. 31. MODERN MINING TECHNIQUES
  32. 32. Processing of marble ➲ Dressing of block by single blade cutter or wire saw cutter ➲ Fixing on trolley for gang saw cutting ➲ Cutting blocks by gang saw or Circular saw ➲ Processing of marble is done mainly to get sawn slabs and tiles of varying thickness ➲ Recovery of slabs from regular blocks after processing ranges from 60 to 70 per cent
  33. 33. INDUSTRY FLOW DIAGRAM EXPORTS QUARRY/ PRODUCERS AGENTS DIRECT SALES SLAB DISTRBUTION WHOLE SELLERS STONE FINISHERS CONTRACTORS RETAILERS LOCAL SALES STONE PROCESSORS SLABS/TILES FLOORING TABLE TOPS VANITIES MOSAIC CLADDING KITCHEN TOPS FACADE SKIRTING EXPORTS LOCAL SALES MUSEUMS HOTELS PERSONAL ARTEFACTS ORNAMENTAL MONUMENTS RAW BLOCKS
  34. 34. Dressing Block for Gang Saw
  35. 35. Multi Disc Circular Saw
  36. 36. Cutting By Gang Saw
  37. 37. PLACEMENT OF BLADES AND CUTTING WASTE IN GANG SAW
  38. 38. Various Sizes of Slabs/Tiles
  39. 39. MODERN WIRE SAW MACHINE
  40. 40. VARIABLE THICKNESS OF SLABS BY WIRE SAW
  41. 41. DECORATIVE PIECES CUT BY WIRE SAW
  42. 42. PILLAR SECTIONS CUT BY WIRE SAW
  43. 43. STRENTHENING MARBLE SLAB BY NETTING AND ALUMINIUM PANEL
  44. 44. T H E A R T M A K E R S
  45. 45. Designer Tile sequence
  46. 46. Inlay Work
  47. 47. Inlay Work
  48. 48. Inlay Work
  49. 49. Inlay Work
  50. 50. Decorative sofa
  51. 51. Statue made from Makrana Marble
  52. 52. Statue made from Makrana Marble
  53. 53. Statue made from Black Marble
  54. 54. CARVING USING LASER SENSOR AND CNC MACHINE
  55. 55. JALI CUT BY WATER JET STAIR CASES CUT BY WIRE SAW
  56. 56. Jali (Lattice ) Work
  57. 57. Decorative Balls of Stone
  58. 58. TRADE
  59. 59. Major Trading countries from India Major Exports Major Imports U.S.A Italy China Sri Lanka Hong Kong Turkey Italy Egypt Spain Oman U.A.E Vietnam Iran
  60. 60. Exports of Marble (Total ) (Quantity & Value ) Year Quantity 000t Value Rs. Million Per Unit Value 2001-02 170 1841 10.82 2002-03 253 1894 7.49 2003-04 261 2383 9.13 2004-05 242 2230 9.21 2005-06 259 2494 9.62
  61. 61. Exports of Marble by type (Dressed & Others) (Quantity : in 000 t) ; (Value: in Rs. Million) Dressed Others Year Quan tity Value PerUnit Value Quan tity Value PerUnit Value 2001-02 157 1716 10.92 13 125 9.62 2002-03 239 1748 7.31 14 146 10.43 2003-04 175 1875 10.71 59 392 6.64 2004-05 202 1728 8.55 40 502 12.55 2005-06 198 1611 8.14 61 883 14.48
  62. 62. Value of Exports of Marble vis-à-vis Granite (Total) Value: Rs. Million Year Marble Granite 2001-02 1841 18739 2002-03 1894 23746 2003-04 2383 25063 2004-05 2230 27258 2005-06 2494 34906
  63. 63. Imports of Marble (Total) (Quantity : in 000 t) ; (Value: in Rs. Million) Year Quantity Value Per Unit Value 2001-02 52 922 17.73 2002-03 87 1476 16.96 2003-04 97 1713 17.65 2004-05 134 2564 19.13 2005-06 182 3410 18.73
  64. 64. Total Demand (Value-wise) (Rs. million) Year Produ ction Export Balance A Imports B Total consumption A+B 2001-02 4425 1841 2584 922 3506 2002-03 5535 1894 3641 1476 5117 2003-04 5443 2383 3060 1713 4773 2004-05 5780 2230 3550 2564 6114 2005-06 12652 2494 10158 3410 13568
  65. 65. DEMAND OF MARBLE (Value in Rs. Million) y = 2112.1x + 279.3 16000 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2011- 2012 Series1 DEMAND OF MARBLE
  66. 66. POLICY ➲ Marble, and other stones are minor minerals, as per the definition contained under Section 3 (e) of Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act, 1957. ➲ Group on Marble Development ➲ Subgroup- 'Building up a Database on Marble' ➲ Subgroup- 'Examining Mechanisation in Marble Quarries' ➲ both the Subgroups had submitted the reports. ➲ Marble Development and Conservation Rules (MDCR), 2002 framed for conservation and systematic development and scientific mining of marble throughout the country ➲ As per the export-import policy announced for the years 2004-09; the imports of Marble (excluding alabaster) under heading 2515 and Marble & other items under code no. 25174100 and 25174900 are restricted.
  67. 67. SWOT MATRIX
  68. 68. STRENGTH Huge deposits High quality stones  A developed quarrying base  A leading exporter of stones which is ranked 3rd in the world Cheap availability of labour Easy availability of indigenously developed machinery Large domestic market A well established distribution network within India A large processing capacity A tradition of stone architecture & usage
  69. 69. WEAKNESS  Low quality awareness in customers  Poor quality consciousness in manufacturers  Absence of a training mechanism for the stone industry and a resultant shortage of skilled and trained workforce  Lack of scientific exploitation techniques in quarries  Poor polishing and finishing techniques  Poor segregation, sorting and gradation  Improper packaging practices  Inability to stick to a strict delivery schedule  Improper installation techniques. Lack of promotion of new deposit areas  Dumping of stones abroad at low prices  Lack of Value addition for the export market  Absence of long-term and a rational policies  Absence of sales tax initiatives to the stone craft industry  Lack of understanding about the need for testing of stones  Lack of testing facilities in Northern India  Unorganised  Lack of education and training facilities  Lack of global outlook  Presence of unscrupulous exporters
  70. 70. OPPORTUNITIES  A large domestic market  Increase in construction activity in India  Increasing awareness amongst Architects  Unexplored potential for exports growth  An expanding work market  An increased trend towards exports of finished goods  Globalisation and liberalization  Strategic location with sea links to all the major continents  Export Demand for stone handicrafts  Export potential of sandstone and slates
  71. 71. THREATS  Opening up of import regulations  Competition from ceramic products  Import restriction in Europe without proper test certifications  Widespread environmental degradation  Closure due to unscientific exploitation  Rescession due to over production  Competition from China, South Africa, South Korea, Brazil, Turkey, South Korea etc.  Group promotion strategies of competitor countries  Dropping prices of Indian stones in the International market

×