Marketers must be EXTREMELY careful in
analyzing consumer behavior.
In this chapter, we look at how consumers make
We will focus on:
Consumer buying roles & types of decisions
Main steps in the buyer decision process
Process which consumers learn about and buy new
The marketer needs to know which PEOPLE are
INVOLVED in the BUYING DECISION.
The person who first suggests or thinks of the idea of buying a
particular product or services.
A person whose views or advise carries some weight in
making the final buying decision.
The person who ultimately makes a buying decision or any
part of it – buy or no? what to buy? Where to buy? How?
The person who makes an actual purchase
The person who consumes or uses a product or service
Source: Kotler, Philip and Armstrong, Gary, PRINCIPLES OF MARKETING 9th .ED. (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 2001) p.191
Variety – Seeking
Highly involved in a purchase and perceive significant
differences among brands.
Highly involved because the product is expensive,
risky, purchase infrequently, and highly self-
Have much to learn about the product category.
The buyer have to pass trough a learning process.
Occurs when consumers are highly involved with an
expensive, infrequent, or risky purchased, BUT SEE
LITTLE DIFFERENCE AMONG BRANDS.
Because of the little difference, the buyer may
experience post-purchase dissonance when they notice
How to fix it?
After-sale communications should provide evidence and
support to help consumers feel good about the brand.
Occurs under conditions of low consumer involvement
and little significant brand different.
Examples? – Sugar
Consumers do not search extensively for information
about brands, evaluate brand characteristics, and
make weighty decisions about which brands to buy.
Instead, they passively receive information as they
watch TV or read magazines.
Ads repetition creates brand familiarity rather than
Low consumers involvement but significant perceived
Consumers do a lot of brands switching
Buyer-Decision process for new products
How do buyers approach the purchase of NEW
How consumers learn about the new products and
make decision whether to ADOPT them or not?
Adoption process – “the mental process through which
an individual passes from first hearing about an
innovation to final adoption”
Stages in adoption process
The consumer becomes aware of the new product but lacks
information about it.
The consumer is stimulated to seek information about the
The consumers considers whether trying the new product
The consumer tries the new products on small scale to
improve his or her estimate of its value.
The consumer decides to make full and regular use of the new